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HE Preface iv 

Ordinarium Missas 1 

Canon 78 

Additional Note 143 

Cautelas Misss 168 

De mode exequendi officium dominica prima in Adventu . 177 

Orationes pro rege in mi^is dicendse 184 

Modus induendi et exuendi Pontificem * * 185 

Praefationes 191 

Benedictiones episcopales 198 

Orationes ad miscendum, etc. 201 

Liturgia S. dementis 203 

The Order of Communion, from the first Common Prayer Book of 

K. Edward VI 215 

r » 



In the Admonition entitled " Concerning the 
Service of the Church," which succeeds, if 
I indeed it does not rather form a part of, the 
I Preface to our present Book of Common 
Prayer, we find the following : 

" And whereas heretofore there hath been great diver- 
sity in saying and singing in Churches within this Realm ; 
some following Salisbury Use, some Hereford Use, and 
some the Use ai Bangor, some of Ymlc, some of Lirv- 
coin ; now from henceforth aU the whole realm shall 
have but one Use." 

In this passage the word heretofore does not relate to 
the time immediately preceding the last review of the 
Common Prayer in 1662, for during more than 100 
years, (with the exception of the period of the rebellion, 
and heretical ascendancy) there had been only one Use 
of sajing and singing in Churches. We must go back 
to the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and 
beyond that again to the year 1549, when the First Book 
of King Edward the Sixth having been approved by Con- 
vocation, was put forth and enjoined by the authority of 
the Parliament and the Crown. In the Preface to that 
Book, there is almost word for word the same injunc- 

So, the " Act for the Uniformity of publicfc Prayers, 
and administering the Sacraments and other Rites and 
Ceremonies, &c. in the Church of England," (xiv. Car. 
II.) b^ns : " Whereas in the first year of the late 

vi Preface* 

Queen Elizabeth, there was one uniform Order of Com- 
mon Service and Prayer, and of the administration of 
the Sacraments, Rites, and Ceremonies of the Church of 
England." And the Act alluded _to, the first of Eliza- 
beth, refers in like manner to the last year of Edward 
the Sixth, declaring that then also there was " one uni- 
form Order." These Acts, we may therefore say, recog- 
nize the previous existence of various allowed Forms or 

There are certainly some who very imperfecfly under^ 
stand what is meant by these old Uses of the Church of 
England ; they have often remarked the passage which 
I have quoted from the Preface to the Prayer Book, and 
would be glad to learn something about it. Wheatley 
and Shepherd, authors generally appealed to, pass over 
without remark " the Preface :" the latter however^ in 
his Introduction does say, that " it is deserving of notice, 
that hitherto there had not been in England any one 
service established by public authority for the general 
use of the Church. In the southern parts of the island, 
the Offices according to the Use of Sarum, and in the 
northern, those of York, were generally followed. In 
South Wales the Offices of Hereford were adopted, and 
in North Wales, those of Bangor, &c. : " and so he passes 
on. Nor does Dr. Nicholls in his Commentary make 
any remark upon the passage. Bishop Mant in his se- 
lection of Notes upon the Common Prayer, has referred 
to Sparrow and Dr. Bum, who give no further information 
upon the subject, except indeed that Osmund, the Bishop 
of Salisbury, about the year 1070, was the compiler of 
the Use of Sarum. 

There, are many again, who are better informed, but 
yet have never had an opportunity of examining any 
copies of the old service books which still exist, whether 
from living at a distance from public libraries, or from 

^ Introduction, p. xxxvii. 


some othier c&use. Scarcely two year^ ago, in the pre- 
face to the first edition of this volume, I said my hope 
was, upon a consideration of the circumstances which I 
hay e briefly spoken of above, that an attempt to render 
9*000381^0 these books or portions of them, would not be 
un^cceptuble. I may now add, I trust without presump- 
tion, that my expectations have been amply realized. 

I have alluded to the difficulty of obtaining access to 
these old books : for so rare are they, that except in the 
libraries of the Bodleian, the University of Cambridge, 
and the British Museum, it is almost hopeless to expect 
to find them : occasionally, in a few instances, we may 
meet with a single volume, a Horae, or a Manual, or it 
may be even a Missal : but one book only will do but 
little for the student ; if he wishes to understand the 
subject, and to obtain more than a mere smattering of 
knowledge about it, it can be only after a careful exami- 
nation and comparison of the many volumes, among 
which anciently the Offices of the Church of England 
were distributed. 

And there are better reasons even than the fact of 
rarity, for making an effi)rt to repubUsh, in some form 
or other, either all or parts of the old books : of late 
years, the demand for them has increased tenfold, and 
their price, always great, has naturally increased with 
the demand : so as to put them, when they do occur, 
beyond the reach of men who are nevertheless the most 
anxious to obtain them. This has been one result of a 
return to a more sound theological study than had cha- 
racterized the clergy of an age, which has been emphati- 
cally styled by the Right Reverend Prelate of this Dio- 
cese, in a visitation charge, " an unlearned age." And 
it could not but be so : for a chief object of enquiry cer- 
tainly would be into the faith and practice, into the ob^ 
servances and the worship of their own particular Church, 
before as well as since the sixteenth century : and in 
the pursuit of this, they would be no longer content to 

viii Preface* 

rely upon garbled extracts, or the unfounded represen- 
tations of ignorant and prejudiced, or slanderous histo- 

Before the Reformation the public Offices of the 
Church of England were not contained, as they now are, 
in one volume, but in many : they were perfectly dis- 
tinct from each other, and intended for diflferent pur- 
poses. I do not intend in this place to enter into a de- 
scription of these numerous books, as I have examined 
at considerable length the whole subject in a Dissertation 
prefixed to another work, the Monumenta Riticalia. It 
must therefore be sufficient for me to refer the reader 
there, and extract one passage only from an edition of a 
Portiforium secundum usum Sarunij published by Graf- 
ton and Whitchurch in 1544. This has at the beginning, 
a privilege and license of the King under his great seal 
to those printers, that they alone should print certain 
" bookes of devyne servyce, and praier bookes, that is to 
say, the Masse booke, y* Graile, the Hympnal, the Anti- 
phoner, the Processyonale, the Manuel, the Porteaus, and 
the Prymer." Of these books the "Masse booke'' or 
"the Missal," contained the rites and ceremonies and 
prayers to be used in the celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion. The " Graile" or " Gradual" contained, often 
with the notation also, the various Introits, Oflfertories, 
Communions, Graduals, Tracts, Sequences and other 
parts of- the Service. This volume was of course neces- 
sary for the more solemn performance of the liturgy in 
choir, and with the full attendance of the officiating 
priest, and his subordinate ministers. 

^ Attached to this passage in then expressed, though I do not 

the first edition, was a note, speci- think it necessary to repeat it. The 

fying as an example, a writer of the place referred to, is the second 

present day, Mr. Hallam ; and I Chapter of his Constitutional His* 

allude to it, because I see no reason tory of England, 
fot altering the opinion which I 

Preface* ix 

Before we pass on, I purpose first briefly to discuss 
what the meaning is of the term " Use." Upon this 
question, the chief difficulty seems to be, how far, or if 
at all, we are to include the varieties also which unques- 
tionably existed of music and chanting ? How much of 
ceremonies and rites, besides the bare words and order 
of the prayers, ought to be included, is another question 
and rests upon very different grounds : but when we 
speak of the Use of the Church of Salisbury, or of the 
Church of York, or Hereford, not only need we not in- 
clude the chants and music, but rather, if we wish to be 
precise, altogether exclude the consideration of them. 

It has been said, upon the other hand, by writers who 
take a different view, that the primary bearing of the 
passage from the Preface to the Common Prayer Book, 
before quoted " Whereas heretofore, &c.'* is " with refer- 
ence only to the various uses of plain-tune in the several 
Cathedral choirs," and it has been doubted "whether 
there ever was a Lincoln Use in any other sense than a 
different mode and practice of chanting." 

But when we take up a missal according to the. Use 
of Sarum, and another of Hereford, and a third of York 
or Bangor : or again a breviary or a manual of Salis- 
bury or York, and compare them, we find most import- 
ant and numerous variations. The notation may or may 
not be contained in them ; very often of some portions 
it is, but subordinate, and may or may not differ also ; 
and in many service books, the Horse for example, is 
almost always omitted. And, as I have just said, there are 
numberless variations, which constitute the Use, and dis- 
tinguish the Offices of one Church from those of another, 
viz. different prayers : different arrangements of them : 
different ceremonies to be observed in the administration 
of the Sacraments : and whether a particular diocese of 
England anciently adopted the Use of Sarum or the Use 
of Hereford, would depend upon the acceptance of its 
manual and missal, and other service books, and have 

X Preface* 

Ho necessary reference to its mode of intonation. The 
diocese of Ely, for example, might observe the Use of 
the Church of Sarum, and nevertheless adopt the music, 
allowing, that is, that there were material diflFerences, of 
the Church of York. Or it might retain some parts of 
feach, with other intonations proper to itself: all which 
would have no influence upon the Use adopted by the 
Church of Ely. But if, upon the other hand, a part of 
the Offices of Sarum, and a part of Hereford, and a part 
of York, were taken and rearranged, with an observance 
of this one, and an omission of another ; this would con- 
stitute a new Use, viz. of the Church of Ely. I do not 
speak of one or two, and trifling differences ; for these 
might allowably fall under the head of peculiarities. 

I do riot mean to say that, in an improper and wide 
sense, we may not include imder certain circumstances, 
the mode of intonation adopted and ordered by aiiy 
Church, in its Use. Thus, we cannot separate the no- 
tation of a noted riiariual or missal of the Church of 
Salisbury, from the Use of that Church, at the time 
when the particular volume, which we may be examin- 
ing, was written or printed. But the Book would still 
be the missal or the manual, " secundum usum Sarum," 
if there was not one musical note contained in it : or at 
different periods during the 13th and 14th centuries, the 
music may have varied very materially, and yet the Use 
of the Church of Salisbury have continued one and the 

The references which the rubrics, especially of the 
manual, frequently make to notation, affect not as it 
appears to me the question in dispute. Some cite, as a 
proof that the music must necessarily be included within 
the meaning of the term *^Use," such directions as, 
"Omnes orationes dicimtur cum *Oremus' sub tone 
prsedicto ; " or " dicat Sacerdos sub tono consueto ; " or 
"cum cantu sequenti;" or "dicat Sacerdos orationes 
seqiientes sub tono lectionis ;" or, once more, "dicat in 

more praefationis." But the ecclesiastical tones to which 
these rubrics refer, either immediately foUow, or pre^ 
cede : or they might be, as especially in the case of the 
" tone of the lection" or " the tone of the Preface," well- 
known and fixed, yet nevertheless not the same tone in 
every diocese which adhered strictly to the Use of the 
Church of Sarum or of York. They do not prove that 
the same music was necessarily to be followed, as were 
the integral portions of the public offices which made up 
the "Use." 

I do not deny therefore that the title "secimdum 
usum Sarum," or " ad usum ecclesiae Eboracensis," or 
'* Herfordensis," prefixed to a Breviary, or Hymnal, or 
Psalter, signifies sometimes in the printed books, not the 
prayers only but the mode of singing authorized at the 
time in those dioceses; but then such books must be 
noted : if they do not contain the music (which is not 
unfrequently the case even of Psalters and Graduals) 
they would still be, quite as properly and with the title 
also, " secundum usum," as the case may be : and this 
in its proper sense, relating solely to the variety and 
arrangement of the prayers, hymns, and Psalter, rites 
and ceremonies* 

Some have said that "the Hymnarium, the Psalter, 
the Gradual, and the Pontifical," are Choral Books, and 
noted, and therefore that we cannot exclude music from 
the notion of the term " Use." But not to speak of the 
utter absurdity of calling a Pontifical a choral book, the 
others did not necessarily contain the notation : and the 
Psalter, for example, according to the Use of any Church, 
is entirely independent of the tones which may accom^- 
pany it. Hence, when printing became general, we find 
many examples of the Psalter "secundum usum" of 
whatever Church it might be, with the lines ruled for the 
music, which however is not printed also, but left to be 
fiUed in with manuscript. This of course would seldom 
happen in earlier ages, when the entire volumes were 

xu l^cefoce. 

manuscript : and therefore, affords an additional and 
not a light proof why we must not argue hastily firom 
such expressions, as " cum tone sequenti," and " dicatur 
hie cantus." Yet, in the same way, in M SS. we occa- 
sionally find the services of festivals of late institution, 
such as of S. Osmund, or of the Transfiguration, or of 
the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin, fully arranged and 
determined upon " secundum Usum :" but the music not 
written in, although the proper lines and spaces may be 
left for it. 

And it is in the sense in which I have above explained 
it, that we find the term Use employed by the ritualists : 
it will be imnecessary for me to cite more than one ex- 
ample, from Gavantus : who, describing what is meant 
by the Breviary according to the Use of the Church of 
Rome, says it is so called, because it contains the Prayers 
authorized by that Church : and immediately before, in 
a fuller explanation, he particularizes the Lessons, the 
Psalms, Hymns, Legends, &c. and the Rubrics by which 
each day's Office is to be ascertained ; but not one word 
which has reference to the music* 

It is not improbable that much of the doubt which has 
been thrown over the term Use, has arisen from the fre- 
quent occurrence of the verb canto : " cantare missam 
secundum usum,'' &c. But nothing is more certain than 
that Canto does not always, especially in the earlier 
writers, mean to sing in tiie modern acceptation. To 
adopt the words of a most eminent writer : " Cantare 
missam priscorum phrasi illi dicebantur, qui sine cantu, 
et privatim celebrabant." ^ And so again Mabillon, 
after citing a particular Canon, adds: " Verbum canendo 
interpreter de privata recitatione, nee aliam interpreta- 

' Thesaurus Sacr. Rit. torn, iu De Lit. Gall. p. 879. 
p. 10. Compare Mabillon. Dis- * Bona, Rerum Liturg. lib, i. 
quisitio de Cursu Gallicano. §. 1. cap. xiii. 5. 

Ipreface* xiii 

tionem sequentia patiuntur/'^ Thus an old ^^ Expositio 
MisssB," edited by Cochteus,* says : " Prima autem ora- 
tio super corpus Christi futurum, secreta dicitur, et secrete 
canitur." Which the margin explains to be "secreta 
oratio legitur'' And, once more, a passage in the " De- 
fensorium Directorii" of the Church of Sarum, is very 
much to the point. " Item iUa duo verba quae ponuntur 
in multis festis, sic: Invitatorium triplex^ nihil oneris 
imponunt sacerdotibus qui dicunt officium suum sine 
nota : sed solum pertinent ad illos qui cantant officium 
cum nota."^ Here the Use whether with or without 
music would continue equally and perfectly the Use of 
Sarum ; and no distinction as regards it, either depends 
upon, or is involved in the addition of a chant. 

But there would be no end of accumulating examples 
of this sort ; and if the reader wishes to examine further 
the whole subject which I have been discussing, I would 
recommend him, among other books, especially to read 
the dissertation of MabiQon " De Cursu GaUicano," to 
which reference has already been made, and I think he 
will be satisfied that music does not fortn, except in an 
extended and improper sense, any part of what we ought 
to understand by the term " Use" of a Church. 

One word also, before I pass on, upon the expression 
in the passage in the Preface to the Common Prayer 
Book ; " the great diversity in saying and singing," and 
" now from henceforth all the whole Realm shall have 
but one Use." It is possible that the reformers, among 
their multiplicity of plans, did intend to enforce an uni- 
formity in singing also throughout the realm : but, what- 

^ De Cursu GaUicano. §• 46. ' Speculum Ant. Deyotionis. p. 

Gerbert de Musica, torn. i. p, 826. 140. 

dtes the same canon, and explains ^ Monumenta Ritualta, yol. L p. 

it ^^de privata horarum canonica- 344. The reader will there find 

rum recitatione." See also p. 355. the whole of that important trea* 

559. 8ic. tisq. 

xiv Iptefwc, 

ever they mjipy have meant by the words just quoted, 1 
think that it is quite clear that the First Common Prayer 
Book of K. Edward, and all succeeding ones, were not 
in fact aimed at the abolition of varieties of music, but 
of a variety of prayers, and rites, and ceremonies. This 
object was eflfected. A diversity of singing nevertheless 
continued, not only in different dioceses, but also in dif- 
ferent churches of the same diocese : and I am not aware 
that at present, there is any rule, except the Precentor s 
pleasure, even for the daily singing in a cathedral. How- 
ever, we do not conceive the Preface to the Common 
Prayer to be evaded, or the Act of Uniformity to be 
broken by this, whatever may be said of other practices. 
Merbecke, as is well known, about a year after the pubf 
lication of the First Book, tried something of the sort 
which the reformers hinted at ; but his book was unau- 
thorized, limited in its impression, and never reached a 
second edition :' which it necessarily must have done, if 
either the demand for it had been great, or an attempt 
made to recommend it. Elizabeth in her Injunctions, 
which were supplemental to her Act of Uniformity, and 
were grounded upon an especial clause in that Act, at- 
tempted to supply the deficiency : yet they did not enjoin 
a particular or one mode of singing, but simply that there 
be ^^ a modeste and destyncte songe used in all partes of 
the common prayers in the Churche.^ 

The portions of the Missals which are reprinted and 
arranged in this edition, form but a very small portion of 
their respective volumes : but by far the most important. 

" See however a note in the Churches heretofore, there hath 

Dissertation on the Service Books, ben levynges appointed for the 

Monumenta JRxtualia. ' vol. i. p. majntenaunce of men & chyldren 

21. to use synging in the churchy by 

meanes whereof the lawdable 8ci-> 

^ The 49th of these Injunctions ence of musicke hath ben had in 

declares that '*i)ecau8^ in dyvers estimation and preserved in know- 

Collegiate and ^Iso some paryshe ledge : the Queues maiestie 

In examining them the student mxkUt beiar in mind, that 
although he may have expected to find greater and more 
numerous variations between them, such variations were 
not Kkely to occur, even in so large a proportion, in the 
Ordinary and the Canon. These, especially the last,' 
were parts of the Divine Service which were studiously 
guarded against alterations, additions, or omissions : and 
even changes of single words, and differences of arrange- 
ment which he will find in them, constitute as decidedly 
as far more considerable differences in other parts of the 
books would, a variety of Use. And I do not hesitate to 
say, that the distinctions of the ancient liturgies of the 
Church of England, both between themselves, and tha 
modem Roman Use, in the Ordinary and the Canon, 
are not only as great but greater, and more in number, 
and involving points of higher consequence^ than a pre- 
vious acquaintance with these matters, before an actual 
examination of the English missals would have authorized 
us to expect. 

It would be far too extensive a subject of enquiry, for 
me to attempt even a sketch of the innumerable varia- 
tions which existed in other parts of the English missals. 
But, take for example the beginning of the Sanctorale 
according to the Uses of the Churches of Salisbury and 
York. The first is the service of the Vigil of S. An- 
drew. In this, the Psalm, the verse after the gradual, 
one of the secrets, and one of the post-communions are 
different. Upon S. Andrew's day, the Psalm again 
differs. Upon S. Thomas's day, the gradual, the offer- 

wylleth and commaundeth, that understanded, as if it were read 
fyrste no alteration be made of such without singing." 
assignementes of levynge but that Injunctions geven by the 
the same so remayne. And that Queues Maiestie. Imprint- 
there bee a modeste and destjrncte ed by Jugge and Cawood. 
sODge '8o used in all partes of the Anno. m.d.lix. Rq)rinted 
eommon prayers in the Churche : in Ca/rdwelL Doc Annals* 
t^t the same maye be as playnelye i. 196. 

xvi ]^teface« 

tory, and the post-communion ^re different. Upon the 
feast of the Conversion of S. Paul, the introit, the 
Psalm, the sequence, and the post-communion. Upon 
the feast of the Purification, the sequence, tract, offer- 
tory, and secret. 

Or again, compare one or two services from the Com- 
mune of the missals of Hereford and Bangor. The ser- 
vices " In natali unius martyris et pontificis," agree only 
in the Epistle and Gospel. For " many Martyrs," dif- 
ferent lections, graduals, secrets, and communions are 
appointed. And, once more, in the service for a Con- 
fessor and Bishop, the tract, offertory, communion and 
post-communion are different. 

The Ordinary and the Canon therefore occupying, as 
I have said, only a small part of the Missal, the rest of 
that volume was filled with the various Collects, Epis- 
tles, Gospels, Sequences, Graduals, etc. proper to the 
great festivals and fasts, the Sundays, and to especial 
occasions when the Church offered up especial prayers 
in behalf, for example, of the king, or in the time of 
any dearth, or pestilence. These were of course used, at 
least many of them, only once a year : but the Ordinary 
and the Canon were daily said. 

In these latter, moreover, were contained those rites 
which have been held from the earhest times to be'essen- 
tial to the valid consecration of the Holy Eucharist. The 
several collections by Asseman, Renaudot and others, of 
liturgies which have been used in different l^atriarchates 
of the CathoUc Church, contain those portions which 
are edited in the present volume : the other parts of 
many are altogether lost, and possibly some of the earlier 
liturgies, had little else beside.^^ As I shall have occa- 
sion presently to observe, so here also I may remind the 

^^ All that part, (says Bishop ancient Liturgies, is a latter addi- 

Rattray, speaking of the Liturgy of tion to the service of the Church, 

S. James) which precedes the Ana- as appears from the account given 

phora, both in this and the other thereof by Justin Martyr, from the 



reader, that the Sacrament of the Supper of the Lord 
was never, since its institution, administered without the 
due observance of certain appointed ceremonies and 
prayers. These of course would be characterized du- 
ring the first century of the existence of the Church, by 
a greater simplicity than in after years : and this, solely 
bJBcause many just reasons for the addition of other 
prayers and rites had not arisen, or they could not from 
the violence of persecution be allowed their due weight. 
But as time went on, and the roU of the saints and mar-* 
tyrs increased, commemorations of them were added, 
and collects, and hymns, and antiphons were increased 
in number, and the Faithful sought to shew their deep 
reverence for the Service itself, by a greater solemnity 
in its performance ; all which was well fitting to the 
Church of Christ, when she was no longer driven to ce- 
lebrate her mysteries in secret places, and hurriedly, and 
with the constant dread of cruel interruption. 

Clementine Liturgy, and from the 
19th canon of the Council of Lao- 
dicea. By comparing of which with 
other ancient authorities, we plainly 
find that the service of the Church 
began with reading of the Scrip- 
tures, intermixed with psalmody; 
after which followed the sermon. 
Then the a7Cj0oec;jxsyoi and iwKrroiy 
the hearers and unhelievers, being 
dismissed, there followed in order, 
the bidding prayer of the deacon, 
and the collect of the bishop, first for 
the catechumens: then after they 
were dismissed, for the energumens : 
and after they were dismissed for 
the competentes or candidates for 
baptism : and lastly, after dismiss- 
ing them likewise, for the penitents. 
Then all these being dismissed, the 
liGssa Fidelium, or Service of the 
FaUhfuly began with the Iv^yj hct, 

ciumr^gy the silent or mental prat/^ 
evy which is the first of the three 
prayers mentioned in the Laodicean 
Canon: the second and third are 
said to be ha, mpoo'^wvy^o'ecv^. And 
these are the sv^at xoivai xai vmp 
'eavruy^KOU aXXwv moLvra^ov wav- 
rwy in S. Justin. Then after the 
priests washing their hands and the 
kiss of peace and the y^yjTi^ xara 
tivoiy the deacons brought the ^wpa, 
the gifts of the people, to the bishop, 
to be by him placed on the altar : 
and he having prayed secretly by 
himself, and likewise the priests, 
and making the sign of the cross, 
with his hand, upon his forehead, 
says the Apostolical Constitutions, 
began the Anaphora. 

Ancient Liturgy of S. James. 
Pref. 3. 



|II£ chief Liturgies which hare been presaged 
are those which are called St. James's, St. 
Mark's, St. Chryscwtom's,- St. Basil's, the 
Roman, and preeminent ahove all these, of 
an acknowledged greater antiquity than any, the Cle- 
mentine. As I have reprinted this liturgy of St. Cle- 
ment at the end of the present volume, it seems necessary 
that I should ioake one or two remarks, by which it is 
to be hoped the reader will be able to judge its value. 

Theological questions and doctrines of the highest 
importance, are involved in enquiries into the origin 
and relative authority of the ancient liturgies. Some 
writers upon the subject have boldly argued that the 
Apostles themselves left an accurate Form, not merely 
of the doctrine of tha sacrament of the Blessed Eucha- 
rist, but of rites and ceremonies and prayers, in shortj a 
Liturgy, according to which it should be administered : 
and that this still exists either in the liturgy of Antioch, 
or Alexandria, or Kome. Those who hold this opinion 
chiefly rely upon a passage in a treatise, generally attri- 
buted to Proclus, Bishop of Constantinople in the 5th 
Century, in which the writer states that the Apostles 
whilst they were together at Jerusalem, before their dis- 
persion into various quarters of the world, were accus- 
tomed daily to meet and celebrate the Holy Communion ; 
" et cum multam consolationem in mystico iUo Domi- 
nici Corporis sacrificio positam reperissent, fusissime, 
longoque verborum ambitu miesam decantabant." S. 

" See the whole pUH^ cited 94. And in Sana, Rerum Liturg. 
I Gerbert, De Cantn. torn, i, p. torn. i,p. 75. 

Pt€tm. xix 

Chrysostom also, (cited by Cardinal Bona,) in his 27th 
Homily, enquires ; " Cum sacras Ccenas accipiebant 
Apostoli, quid turn faciebant ? nonne in preces converte- 
bantur et hymnos ? " 

On the other hand it has been argued that the founder 
of each Church required his converts to observe some 
certain rites, which were essential to the validity of the 
sacrament, and left them at liberty to add to these, 
other prayers and ceremonies as they might think pro- 
per. One thing is very certain ; that the Holy Scrip* 
tures give us little information upon the subject : the 
institution of the Supper of the Lord is related by three 
of the Evangeliste, and by St. Paul in the 1st Epistle to> 
the Corinthians : we are told that our Blessed Lord took 
bread, and blessed it, and said, " This is my Body," and 
in like manner that he took the cup, and blessed it, And 
said, " This is my Blood : " but the words which He used 
in blessing, and the exact form are not recorded. 

That there was some Form observed in the first com- 
munion which was celebrated by the Apostles after the 
resurrection of their Lord, I think, we cannot doubt : 
nor, that they who had been partakers and witnesses at 
the institution of the sacrament would be very careful, 
in their after celebrations, to imitate as far as possible 
the Saviour's example. Indeed, this was a Divine com- 
mand : what He had done, they were to do ; what He 
had said, they were to say ; what He had oflfered, they 
were to oflfer ; and power also was given to them, and 
through them, to the whole Church for ever, of altering, 
or adding to, or taking away from time to time, either 
prayers, or ceremonies, or rites, provided that they were 
not of the essence of the sacrament, and were intended 
to meet the requirements of various ages, climates, and 
countries, or to encrease the solemnity of the celebration, 
or to promote the devotion of the people. And it was 
this power which St. Paul claimed so unhesitatingly, as 
having beein bestowed by our Blessed Lord, when in the 



same epistle before spoken of to the Corinthians, and 
upon the very subject of the Eucharist, he adds : ^^ And 
the rest will I set in order when I come/' " 

I must here consider a famous passage of Gregory the 
Great : in which it has been said that he asserts, and 
therefore he has often been called in to prove, that the 
Apostles used no other prayer or ceremony than the Liord's 
/ Prayer only. The words of S. Gregory are. " Ora- 
tionem dominicam idcirco mox post precem dicimus, quia 
mos apostolorum fiiit, ut ad ipsam solum mode orationem, 
pblationis hostiam consecrarent. Et valde mihi incon- 
veniens visum est, ut precem, quam scholasticus compo- 
suerat, super oblationem diceremus, et ipsam traditio* 
nem, quam Redemptor noster composuit, super ejus 
Corpus et Sanguinem non diceremus."" But all writers 
agree, (that is, supposing the passage not to be corrupt,) 
either that this assertion of S. Gregory is incorrect, or 
that he himself intended more than the Lord's Prayer 
to be imderstood. His argument, as it seems to me, is 
not that the Lord s Prayer only was used by the Apos* 
ties, but that neither they did, nor we ought to perform 
the whole service without reciting it. As Cardinal 
Bona observes,^* with whom agrees Le Brun,^* at least 
the words of Institution must have been added j '^ additis 
procul dubio verbis consecrationis." 

That something must be added to qualify the state- 
ment of S. Gregory is clear from the account of a very 

" Ch. xi. V. 34. Conf. Van Es- 
pen. Jus. Eccles. Pars. II. sect. i. 
tit. y. and S, AugusHn. Epist. liv. 
§ 8. Also the place in RenaudoU 
" Verba Christi ad Apostolos, hoc 
fadte in meam commemoraUonemf 
praeceptum celebrandse ex instituto 
Christi EucharistiaB continent : for- 
mam qua celebrari deberet, non ex* 
primunt. Nemo tamen Christianus 

dubitavit, quin eamdem edocti fue- 
rint a Domino Apostolic ut alia 
omnia qusB ad religionem Christia- 
nam constituendam pertinebant. 
Ab Apostolis acceperunt illam eo- 
rum discipuli. etc.** Dissert p» 2. 

^ Lib. ix. epist. 12. 

1* Tom. i. p. 75. 

^ Opera, tom. ii. p. 82. 

^Xet&U. xxi 

early writer, the author of the Gemma Animce : " Mis- 
sam in primis Dominus Jesus, sacerdos secundum ordi- 
nem Melchisedech, instituit, quando ex pane et vino 
corpus et sanguinem suum fecit, et memoriam sui, suis 
celebrare haec prsecepit: hanc Apostoli auxerunt, dum 
super panem et vinum verba quae Dominus dixit, et do- 
minicam orationem dixerunt. Deinde successores eorum 
epistolas et evangelia legi statuerunt, alii cantum, et alii 
alia adjecerunt qui decorem domus Domini dilexerunt." *^ 
And another, Walafrid Strabo, who lived some centuries 
earlier and not long after S. Gregory, speaking of the 
practice of primitive ages, " primis temporibus," declares 
that although the Holy Communion was celebrated with 
more simplicity than afterwards, yet " praemissa oratione 
Dominica^ et sicut ipse Dominus noster praecepit, com- 
memoratione passionis ejus adhibita eos corpori Domi- 
nico communicasse et sanguini, quos ratio permitte- 

Or again, the whole place from S. Gregory is made 
agreeable to every other testimony of antiquity, by ren- 
dering the word "ad" in the sense of '^post ;" of which 
example^ might be found in the best writers : and he 
would therefore only intend to say, that before the con- 
secration of the sacred elements, the Apostles were ac- 
customed to repeat only the Lord s Prayer : and after- 
wards consecrate the Eucharist. Which leaves the whole 
question, except as to the ancient position of that prayer 
in the Service, exactly where it was before/® 

It is not improbable that sometimes during the violence 
of persecutions, when the Faithful were forced to meet at 

^' Lib. i. cap. 86. " Quum sine tabulis ac testibus id 

„ _^ , _ , .. ab eo affirmatum fuerit, consensum 

" De rebus Eccies. cap. xxu. . . . * u- t?*« 

_,.,, ^ . .*^ ^^^ mmime extorquet a nobis. btpr»- 

. . . *^ . cipue quocL aliter sensennt antiqui- 

^ Muratori,' after citing the pas- ores Ecclesiae Patres." Dissert de 

sage from S. Gregory, adds : rebtis Lit. col. 10. 

xxii Ipreface* 

night and in places the most obscure, the Blessed Eu- 
charist was administered with the fewest possible rites, 
and even the necessary prayers abbreyiated. These 
were extraordinary cases, which afford no argument 
against the general tradition up to the apostolic age : and 
upon the point that the earliest Form could not have 
been very short, Justin Martyr is a sufficient evidence : 
the text also from the Ist Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy, 
which all the best commentators agree, relates to the 
celebration of the Eucharist. " I exhort therefore that 
first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giv- 
ing of thanks be made, for all men ; for kings, and for aU 
that are in authority." ^^ Neither must we forget that the 
first Christian converts, whether Jews or Gentiles, had 
been accustomed to the observance of ceremonies and 
long prayers ; and there does not seem any reason to 
believe, even if we had no evidence upon the other hand, 
that the Apostles would so far oppose their prejudices in 
this respect, as to celebrate the highest and most solenm 
mysteries only by the bare use of the words, " This is My 
Body ; This is My Blood :" and, of the Lords Prayer. 
I have delayed to examine at some little length the 
above assertion of S. Gregory, on accoimt of the import- 
ance which by many writers has been attached to it} 
especially by those who are always anxiously on the 
watch for every shadow of argument, by which they can 
hope to controvert the steady voice of all antiquity, 
which declares, that from the time of the Apostles down- 
wards some Form, some Liturgy, was always used in 
every branch of the Catholic Church. Whether the 
same Form was at first enjoined exactly in all the 
Churches, the variations in the antient liturgies render 
doubtful: but their constant agreement in substance, 
and their imiform observance in the same order of some 


Ch. ii. v. 1. 


• t • 


%j make it certain that the Apostles did at any rate 
lire that order, and declare that those rites are essen*- 
And we do not trace the establishment of these to 
canons of councils, nor do we name any age or place 
irhich they were not observed : so that the rule of S. 
fustine comes in, with a force not to be resisted : 
uod universa tenet Ecclesia, nee a conciliis institu- 
, sed semper retentum est, non nisi auctoritate Apos- 
ja traditum rectissime creditur."^ 
[ence, (manifest interpolations having been removed,) 
'e are no differences in the ancient liturgies which 
' not be attributed to the legitimate power vested in 
Bishop of each diocese, and more especially in each 
iarch, to arrange the public Service of the people, 
' whom he was appointed.^^ That there should have 

De Baptismo. lib, iv. cap. 24. 
" Etsi nulla supersit cum Oc- 
talium, turn Orientaliiim Ec- 
rum Liturgia, quae eamdem 
QO faciem retineat, quam pri- 
saeculis Chnstianae religionis 
a foit : certum tamen est, vel 
ib saeculis incruentum Sacrifi- 

celebratum semper fuisse, et 
8 et ritus, hoc est Liturgiam 
itam in actione, quae omnium 
;aiitissimum Mysterium com- 
itur. Accesserunt sensim alias 
», Orationes et Ritus pro di- 

Episcoporum pietate et inge- 

luratori. Dissert, cap. ix. 119. 
\t nihil simile circa Liturgias 
itales et Occidentales ohservari 
t, cum omnes inter se ita cou- 
nt, ut ab uno fonte, Apostolo- 
scilicet exemplo et praeceptis 
•mnes Ecclesias permanasse 
sime agnoscantur. Neque 
le tanta in ssgdctissimis myste. 

riis celebrandis conformitas, quam 
ex communi et omnibus nota tradi- 
tione nasci potuit, cum Jacobus, qui 
antiquissimus eorum est, quorum 
nominibus Liturgiae insignitae sunt, 
nihil praeceperit de vino aqua mis-* 
cendo, de pronunciandis verbis 
Christi Domini, deinvocando super 
dona proposita Spiritu Sancto, de 
mittenda absentibus, aut aegrotanti- 
bus Eucharistia, ut nee de multis 
aliis, quae tamen ubique recepta 
fuisse et usu quotidiano Ecclesia- 
rum frequentata negari non potest. 
Nihil princeps Apostolorum Pe- 
trus, aut Antiochiae, aut Romae 
scripsisse legitur, nihil Paulus, nihil 
alii : sed quod acceperant a Domi- 
no idem tradebant novis Christia- 
nis. Multo minus Basilius et Chry- 
sostomus novas offerendi sacrificii 
Eucharistici formas instituere po- 
terant : ut neque a Gelasio primum 
aut a Gregorio magno Romana mis- 
sa, neque ab Ambrosio Ambrosia- 



been an exact agreement, both in words and ceremonies, 
cannot be expected ; but the varieties were not of such 
consequence, or in so great a number as to affect the unity 
of the Faith. " Multa pro locorum et hominum diversi- 
tate variantur," says Firmilian in his Epistle to S. Cy- 
prian, "nee tamen propter hoc ab ecclesiae cathoUcae 
pace atque unitate discessum est." They who will not 
acknowledge any agreement, because in some matters of 
less consequence they find much variety, might as well 
expect a sameness throughout the world of civil rights, 
and customs, and observances. Not so argued one of 
our own Archbishops, S. Anselm. "Queritur vestra 
reverentia de sacramentis Ecclesiae : quoniam non uno 
modo fiunt ubique, sed diversis modis in diversis locis 
tractantur. Utique si per universam Ecclesiam uno 
modo et concorditer celebrarentur ; bonum esset et la\i- 
dabile. Quoniam tamen multae sunt diversitates, quse 
non in substantia sacramenti, neque in virtute ejus, aut 
fide discordant ; neque omnes in unam consuetudinem 
coUigi possunt : sestimo eas potius in pace concorditer 
tolerandas, quam discorditer cum scandalo damnandas. 
Habemus enim a Sanctis Patribus, quia si unitas servatur 
charitatis in fide Catholica, nihil officit consuetudo di- 
Si autem quaeritur undo istse natse sunt consue- 


tudinum varietates : nihil aliud intelligo, quam humano- 
rum sensuum diversitates."** 

na, Gothtca a Leandro, Gallicana 
vetus a Gallicanis episcopis facias 
sunt. Yerum cum nota esset om- 
nibus vetus et Apostolica forma, 
quae paucis verbis constabat, earn 
omnes secuti sunt, nee ab ea reces- 
serunt: orationes qu» inter sacra 
dicebantur, cum multae essent, sele- 
gerunt, novas etiam addiderunt, 
tandemque ne perturbatio inter fi- 
deles nasceretur, quasdam perscrip- 
serunt, et haec origo fuit diversitatis 

Kturgiarum." RenaudoU vol. i. 14. 

^ Ad Waleranni querelas, Re- 
sponsio. Opera, p. 139. Com- 
pare also S. Augustin, Epist, 54. 

5. Jerome. Epist. 28. and 1 vo Car- 
notensis, Epist, 2. Cited by Bona. 
torn. i. p. 90. Also, Catalani, Pro- 
legomena in Pontif. Rom. cap. ii. 

6. Azevedo. De Divino Officio, 
Exercit. x. Pinius. De Mozar. Lit. 
cap. i. § 1. 

This power, which from the nature of the office of the 
episcopate was vested in the Bishops of the Church, to 
accommodate the rites of public worship to the require- 
ments of their people, was very moderately exercised, 
though fully allowed and in reality unlimited, so long as 
the essentials of the eucharistical service were preserved, 
and nothing introduced which was obnoxious to the One 
Holy Catholic Faith. During the first three centuries 
there were more reasons than in after-years, why indi- 
vidual Bishops should not hesitate, upon their sole autho- 
rity, to make, if they thought it desirable, even consider- 
able alterations in the liturgies of the Church. For, 
upon every occasion of doubt or difficulty which arose, 
they could not, in the persecutions to which they were 
exposed, ask advice of other of their brethren, much less 
meet together in a General Council. But when they 
did so meet, it is clear from some canons of two of the 
earliest councils whose records have come down to us, 
that liturgical and ritual matters were not overlooked. 
Thus the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, the 8th, 9th, and 41st of 
the Apostolical canons, and several also of the Eliberi- 
tan council have reference to such points. 

Here we approach another question : in what age 
were liturgies first committed to writing ? Some have 
contended that the Apostles were themselves the authors 
of those several liturgies which claim their names : 
but so great is the majority against them, that we may 
say it is agreed upon, that they were not. There is no 
account of any such composition in the works of the first 
fathers : and surely, if no others had, Origen or Jerome 
would have made some mention of it. Councils, at least 
the very early ones, are silent, and these would have ap- 
pealed to a written Apostolic liturgy, if they could, 
against the errors and teaching of heretics. Both Ter- 
tuUian, when speaking of the eucharistical rites,^* and 

^ De Corona, c. 4. 

xxvi l^refiAce. 

S. Cyprian,** upon the question of mixing water with the 
wine, appeal to tradition only : which we can scarcely 
conceive they would have done, had they known of any 
liturgy written by an Apostle. If, once more, such ever 
existed, it would probably have been among the number 
of Canonical Books, and so included in the 60th canon 
of the council of Laodicea. Any addition to, or altera- 
tion in it, must have been instantly disallowed ; but we 
know that alterations were very anciently made, and 
prayers if not essential left out, or inserted, in some of 
the liturgies claiming to be Apostolic. 

The date at which they were first committed to writ- 
ing is open to far more dispute ; perhaps, not for the 
first two centuries. Renaudot is clearly of this opinion ; 
he says it is beyond all controversy, and cites S. Basil, 
De Spiritu Sancto, cap. 27. The place is of great im- 
portance, in more respects than in its bearing upon this 
question, and I shall therefore extract it, according to 
the text of the Paris edition, 1839. "O*ok (Jya rov w-pwrou 

KXi xoivoTOcrov irpeorov fAVV(r66o) rta rvirtp rov (rrosupou tou( ei^ to oko- 
/CAO^ rov Kvpiov i^fAtav Ifitrov Xpitrrov vXinKoroig xocr»(rfifAai9i(ri»if 
TK iix ypot,fx^^ iiiot,^ot,q ; To frpoq otvuroXotg rirpocf6»i x»ra 
rfiv triioirsv^nv, woiov iiiiu^sy riiAxq yp^l^f^^ » ^^ '^^^ eirixXfirscog 
p7\fjt.a,r» iTTi Ti? OLVxSu^u rov aprou rn^ Euj^aptcr**? xai toxi iro^ 
rnpiov mg euAoytd^;, rtg rcav dyiuv fyypa^wc Vf^iv xaT«XcA.«iir«v ; 
Ov yxp in TOUTOK apxovfxsSoi, m o a,iro(rroXoq t. to ivotyytXioy 
STTtfMuntririy aXXx xcci w^oXsyofAiu koh i'jnXsyofA£v Inpoi, ig fjt,£ya- 
Xi/iv lyoyroL 'jrpo^ to fMVirrYipiov rfiv kt^vu, ex rrig xypxfov fiienrxa- 
Xixq wApxXxfiovrig, EvXoyovfAey ii ro n vieop rov jSavTio-jmato^, 
xa* TO BX»hov ry^q Xfi^rid^^ xoci trpofrtn OLvroy rov fiawrfj^oiAivov. 
Afro woicav tyypx^m ; Oux xiro rriq a-KawufJt^suvq xat fAva-rixfig «■«»• 
fxfoiTiiog ; Ti is; xvrfiv rov sXxiov tw j^icriv rig Xoyog ytypxfjfr 
^suog sMxj^E ; To h rpig j3a7rT*^fO-6«« TOk xy^p(awov, 7ro6«v ; AXXa 
it o<rx wspi ro (ixiTrKr[AX, X7rorna'Ci(r6»i tw (rxrxvfi ka% twj «yy«- 


Epist. 63. Ad Ccedlium, 

iPreface. xxvii 

Ao#ff avrov, fx voices t<rri ypsufm I Oux sx td^ Kinfj,o(ru\^rov rauriif 

YCbirrta. a-iyti el Trocrspt^ lifAtav sfvXoc^aVy xotXcog sxsivo isiiioiyfMtvoip 
T«v fAvtrrnp^mro fr$(jLyov a-imr^ J'«ao"«^£0"6a» ;" Renaudot however 

and Le Brun who agrees with him, and even goes so far 
as to assert that for four hundred years no liturgy was 
written, interpret the words of S. Basil in a sense which 
he certainly did not himself intend. His argument in 
that part of his treatise is directed solely to the question 
of the canonical and sacred Scriptures : nor is it unusual 
for that father to speak of customs and rites as un- 
written, which are riot found expressly so laid down and 

Another argument by which we may conclude that 
until the end of the second century liturgies were not 
committed to writing, is, as Renaudot observes, that 
although we find firequent mention made of the Scrip- 
tures being given up to the heathens through fear of 
punishment or death, we have no instance of any book 
of ceremonies or public worship : neither would the per- 
secutors have inquired so cruelly by torture, what mode 
of offering and sacrifice the Christians observed, if they 
could have procured a written liturgy. 

Upon the other hand, as I have already said, it has 
been argued that liturgies were in all ages written : and 
the chief difficulty of unwritten Forms seems to be, that 
the length of them would have rendered it impossible 
that, generally, priests should have been able to celebrate 
without a book. But it is not necessary for us to sup- 
pose that more than the solemn portions were preserved 
and handed down unwritten : certainly the psalms, and 
lections firom the Scriptures, the Epistles, and the Gos- 
pels, and very probably long prayers and thanksgivings 
also were not forbidden to be written : and therefore we 
may conclude that in its strict sense, no liturgy was 
written for some ages, because certain indispensable and 
essential rites which constitute a Liturgy, were handed 

xxviii l^tefac^. 

down by tradition only. And we have a very remarkable 
proof how late this disinclination to commit those parts 
to writing was cherished in the western Church, from a 
letter from Innocent I. to a Bishop, Decentius: who 
had applied to him for the Roman Use ; " Saepe Dilec- 
tionem tuam ad urbem venisse, ac nobiscum in ecclesia 
convenisse non dubium est, et quem morem vel in con- 
secrandis mysteriis, vel in caeteris agendis arcanis teneat, 
cognovisse ; quod sufficere arbitrarer ad informationem 
ecclesiae tuae, vel reformationem, si prsedecessores tui 
minus, aut aliter tenuerint."^ 

It was from a holy reverence that the Church re- 
quired her priests thus to celebrate from memory* 
Among her doctrines none were so scrupulously con- 
cealed, little less from the catechumen than from the 
unbeliever, as were those connected with the Blessed 
Eucharist. It was not from her admitted children that 
she sought to hide them, but from men who were her 
avowed enemies, or unproved candidates for her privi- 
leges. She knew and remembered her Lords command, 
" Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast 
ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under 
their feet, and turn again and rend you." 

Hence therefore it was that, except in the 1st Epistle 
to the Corinthians, S. Paul in all his writings has not 
made any plain mention of this Sacrament ; and then 
there was abundant reason, from the necessity of the 
case, not only why he should speak of it, but openly and 
freely. For the very abuse which he was endeavouring 
to correct, viz : permitting unworthy persons, and per- 
haps not even members of the Church to be present at 
the Holy Communion, had admitted these already to the 
knowledge of much connected with the solemnities of 
the celebration of it. As a very learned writer has 


Cited by Le JBrun. Opera, torn, ii. p. 18. 



further observed : " it was not in the Apostle's power to 
conceal the outward part of the mystery from them, 
who by the countenance of their new teachers had been 
emboldened to break in upon the Eucharist, without 
being duly qualified; and therefore the only way that 
he had left to him, to prevent their further contempt and 
abuse of it, was to let them into the fuller knowledge of 
it."*^ Such an exception, as we can see so evidently Ihe 
cause of it, confirms the rule which it is not to be denied 
S. Paul appears most carefully at all other times to have 

And we have further proof how carefully our Saviour's 
caution was obeyed from the very obscure manner in 
which the ante-Nicene fathers, when they speak at all, 
speak of the Eucharist: so obscure indeed, especially 
near the apostolic age, that none could understand their 
import except those who had been fully admitted into 
the communion of the Church. No article relating to 
it was inserted into any Creed ; and the very probable 
reason has been given, which must occur to every reader, 
that Creeds were forms of faith, to be taught the cate- 
chumens in order to their baptism : but not so the Eucha- 
rist ; which was considered too sacred to be spoken of in 
words at length, but to the perfect only.^^ Take also, 

^ Johnson. Unbloody Sacrifice. 
Vol. \,p. 57. The same writer has 
some very forcible remarks upon the 
omission by S. Paul in the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, of any notice of 
the prefiguration of the Christian 
Sacrifice, in the oblation of Mel- 
chisedeck: there was apparently, 
but for some powerful motive, every 
reason why he should then enter 
into it : and this, as S. Jerom tells 
us, was because he thought it not 
proper- to discourse of that Sacra- 
ment familiarly to people, not yet 

settled in the Faith. " Difficulta- 
tem rei prooemio," says that Father, 
in his epistle to Evagrius, " exag- 
gerat dicens, super quo multus est 
nobis sermo interpretahilisy non 
quia Apostolus id non potuit inter- 
pretari, sed quia illius temporis non 
fuerit. Hebrseis enim, id est Ju- 
daeis, persuadebat, non jam fideli- 
bus, quibus sacramentum passim 

^ Upon this, Johnson has the 
following. Unbl. Sacrifice. VoL\,p. 
235. *' The reasons they had for the 



for example, the famous passage in S. Justin : in a part 
of his Apology, where he is giving an account of the 

concealment of these mysteries (of 
the Sacraments) were in sum, to shew 
the great esteem they had of them, 
and which they by this means en- 
deavoured to imprint upon all that 
were admitted to the knowledge 
and enjoyment of them : and at the 
same time to guard, and if possible 
secure them from the flouts and 
objections of Jews and heathens, 
and of all whom they thought too. 
light and frothy, to be entrusted 
with things so very weighty and 
serious, and yet of so peculiar a 
nature, that there was nothing in 
the world, that could in all respects 
be compared to them. For they 
justly believed that a Divine Power 
went along with the Sacraments, 
which was reason enough why they 
should set the highest value upon 
them, and desire that others should 
do so too ; and yet they knew the 
visible signs of these Sacraments to 
be beggarly elements, things in 
their own nature very cheap and 
common ; and they might without 
the gift of prophecy, easily foresee, 
that the enemies of Christianity 
would always be ringing in the ears 
of all that were well affected to 
Christianity (as the Deists and 
Quakers are perpetually labouring 
to persuade our people) that there 
can be no such effects of Water, 
Bread, and Wine, as priests of the 
Christian Church would have them 
believe. And there is one thing 
peculiar to the Eucharist, which 
made it more liable to scoffs, than 
any other part of our religion; 

which is that the Bread and Wine 
were believed to be the very Body 
and Blood of Christ ; no wonder if 
they were much upon the reserve 
in this point; since all must be 
sensible, that nothing in the Chris- 
tian Theology, could have afforded 
more agreeable entertainment to 
the drolls and buffoons of the age; 
for whatsoever is most eKtram*di- 
nary, and elevated i^ve the con- 
dition of other things, which seem 
to be of the same sort, lies most 
exposed to profane wit and mirth, 
when that which gives it its worth 
and excellency, can only be believed 
and not seen : and no doubt Ter- 
tullian spoke the sense of all the 
learned Fathers of his own, and of 
the succeeding times, in those ob- 
servable words, ^ Nil adeo quod 
obduret mentes hominum, quam 
simplicitas Divinorum (^erum, quae 
in actu videtur; et magnificentia, 
quae in effectu repromittitur.' " 

This very scarce work of John 
Johnson, has been long promised in 
a new edition : which is much to be 
wished for, as it would undoubtedly 
be productive of the best effiocts, in 
establishing a more sound view of 
the doctrine of the Blessed Eucha- 
rist, than, I am afraid, generally 
exists amongst us. It is not with- 
out faults : but as a whole, it reflects 
honour upon the Church of which 
its author was a Priest, and may 
claim a place in the highest rank 
of our standard works, for learning, 
judgment, and acuteness of reason- 

Preface* xxxi 

ceremonies of the Christians in their common worship ; 
how carefully he speaks, how anxiously he seems to 
weigh every word, lest he should say, even upon such 
an occasion, too much. " Upon the day called Sunday," 
he tells us, " we have an assembly of all who live in the 
towns or in the country, who meet in an appointed 
place : and the records of the Apostles, or the writings 
of the Apostles are read, according as the time will 
allow. And when the reader leaves off, the President^ 
(o 7rpot(rr(ag) in a discourse admonishes and exhorts us to 
imitate such good examples. Then we all stand up 
together and pray : and, as we before said, when that 
prayer is finished, bread is offered, and wine and water. 
And the President then also^ with all the earnestness in 
his power (oem iwxfjLiq avTt^^) sends up prayers and 
thanksgivings. And the people conclude the prayer 
with him, saying. Amen. Then distribution is made of 
the consecrated elements : which are also sent to such 
as are absent by the deacons." 

Such is S. Justin's description of the celebration of 
the Eucharist upon the Lord's Day, or Sunday, as the 
fathers usually call it in their apologies, because it hap- 
pened upon the day which was dedicated to the sun, 
and therefore best known to the heathens by that name. 
In the section immediately preceding, he relates in 
almost the same language, the manner in which the 
newly baptized was admitted to and received his first 
communion, in which one circumstance is added, viz. 
the kiss: and thus, short and obscure as this account 

^ That id, the Bishop: and so xparop, oux, ovov o^eikof^tv, akK 

Reeves renders the word. See his oa-ov hvaif^da," This has reference 

note upon the passage. Vol. I. p. to a written liturgy, and there 

107. seems no ground for the opinion of 

those who would argue from these 

^ Compare, from the thSinks- words of S. Justin, for the use of 

giving in the Clementine Liturgy, extemporary prayer in the Service 

" wp^af<aYOU|[;tgv trt^i, @6s mocvto- of the Holy Communion* 



must at the time have appeared, we can clearly trace 
these important parts of the Holy Service : the general 
and the eucharistical prayer ; the kiss of peace ; the ob- 
lation of the elements ; the mixture of water with the 
wine ; the consecration of the elements, then no longer 
common bread and common wine,** but the Body and 
the Blood of Christ ; and their after distribution to those 
present, or communion. Let us not, by the way, pass 
on without remembering, that there would have been no 
need of so much carefulness to conceal these mysteries 
from the world, from those who were without, if the Eu- 
charist had been indeed nothing more than what later 
ages have endeavoured to reduce it to, a mere refreshing 
of our memories, or a renewal of our covenant, or a 
symbol of mutual love. But from this jealousy arose 
the evil of unjust accusations against the Christians,^^ 
which, although terrible, they were content to bear, un- 
provoked to further explanation, with the bare reply of 
an indignant and unhesitating denial. 

I shall digress for one moment upon the important 
assertion of S. Justin, and of S. Irenaeus (in the note). 

» S. Justin Apol. I. 66. p. 83. 
Edit. 1742. See also S. Irenaeus, 
Cont HcBT. b. 4, c 1 8. " '11^ yap aK^ 
yyjS oLpTos Ttpoo'XafjL^ayofji.evosi^v eifi - 
xXijcriy Vou 0eou, ovyisti >coiy9$ aprog 
sa-Tiv, aXX' ev^apiaria, bk Bvo TCpcLy- 
f^aroov avysarTjxvia, eiftytiov re xai 
ovpaviov ovroof xat ta (rwjjLarariiJt^ujy 
f^sraXapi^^ayoy'ta tfjs iv^apiariag 
[^TjKsri £t<n fiocpra, n/jv e\iti$a trj^ 
BIS ocKoyas avao'T'aa'sujs s^ovra" 

^ Cardinal Bona says of the 
heathens, *' quia aliquid subobscure 
perceperant de Sacramento cor- 
poris, et sanguinis Christi, accusa- 
bant eos de csde infantis et epulis 
Thyesteis. ZHcimur sceleratissimiy 

ait Tertullianus Apolog. cap. 7, de 
Sacramento infanticicUi^ et pahulo^ 
inde et post convivium incesto, 
CaBcilius apud Minutium : Infantis 
sanguvnem sitienter lambunty hujus 
certatim membra dispertitmt, hac 
Jhederantur hostia* Justinus Mar* 
tyr in dialogo cum Tryphone : An 
vos etiam de nobis creditisy homi" 
nes nos vorare, et post epulum lu- 
cernis extinctis nefaiio concubitu 
promiscue involvi f Theophilus 
ad Autolycum, lib. 3. Istudprce- 
terea et crudelissimum et immanis" 
simum est, quod nobis intendunt 
crimen, nos humanis camibus ves" 
Rerum Liturgic. lib. 1. 4. 3. 


preface^ xxxiii 

that after consecration the elements are no longer to be 
looked upon as common Bread and Wine. So speaks 
S. Ambrose, to an objector : " Forte dicas : Aliud video, 
quomodo tu mihi asseris quod Christi corpus accipiam ? 
et hoc nobis adhuc superest ut probemus. Quantis igi- 
tur utimur exemplis ? Probemus non hoc esse quod 
natura formavit, sed quod benedictio consecravit : majo- 
remque vim esse benedictionis quam naturse : quia bene- 
dictione etiam natura ipsa mutatur. — Ipse clamat Domi- 
nus Jesus ; Hoc est corpus meum. Ante benedictionem 
verborum ccelestium alia species nominatur, post conse- 
cratioiiem corpus significatur. Ipse dicit sanguinem 
suum. Ante consecrationem aliud dicitur, post conse- 
crationem sanguis nuncupatur. etc."^* Again, in a re- 
markable place of his homilies, S. Cyril of Alexandria 
plainly lays down the same doctrine, as if our Blessed 
Lord invites His people to partake, still, of bread and 
wine ; but of something more. " iiVTs^ (pxynB roy sfMov ap- 

fjLa^u, iyu sfAOtvrov tok Troflouo-* fJLS ex£pa(ra."^* And once 

more ; S. Irenseus, to the same effect. " Quando ergo 
et mixtus calix, et factus panis percepit verbum Dei, et 
fit Eucharistia sanguinis et corporis Christi, ex quibus 
augetur et consistit camis nostras substantia ; quomodo 
camem negant capacem esse donationis Dei — quae de 
calice, qui est sanguis ejus, nutritur ; et de pane, quod 
jest corpus ejus, augetur?"^* 

To the above, which are but very few out of many 

^ DeMysteriis. Cap. IX. Ope- rity attached. EcclesuB Angli- 

ra. Tom. 2. p. 338. This and cance Vindex Caiholkus. Cambr. 

one or two quotations which follow, 1843. 3 vols, vide 3. p. 266. 

are purposely taken from a Tdluable « q Tom. v. p. 372. Ecc. 

collection of treatises and extracts ^ , y^^^^^ V^j 3^ 33^^ 
from the Fathers, to illustrate the 

39 Articles, printed at the Press of ^ Opera. Adv. Hseres. P. 400. 

the University of Cambridge, and Ecc, Angl, Vindex, Vol. 3, p. 

therefore with some kind of autho- 299. 

xxxiv Preface* 

places which might be appealed to in the primitive 
fathers, I shaU add an extract from a rare book, once 
highly popular in this country, and, in a sense, autho- 
rized by the Church of England to be distributed among 
the people, for their instruction, viz : " The Ordinarye 
of a Christen man." The author is speaking of Alms- 
deeds, " The xij. maner of almesdede spyrytuell is to 
oflfre or to make oflfrynge to God the fader, the blessyd 
Jesu cryst his sone^ with y** ryght holy sacrament of y* 
awter ; and this almesdede here surmounteth syngulerly 
in two thynges, all those other good dedes that may be 
sayd or thought, that is, in dygnyte and in generalyte. 
—There is the breed and the wyne, flesshe and blode, 
y® ryght holy refeccyon of crysten soules."^ 

Besides, from allusions which we find frequently in 
the fathers to a pious opinion which they held, how cer- 
tain is it that they could not have believed the Blessed 
Elements to be any longer common bread and wine. 
S. Chrysostom, for example, ** Mu on a frog t<rriv iSijg, 

f^nS oTi oipog i(rri pofAKTtig' ov yotp cog oii Xoittoci (ipatrsig ug »(pB^ 
ipuifot X,^p6i, ATrayf, /au touto voti. AAA« utryrif xrifog Trvpi Trpoo"" 
ofxiXniTocg ovitv awovtnx^si, ovftp Trifurctvei' ouru %ot,% dii uofju^i 
(o"uv«vaA«(r)Cf<r6at) ra fAvtrrnfioc rti tou truiAxrog ouo-«a." Or 

S. Cyril of Jerusalem, in an explanation of the Lord's 

Prayer. ** Toy otprov i^fACov rov Bfriovtrioy iog lifAiv CfifAipov, o ap^ 
rog oMTog o Ko^vog, oux itrrkv cviouerto^. Aprog Si o\)rog o dyiog^ ewi- 
ouciog scriv. — ovrog o xprog, oux ug xoiXiuv 'Xjapa xaci itg xfsSpuvx 
sxfiotXXerxi' xX\ sig Tcoctrocy <rov my (rv<rroc(riy ocv»iiiorai, ng (c^s- 

XiiOLv <ru)iJt.»rog xon v^u;^*j?,"^^ Or, once more, S. Ambrose: 
speaking of the manna in the wilderness, as compared 
with the Eucharist. ** Sed tamen panem ilium qui man- 

^ Sign. O. 4. b. Edit. Wyn- ^7 Catech. Mystag. V. Opera. 

kyn de Worde. 4to. 1506. P. 329. Eccl. AngL Vindex. Vol. 

^ Horn. De pcsnit. Opera. 3, p. 312. And compare the 6tfa 

Tom. 2. p. 4 13. Ecc. AngL Vindex. Section of the 4th Lecture. Opera. 

VoL3,p. 320. P-321. 



ducaverunt, omnes in deserto mortui sunt: ista autem 
esca quam accipis, iste panis vivos qui descendit de coelo, 
vit8B aetemae substantiam subministrat ; et quicumque 
hunc manducaverit, non morietur in aetemum : et est 
corpus Christi. Considera nunc utrum praestantior sit 
panis Angelorum, an caro Christi, quae utique corpus est 
vitae. Manna illud e coslo, hoc supra coelum : illud 
coeli, hoc Domini coelorum : illud corruptioni obnoxium, 
si in diem alterum servaretur ; hoc alienum ab omni cor- 
ruptione, quod quicumque religiose gustaverit, corrup- 
tionem sentire non poterit."^ 

But to return : the Eucharistical rites of the Christian 
Church in the first centuries being in part, that is all 
the most solemn and important of them, handed down 
by tradition only, the earliest written liturgy which we 
have is the Clementine. It forms a part of the 8th book 
of the Apostolical Constitutions : a work which most 
certainly was not compiled by those whose name it bears, 
viz. of the Apostles ; ^^ and therefore labours under all 
the disadvantages which must attach to writings not 
genuine. Still the authority of the Constitutions is very 
great, and will at least reach thus far : that though we 
might hesitate to insist upon any statement, certainly of 

^ DeMysteriis. Opera, Tom. 
2. p. 337. JSccL AngL Vindex. 
Vol. 3, p. 266. My reason for 
making the above extracts, as the 
reader will perceive, is because of 
the turgument upon which the 
opinion of those fathers rests : for 
more than a pious opinion it is not, 
and others did not hold it. In the 
famous Saxon homily of Arch- 
bishop ^Ifric, upon Easter-day, is 
a passage doubtless contradicting it. 
I take the Latin translation. " £u* 
charistia est temporalis, non aetema ; 
corruptibilis, et in varias partes di- 

viditur; inter dentes comprimitur 
et in ventrem demittitur.'' But the 
Archbishop must not be understood 
to teach that no effect was the con- 
sequence of the consecration of the 
Elements ; which would have been 
heresy. The reader would do well 
to consult a place in Lyndwood's 
Provincial, in which he remarks 
upon this point : which is also valu- 
able, as representing the doctrine 
of his time. Lib. 1. Tit. 1. Altis- 
simus. Verb. Glutiant. 

* This is agreed upon by almost 
all writers upon the subject. 

xxxvi IPreface. 

belief perhaps ako of practice, to be found there only, 
yet where such statements are confirmed, by incidental 
allusions, or by direct accounts of the same things in 
other writers earlier or contemporary, we may then fully 
rely upon them. We must remember also, that it was 
not uncommon, for authors and compilers of that age, 
the third and fourth centuries, to recommend their works 
by ascribing them to great saints and teachers who were 
depaa:1;ed« This may have been a practice at all times 
to be much regretted, and most undoubtedly it is little 
according to modern opinions : yet it not only is not in 
itself a condemnation of every fact or doctrine so recom- 
mended, but it sprung from a sense of unworthiness and 
modesty which has long been lost, and was based upon 
a well-grounded presumption that there existed in the 
people a reverence for their Fathers, which has well-nigh 
been lost also. 

In the Apostolical Constitutions then is the liturgy 
attributed to him whose name is in the Book of Life, S. 
Clement.*® With respect to his name in particular 
being attached to it, we may well adopt the words of 
Zaccaria, in his defence of that given to S. James. 
*' Illud tamen doctissimis criticis lubens concessero, quae 
Apostolorum nomine circumferuntur Uturgiae, eas multo 
recentiores esse, suisque auctoribus suppositas. At nulla 
id fraude factam contendo ; Jacobum enim, caeterosque 
Apostolos liturgiam quampiam, seu ordinem precum in 
sacramentorum administratione, atque Eucharistiae prae- 
sertim immolatione servandum constituisse prudens ne- 
mo inficiabitur. Quare cum processu temporis aliqua in 
illis immutari, demi nonnuUa, addi alia contigerit, Apos- 
toli, a quo primum liturgia edita fuerit, nomen retentum 
est tum in tantum auctorem reverentia, tum eorum, quae 

^^ Srett observes, in his Disser- against its genuineness, than against 
tation, that the language in which the acknowledged Epistle of S^ 
it is written is no more an argument Clement. 

ab illo profecta fderaht, atque etiafid turn usurpabantul*^ 

But, without entering into any unnecessary discussion, 
it will be sufficient simply to state, that the most pro- 
bable opinion upon it is this : that although we grant 
that it was never used exactly in the form in which we 
now have it in any portion of the Church, (neither in- 
deed does it claim for itself any place or country in par- 
ticular,) still it is to be looked upon as accurately repre- 
senting to us the general mode prevalent through the 
Christian world during the first three centuries, of adr 
ministering the Supper of the Lord : and it is a most 
strong argument in its favour, that where the othef 
liturgies, claiming to be primitive, are agreeable to each 
other, they agree with the Clementine : and that the 
Clementine contains nothing, either particularly in its 
arrangement, or generally in its manner of expression, 
which is not to be found in all the others. The most 
important omission is, that the Lord's Prayer forms no 
part of it: but this may, as has been suggested,*^ have 
arisen from the negligence of some transcriber in whose 
copy the first words only might have been written (and 
those in contraction): or it might be readily allowed 
never to have been used in this liturgy, because although 
proper to the Holy Service, yet most certainly it is not 
essential to the consecration of the Eucharist. Which 
is clear from the fact that in other ancient liturgies in 
which it does occur, it is placed after the consecration is 
completed: and this is what I have already attempted 
to show was what S. Gregory meant in the passage 

*^ Bibl. Ritualis. Tom, 1. Dw- quod valde probabile est, saltern ut 

sert. 2. p, Ixxxvj. And compare a Patribus secundi vel tertii saeculi 

Bona, Renim liturg. Lib. 1. viij. usurpataB." 
4. *' Missa dementis est antiquis- 

sima, ejusqae testimonio saepiiis ^ Brett, Dissertation, p. 204^ 

utar, si non prsecise ut ab Apostolis &c. (edit. 1720.) His remarks 

editae, et a successoribus auctae, should be consulted. 



which was before examined, with whom, so explained, agree 
a number of the earliest writers.** Every other litmrgy 
shews evident marks of the riteis and ceremonies which 
have been added from time to time to tiie original Form : 
that Form seems to stand clearest in the Clementine.** 
How decided is the opinion of a learned writer,** " that 
if we had the very words in which S. Peter and S. Fftul 
consecrated the Eucharist, it would not differ in sub* 
stance from that which is contained in this most ancient 
Liturgy :" and of another also :*^ " the EuchariBtical 

^ " Hieronymus ait lib. 3. adv. 
Pelag. ^Apostolos quoddie Ora^ 
tionem Dominicam soUtos dicere in 
sacrificio.' Cyrillu3 Hierosolymi- 
tanus Catech. Mystag. 5. 'Post 
haec inquit, nempe post commemo- 
rationem Fldelium DefuDctorum, 
dicimus orationem illam, qaam Sal- 
yator suis discipulis tradidit.' " 
Bonck. Tom. 3. p, 320. These, 
and other authorities, Optatus, An- 
gustin, Caesar Arelatensis, S. Am- 
brose, &c. are cited by most of the 

Mr. Palmer argues from its 
omission^ the great antiquity of the 
Clementine Liturgy, speaking of it 
as a remarkable sign. He says : 
" Without doubt the Lord's prayer 
was used between the prayer of the 
deacon and benediction of the faith- 
ful, which precedes the form tol 
dyia, &c. all through the patri- 
archate of Antioch in the early 
part of the fourth century. Yet it 
does not occur in this part of the 
Clementine Liturgy. Now it is not 
credible that the author would have 
omitted this prayer if it had been 
used long before his time. Yet 
frotn the manner and language of 
Chrysostom and Cyril we perceive 

that it must have been used long 
before their time. They botk seiem- 
to r^ard this prayer as coeval with 
the rest of the lituigy: they do 
not allude to the idea that it had 
not been formerly used in that part 
of the liturgy* Since then, the 
Lord's Prayer was not used, or was 
but recently used, in ihe time of 
the author of the Apostolical Con- 
stitutions, and yet appears to have 
been long used in the time of Cyril 
and Chrysostom, we must ii^iBr thai 
the Apostolical Constitutions were 
written much before the time of 
Chrysostom and Cyril." Origines 
Lit. i. p. 40. 

^ Upon the arguments for its 
high antiquity from what the litur- 
gy of S. Clement does, and does 
not contain, see especially Ztf^run, 
whose admissions from his peculiar 
opinions upon written Liturgies, 
are very valuable in this respect 
Opeta. Tom. 2. pp. 23. 24. 80. 208. 

^ Johnson. Unbl. Sacrifice and 
Altar unvailed, vol. ii. p. 148. 

^ Hickes. Christian Priesthood, 
vol. i. p. 141. (Edit. 1711.) Both 
these well-known passages are cited 
very frequently by Brett. 



Office in the Apostolical: Constitutions is the standard 
and test by which all others are to be triads And by 
comparing them with this,' the innovations and additions 
in after times, be they good or bad, will appear." 

Being then so valuable a record,*^ I cannot think that 
a reprint of it will be out of place in the present volume; 
We may refer to it as Bishop Hickes.has recommended : 
we may look upon it with Johnson as, in substance, thB 
Apostolic Form, and so learn to judge more truly than 
we otherwise might of old and modem liturgies. As 
such a guide I would regard it, not to the exclusion of 
the Jerusalem, or Alexandrian, or Roman,^ (as if they 
had not also sprung from the teaching and example of 
Apostles) but as containing in an earlier form than, as 
^e have them now, they do, those rites which are essen- 
tial to a valid consecration and perfecting of the Eucha- 
rist, and without which no Service, though it may claim 
the name, can be allowed to be a Christian Liturgy. . 

After the Council of Nice, and in the age immediately 
preceding, additions were unquestionably made to the 
original Form used in the various Churches. Most of 
these are easily to be traced : and the observation of 
S. Paul to the Corinthians in his first Epistle, where he 
says, " there must be also heresies among you, that they 
which are approved may be made manifest among you," 
is as applicable to the public services and rituals of the 
Catholic Church, as to the opinions of her individual 

^ It is surely scarcely necessary 
for me to remind the reader, that 
we have also an equally valuable 
commentary upon it, in the 5th 
Catechetical Lecture of S. Cyril. 

^ " That there were ancient li- 
turgies in the Church is evident: 
S. Chrysostom, S. Basil, and others : 
and though we find not in all ages 

whole liturgies, yet it is certain that 
there were such in the oldest times, 
by those parts which are extant: 
as " Sursum corda," " Vere dignum 
et justum," &c. Though those 
which are extant may be interpo- 
lated, yet such things as are found 
in them all consistent to catholic 
and primitive doctrine, may well be 
presumed to have been from the 



members.^ During the short space when there was 
indeed but one mind and one Faith, there was little 
need of cautious phrases, and additional safeguards by 
which the truth might be preserved : very different how- 
ever was the case after the time of Anus, and Macedo- 
nius, and Nestorius ; and epithets even became neces^ 
sary, which in purer days would, perhaps, but have 
seemed to mar the earnest simplicity of the Church's 

first, espedally since we find no 
original of these liturgies from an- 
cient councils/' Answer of the 
Sishops to the exceptions of the 
Ministers, CardwelL Hist, of Con- 
ferences, p. 350. 

^ As Yincentius of lirins says 
upon this text of S. Paul : *^ Ac si 
diceret : ob hoc hsresedn non sta- 
tim diyinitus eradicantur auctores, 

ut probati manifesti fiant, id est, ut 
unusquisque quam tenax et fidelis, 
et fixus Catholics fidei sit amator, 
appareat. Et revera cum quseque 
novitas ebullit, statim cemitur frn- 
mentorum gravitas, et levitas palea- 
rum : tunc sine magno molimine 
excutituf ab area, quod nullo pon- 
dere intra aream tenebator.'' Ad- 
versus Hareses. § 20. 

Ipceface. xU 


I E must now pass on to consider the particular 
Liturgy, from which the ancient Uses of the 
Church of England are usually supposed to 
have heen more immediately derived. The 
Boman was among the earliest, and soon became the 
chief, of the Patriarchates of the Catholic Church. The 
contentions of neighhouring provinces, the irruptions of 
barbarians, the local influence of her bishops, and above 
aU, under God, her anxious and untiring energy in the 
cause of the propagation of the true Faith, rapidly 
strengthened the primacy of the Church of Rome : and 
within eight hundred years of the death of our Blessed 
Lord, she had obtained throughout the West almost im- 
perial power, and in the East considerable influence. We 
might naturally, therefore, expect that in the remains of 
antiquity which have been spared to us, wc should find 
a complete liturgy which she had used from her first 
foundation, with perhaps also a history of it, detailing 
exactly the various alterations which it has undergone. 

But we know little about it. Writers who lived long 
ago, and to whom some accounts we may have supposed 
would have come down, speak in very general terms. 
Durand contents himself with saying, " In prlmordio 
nascentis Ecclesiee missa aliter dicebatur, quam modo. 
— Sequent! vero tempore epiatola tantum, et evangelio 
recitatis, missa celebrabatur : subsequenter Ccelestinus 
Papa instituit introitum ad missam cantari. — Caetera 
diversis temporibus ah aliis Papis leguntur adjecta, prout 
Christianoe religionis cultu crescente, visa sunt decentius 
con venire."** And as we go back some four hundred 

"' Rationale div. off. Lib. 4. Cap. 1. 5. 



years, Walafrid Strabo tells us what is still less satisfac- 
tory, " Quod nunc agimus multiplici orationum, lec- 
tionum, cantilenarum, et consecrationum officio, totum 
hoc Apostoli, et post ipsos proximi, (ut creditur) oratio- 
nibus et commemoratione passionis Domimcae, sicut ipse 
praecepit, agebant simpliciter/** 

Hence is it, that some who dislike the authority of 
liturgies have denied to the Roman all claim to any 
great age : and have ascribed its first beginning as 2i 
Form, to Gregory the Great, or to Gelasius, or Vigijius, 
or Leo, in succession Bishops of Rome. Others, on the 
contrary, have boldly given it to S. Peter, as the sole 
author, at least of the Canon, and that it has come down 
to us in the main points unimpaired. 

Those authors from whom I have just made extracts, 
state their full conviction of the truth of this : for example, 
Walafrid Strabo, in the same chapter : " Romani quidem 
usum observationum a beato Petro accipientes, suis qui- 
que temporibus, quae congrua judicata sunt, addiderujit.'* 
And, more expressly, an Archbishop of our own Church, 
^Ifric in his pastoral epistle : " Now was the mass 
established by our Lord Christ ; and the holy apostle 
Peter appointed the Canon thereto, which we call Te 
igitiirJ^^ The later ritualists, men of the greatest 
learning and of unwearied labour in these inquiries, take 
the same ground. Gavantus declares that S. Clement 
received the Roman litiu-gy from S. Peter.*' Le Brun 
also : " Romanae ecclesiae liturgia dubio procul ex S. 
Petro per traditionem derivatur."** Georgius again: 

^ De rebus Eccles, Cap. 22. 
Edit Cochlaeus. 1549. This also, 
after premising, " quantum invenire 
potuimus, exponamus.'^ And he 
then gives much such an account 
of additions, as Durand and other 

^ Cap, 39. Thorpe. Anglo- 

Saxon Laws, &c. YoL 2. p. 381. 

^ Thesaurus Sacr. Rituum. Tom. 
1. />. 2. Merati in his notes tells 
us of the Altar preserved at Rome, 
upon which S. Peter is said to have 
offered the Eucharist. Tom, 1. /?. 

" Opera. Tom. 2. p. 78. 

l^tetecei xiiii 

** Sacrarum caerimoniarum origo, ab Apostolicis tempo- 
ribus ducta, viam nobis stravit ad Romanse liturgisB 
vetustatem^ cujus primordia, et ordinem beato Petro 
ecclesia Romana debet."** But flie chief authorities 
upon which these opinions rest are of S. Isidore, who 
lived in the seventh century ; and of Innocent L in the 
fifth. The first tells us : *^ Ordo missae vel. orationum, 
quibus oblata Deo sacrificia consecrantur, primum a 
sanctb Petro est institutus," and he adds, what certainly 
was incorrect, ** cujus celebrationem uno eodemque modo 
uni versus pwagit orbis/'^ Innocent lays down the 
same, in a passage too long to extract, in an epistle to 
die Bishop Decentius : and from which Georgius draws 
this conclusion : ^^ Heus quanta ex hoc plane aureo S. 
Innocentii Pontificis testimonio hauriuntur 1 Vides enim 
Romanam ecclesiam, a sancto Petro, ut diximus, ordi't 
nem missae edoctan^." ^ But much more sound is tlie 
interpretation which Cardinal Bona,^ with whom agrees 
Pinius,^ puts upon the last sentence of S. Isidore ; and 
which I would extend to the other early authorities to 
the same purpose : ^^ Hoc ide re et substantia, non de 
verborum tenore et caeremoniis intelligendiim est.": 

For as the truth is unquestionably not with the advo-^ 
cates of the first of the two opinions which I have men- 
tioned, so with some limitations, although it may. not be 
freed from all objection, we may agree with the other. 
To name as the author of the Roman liturgy any parti- 
cular Apostle, is beyond possibility: but the essential 
rites which are in aU ancient liturgies, are to be found 
also in the Canon of the Church of Rome, in every age> 
up to the most early, through which we are able to trace 

^ ^ De Lit. Rom. Pontif. Tom. Tom. 1. p. 188. 

1. jo. 9. See also Martene. De ^'^ Tom. I, p. 10. 

Ant.'Ecc. Rit. Tom. l./>.98. ss Renim Liturg. Lib, 1. Cap. 

. . «« .De Eccles. Officiis. Lib. l: 7. v. 

Cap. 15. Bibl. Patrum Auet. ^ De Lit. Ant. Hispanica. P.^ 



it. We may assert therefore that it springs equally with 
them from (he Apostolic Form : and that it has preserved 
all those essentials with a most jealous care, whilst succes- 
sive Bishops have exerted their legitimate power, and 
added such prayers and ceremonies as they thought fit. 
As Muratori says, " Canoni certe, in quo tremendi 
mysterii summa consistit, nihil unquam additum fuit, 
quod vel minimum substantiam rei mutet." ^ 

In attempting to give a most brief account of the 
Roman liturgy, I said in the preface to the first edition 
of this work, that we could not do better, as regards it, 
than adopt the words of a very careful inquirer, (to 
whose labours both upon this and other subjects,^^ the 
EngUsh Church owes a heavy debt of gratitude,) the 
author of the Origines Liturgicca. I should have to 
appeal to the same sources as himself, and I have found 
no reason, after further examination, to suppose that any 
other plan would be more advantageous now. He tells 
us then, "that many of the mistakes into which men 
have fallen on this matter have arisen from confounding 
two very different things, the missal and the liturgy. 
The missal is a large volume containing a number of 
miss8e, or offices for particular days, which were to be 
added in the Canon. ^* By the liturgy we are to under-r 
stand the** Ordinary and *' Canon which did not vary. 

~ De rebus Liturg. P. 119. 

*^ More particularly, in his ex- 
cellent Treatise of the Churchy a 
Yiovk to which we must attribute 
very much of the better tone of 
theology which of late years has 
distinguished writers iu the English 

^ I have no hesitation in adopt- 
ing Mr. Palmer's account, but we 
must take the term Liturgy in its 
mQst strict sense, ^nd m unusual 

one, to exclude the other portions 
of Ihe missal from it ; in the pre« 
sent instance it is allowable, if w^ 
include, as I doubt not was intended^ 
the Ordinary with the Canon. It 
is much to be wished that Mr. Pal- 
mer had remembered his own defi- 
nition ; and not upon the other han4 
extended somewhat improperly the 
idea of a Liturgy, in giving such a 
title as Origines LiturgiccB* to his 
whole work. 



and the number and order of the prayers which were to 
be added from the missal. — It is acknowledged that 
Gregory collected, arranged, improved, and abbreviated^ 
the contents of the individual Missae, and inserted a 
short passage into the Canon, viz. Diesque nostras in 
tua pace disponas^ atque ab ceterna damnatione eripiy et 
in electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari. He joined 
also the Lord's Prayer to the Canon, from which it had 
previously been separated by the breaking of bread. All 
this amounts to positive proof that Gregory was the re- 
viser and improver, not the author, of the Roman 
Liturgy."^ " Seventy years before Gregory, Vigilius, 
Patriarch of Rome, in an epistle to Profuturus, Bishop 
of Braga in Spain, says that he had received the .text of 
the Canon from Apostolical tradition : he then gives him 
a description of it, which coincides accurately with the 
Roman liturgy in subsequent times." " Before him, 
Gelasius, Patriarch, a. d. 492, ordained prayers or col- 
lects, and prefaces^ and arranged them in a sacramen- 
tary, which in after ages commonly bore his name/' 

•* I would add from Muratori : 
'^ Certe vetustis saeculis Praefationes 
complures in usu fuere. Hasce 
saiictus Gregorius M. ad paucas 
nunc usitatas redegit. Psalmi etiam 
integri adhibiti suitiquitus, sive can* 
tail in missa fuerunt ; idque ex non 
uno Sancti Augustini loco, et ex 
Homiliis sancti Petri Chrysplogi 
eonstat ; verum nostris temporibus 
Tersiculus tantuinmodo ex iis cani-r 
tur, aut recitatur. Cur autem a 
Bancto Gregorio Pontifice breviata 
fiierit Liturgia, id factum suspicari 
Hcetadmajus Fidelium commodum, 
atque ut omnes divinis Mysteriis in- 
teresse possent. Olim quoque mul* 
tos oocupabat cura filiorum, custo- 

dia agrorum et bestiarum, servitium 
dominis praestitum, ut alia impedi- 
menta omittam. Hosce, ut opinari 
fas est, absterrebat a sacris prolixi- 
tas Liturglse. Idcirco satius visum 
fuit, eamdem contrahere, et prae- 
sertim postquam prseceptum inva- 
luit de Missa audienda singulis Do- 
minicis, aliisque Festis solennibus.'* 
De rebus Liturg.p. 14. 

•* So Renaudot observes : " In 
Latina ecclesia, praecipuum locum 
obtinet Canon Romanus, qui, quod 
a Gelasio Papa primum, deinde a 
Gregorio magno, in eam quam 
nunc habet formam reductus est 
Gregorianus vulgo appellatur.** Disr^ 
sertatio. Vol. 1. p. 8. 



Again, ^' a manuscript sacramentary is inetistence, slip- 
posed ta have been written before the time of Gelasius, 
evidently referring to the same order and Canon as that 
used in his time : and is known by the name of the Leor 
nian Sacramentary. Leo the Great, Bishop in 451^ isi 
said to have added certain words, which also are speci- 
fied; sanctum sacrificiunij immaculatam hostiam: so 
that the remainder of the Canon was in existence before 
his time." '^ Some time again before Leo^ InnoceHtius 
the Bishop speaks of the Roman rites as having descended 
from S. Peter the Apostle,^ and there is no sort of reason 
to think that they differed materially from those used 
by Gelasius at the end of the same century." And wq 
are brought to this ' conclusion : " That this liturgy was 
substantially the same in the time of Gdasius as it was 
in that of Gregory, that it appears to have been the saine 
in the time of Innocentius at the beginning of the fifth 
century, and was then esteemed to be of Apostolical ahti-" 

. ^ Muratori, p. 10, says, ^' Accipe^ 
nunc, quae de ipsa Romana Eccle- 
sia Anno Christi 416, hoe est tot 
ante Gregorinm Magnum annos, 
scripserit Innocentius I. summus 
Pontifex : ' Si instituta Ecclesiastica 
ut sunt a beatis Apostolis tradita, 
Integra vellent servare Domini Sa- 
cerdotes, nulla diversitas, nulla va- 
rietas in ipsis Ordinibus, et Conse- 
Crationibus haberetur/ Addit infra : 
* Quis enim nesciat aut non adver- 
tat id, quod a principe Apostolo- 
rum Petfo Roman ae EeclesiaB tra- 
ditum est, ac nunc usque custoditur, 
ab omnibus debere servari/ " Mr. 
Palmer give^ the same passage 
from Labbe, Concil. 2. 1245. 
- ; *^ Origines Liturgies. Vol. 1 . p. 
Ill — 119. Toadd the opinion of 

a very leanied writer : " Neque 
enim a Graecis sacros ritus Romani 
acceperunt, sed ab Apostoloriim 
principibus." Muratorup. 13. 

And the very succinct acooimt 
which another ritualist gives us i. 
** Romans Litnrgis triplex veluti 
ordo seu status considerandus est. 
Unus primigenius, ab Ecclesis na- 
^centis exordio ad Gelasium usque 
receptus : alter Gelasianus, aucto- 
rem seu amplificationem habena 
Gelasium Papam ejus nominis pri- 
mum : tertius Gregorianus, ita dicr 
tus ex nomine Gregorii M. qui Gre^ 
lasianum ordinem correxisse mcano- 
ratur« Qualis fuerit primigenius 
ille, non omnino constat. Gelasia- 
nus diu desideratus est : sed tandem 
ilium e tenebris eruit vir de ecclesia 



TKb reader^ if he wishes to enquire further into this: 
most interesting subject, will find a good account of the 
various additions and alterations made from time to time 
in the liturgy of the Church of Rome, in a i]tot uncom-' 
mon book, the Thesaurus Saci^orum Rituum oi Gavan- 
tus ; torn. i. p, 322.^ But he will do well to correct this 
by the older ritualists, Walafrid Strabo and others ; and 
especially by two most ancient histories of the changes 
made in that Service, which have been printed by Geor- 
gius in the appendix to his third volume, De Jjiturgia Ro- 
mani Pontificis.^ These were found in the cielebrated 
manuscript of the Queen of Sweden,^ now preserved in 
the library of the Vatican. But before we pass on, I 
cannot but add, as to a single point, the authority of one 
of our own most celebrated men, the Venerable Bede, 
who was almost a contemporary of him of whom he, is 
speaking, Pope Gregory the Great : " Sed et itx ipsa 
missarum celebratione tria verba maidmse perfectionis 
plena superadjecit, * Diesque nostros in tua pace dispo- 
nas, atque ab aetema damnatione nos eripi, et in electo- 
rum tuorum jubeas grege numerari-' "^ 

When, however, we speak of additions, these were as 
regarded the Ordinary and Canon, small both in num- 
ber and extent : and there can be but little doubt, that 

bene meritas Josephus Thomasius. 
Gregorianus demum in usu com- 
muni est modo apud omnes fere 
eeetesias, notis et observationibHS a 
Menardo nostro illustratus. Gre- 
goriani a Gelasiano totum discrimen 
est in yarietate et numero earum 


orationum^ quas Collectas ywsjiii 
nam caetera titriusque eeedem om- 
nino partes sunt. In Gelasiano 
duse aut tres ante epistolam ora- 
tiones; unica secreta ante prsfa- 
tionem; atque duae post commu- 
nionem, quarum una est supra po^ 

pulum. At in Gregoriano tres 
tantum ad singulas Missas assig- 
nantur orationes, quarum una ante 
epistolam, altera secreta, tertia post 
communionem.*' Mabillon^ Lit* 
Gallicana. Lib. 1. Cap. 2. iv. Com- 
pare also, Gavantus. Tbesaurus. 
Tom* Ljt>. 5. 

^ I mean tlie Edition to which I- 
refer in these notes, with the exceU 
lent commentary of Merati : 3 volsZ 
folio, 1763. 

** Append, x. xi. 

^ Hist. Ecclee. Ub, 2. cap, L 87. 

xiviii IPteface. 

the liturgy^ in its strictest sense, of the Church of Rome 
was in the earliest centuries considerably longer than it 
now is ; which is indeed certain, if S. Gregory, as it 
has been remarked, not only arranged but abbreviated it 
Therefore, it would at that time be more like the other 
ancient liturgies, and the account given us by Justin 
Martyr. Muratori^® observes,, that as in the Greek 
Churches before the Preface prayers were said for the 
whole church, for kings, for catechumens, &c. and others 
again, after the consecration, for the clergy ; so an old 
Latin writer upon the sacraments, speaking of the Eu- 
charist, says : " in it praises are offered to God, and 
prayers for the people, for kings, and others,** But in 
the Roman Canon^ as it has been for a thousand years^ 
the Pope, the Bishop of the particular Church, the king, 
&c. are recommended to God, not merely in very few 
words, but in the secret prayers. And as I have oh* 
served below, P. 72, Note 89, there were formerly many 
more Prefaces than there are now. 

It is a most interesting question (one which we can 
scarcely hope to be answered because of the almost cer- 
tain destruction of all copies of it which may be identi- 
fied,) what was the primitive liturgy of the Churches of 
England before the arrival of S. Augustine. The diffi- 
culty seems to be acknowledged, by very eminent autho- 
rities. Azevedo says, " Anglicani autem officii nullum 
est monumentum, quo cognosci possit ante S. Gregorii 
sevum, qui evangelii prsecones ad Christianam religionem 
restituendam illuc misit."^^ And Mabillon, to cite no 
more : " Qualis fuerit apud Britones et Hibemos sacri- 
ficandi ritus, non plane compertum est. Modum tamen 
ilium a Romano diversum extitisse intelligitur ex Ber- 
nardo in libro de vita Malachise^ ubi Malachias barbaras 

'® De rebus Liturg. p. 14. 

^ De divino Officio. ExerdU ix. p, 47» 

Preface^ xiix 

consuetudines Romanis mutasse^ et canonicum divinds 
laudis officium in illas ecclesias invexisse memoratur." '* 
Certainly Azevedo is speaking of the offices of the cano* 
nical Hours, rather than of the liturgy ; and so MabiUon 
also seems at least to do, although he begins with speak- 
ing of the **ritus sacrificandi :" but there is so great a 
connexion between the two in such enquiries as the pre- 
sent, that any information as regards the one, throws 
some light upon the other. 

We are left therefore to conjecture : and I think we 
may agree with Mr. Palmer,'* who inclines to the Use 
of Gaul, that having been the nearest Christian province, 
and her Bishops the probable ordainers of the British. 
I would not appeal to the judgment of Bishop Stilling- 
fleet as of much weight in this particular matter, so 
hastily does he seem in his Origines Britannicce to have 
settled questions of rituals and liturgies, and so much was 
he inclined to misrepresent his facts : still, it may not be 
amiss to add, that with his characteristic boldness, he 
decides the difficulty in the same way. Speaking of 
some ancient MSS. still extant, of the Gallican service^ 
he tells us : " From these excellent monuments of anti-- 
quity compared together, we may, in great measure un* 
derstand the true order and method of the communion 
service (rf that time, both in the Gallican and British 
Churches." Presently the same writer assures us, that 
we may obtain from those records of the Gallican li- 
turgy " a just and true account of the public service 
then used in Britain." '* 

The ancient Gallic Churches used the same order of 
prayers in the celebration of the Eucharist, although, as 
appears from three editions published by Thomasius, and 

'^ De Lit. Gall. libA. cap. 2.xiy. 180. To which 1 would refer the 

Compare also GerherU Vetus Lit* reader. 

Aleman. torn. i. p. 75. ^ Origines Britannicse. p, 240. 

'» Origines Liturgic®. vol. i. p. 

1 ]^te&ce* 

from a fourth by Mabillon^ the prayers themsc^Ives some^ 
what differed : a brief description of their arrangement 
is given by Martene in his excellent work, ^^ De anti'- 
quis Ecclesiae ritibus."^* He says : 

The Gallic liturgy began with an antiphon, which 
was sung by the choir. This was followed by a Prefece 
or sermon to the people, in which the priest exhorted 
them to, come with due reverence to the holy mysteries. 
Silence being then proclaimed, the priest saluted the 
people, and after their response, said a collect, .which 
the people heard upon their knee^« After the collect 
fhe choir sung the Trisagium, which was followed by the 
canticle, " Benedictus Dominus Deus IsraeL** (These, 
however, were omitted during Lent) Then came lessons 
from the Prophets and the Apostolic writings, after 
which the Hymn of the Three Children was sung. This 
was followed by the reading of the Grospel \ before and 
iafter which the Trisagium was again sung, and the peo- 
ple gave the response^ (still continued by tradition in 
the English Church,) " Glory be to Thee, O Lord." 
Afterwards the Bishop either himself preached, or, if he 
was infirm or iU, ordered a homily to be read by a priest 
or deacon. Then the appointed prayers were said by a 
deacon for the Hearers and Catechumens. These latter 
having been dismissed, and silence enjoined, the bread 
and wine were brought in, and an oblation of them 
made, whilst the choir sung an anthem called Sonum^ 
or more properly, Sontts : which according to Martene^ 
who is followed by Gerbert^^ and Le Brun,^'^ upon the 
authority of S. Germanus, answered to the Offertory of 
later times. Then the sacred Diptychs were read, ihe 
collect post nomina was said, the kiss of peace given, and 
the collect adpacem said by the priest, after which the 

'* Tom. i. p. 98. See also Le '^ De Cantiu torn. i. p, 116. 
Brun, Opera, torn, ii. p. 134. . ."" Opera, fom. ii. p, 138. 



Canon followecl, which- was very short. After the Con- 
secradon came the ^rBjer post secreta ; "postea fiebaf 
eonfractio et commixtio coi^jori^ Christi." In the mean 
time the choiir sung an anthem. This was followed by 
a collect, the Lord's prayer, and another collect. (It ap- 
pears that the Lord's prayer was said by both the priest 
and people.) Beforecommunion the blessing was given, 
if by the priest in this form : ** PaXyJides, et caritdSy et 
commurdcatio corporis et sanguinis Domini sit semper 
vobiscum.'^ During communion the Trecanum (it id 
doubtful what this was '^) was sung by the choir. Then 
one, or perhaps two collects were said, and the people 
were dismissedJ^ 

" SeeMartene: Anecd. fow. v. 
J9. 90. And Grerhert, De Cantu. 
tonu i. p. 126. The latter has 
some important remarks upon the 
agreement in this part, as well as 
in others, of the Mossarabic and 
Gallican liturgies : a subject which 
would well repay an accurate exa- 
mination^ although we should not 
probably after a patient comparison, 
come to the sune conclusion with 
2>r. GiUsy who in a Life of Bede, 
prefixed to his Biographical Writ* 
ing, quietly sets them down as the 
same : '^ the Gallican or Mozarabic 
Liturgy." {P, xxij.) I regret to 
be obliged to pass the enquiry over, 
with only this brief remark : suffi- 
cient however, it may be, to excite 
the further interest of the reader. 
The Trecanum as a title, is not 
found in the Service of any other 

^ Compare the account also of 
this Liturgy given by Mr, Palmer* 
Orig. Lit. vol, i. jt>. 158. And the 
satisfactory argument by which he 
would prove that it was originally 

from the East, and not from Rome. 
See also Le Brum. Opera, tom. iL 
p. 126. 

A very curious point, of no little 
importance and well worth enquiry, 
is the similarity between the most 
ancient English and Irish MSS. 
now extant, and those of the East. 
Upon this I shall extract the ob- 
servations of the author of a valua- 
ble modem publication, Westwoody 
Palnographia sacra. He says, '' the 
collation of many of these MSSi 
has also furnished additional (al- 
though unlooked for) evidence that 
the ancient church in these islands 
was independent of Rome, and that 
it corresponded, on the contrary, 
with the Eastern churches." Pref. 
1. Again ; he alludes to an extra- 
ordinary similarity between the or- 
naments in the ancient Syriao MSi 
of Rabuia, and those in the most 
ancient Anglo-Saxon MS& parti- 
. cularly as regards a very peculiar 
and common pattern formed of se- 
veral slender spiral lines united in 
the centre of a circle : and conti- 



Such therefore was the Use which the English Church 
most probably observed in celebrating the Holy Eucha- 
rist until the end of the sixth century. S. Augustine^ 
there can be little doubt, brought with him the liturgy 
then authorized at Rome ; he first landed about the 
year 597, during the lifetime of Pope Gr^ory himself 
After his return, as Archbishop, he requested the Pope 
to decide upon some questions, and among them espe- 
cially, what service was to be used in the Church, as the 
Gallican and Roman liturmes were not the same.^ The 
answer was, that he might himself choose either ; or se- 
lect the liturgy which he thought most suitable fix)m 
the various forms in the CathoUc Church, provided only 
that he had regard to the circumstances and prejudices 
of the country, and the glory of God. 
. The question of the Archbishop appears to me to be 
a very strong proof of the identity of the old British and 
the Gallican liturgies : if on his first coming he had not 

nues, " these apparently trifling cir- 
cumstances seem to me to prove 
more forcibly than the most labo- 
rious arguments, the connexion be- 
tween the early Christians in these 
islands, and those of the East, so 
strongly insisted upon by various 
writers." Note, upon the Psalter 
of K. Athelstan. These remarks 
have not the less weight because 
they occur only incidentally, in a 
work directed towards a totally dif- 
ferent object. 

^ This is of great importance, 
and I give the original from Bede. 
*' Secunda interrogatio Augustini. 
Cum una sit fides, sunt ecclesia- 
rum diversse consuetudiues, et al- 
tera consuetudo missarum in sancta 
Romana ecclesia, atque altera in 
Callianun tenetur ? 

Respondit Gr^orius papa. Nc 
vit iratemitas tua RomansB ecclesia 
consuetudinem, in qua se meminit 
nutritam. Sed mihi placet^ give ia 
Romana, sive in Galliarum, seu in 
qualibet ecclesia, aliquid invenisti 
quod plus omnipotent! Deo possit 
placere, soUidte eligas, et in An- 
glorum ecclesia, qusB adhuc ad fi- 
dem nova est, institutione praedpua* 
quae de multis ecclesiis colligere 
potuisti, inftindas. Non enim pro 
locis res, sed pro bonis rebus loca 
amanda sunt. Ex singulis ergo 
quibusque ecclesiis quae pia, que 
religiosa, quae recta sunt, elige ; et 
haec, quasi in fasciculum collecta, 
apud Anglorum mentcs in consue- 
tudinem depone." Hist, JEcdles. 
lib. i. cap, xxvii. 60. 

mtf^tt liii 

found any remnant of the earlier Church, or if the 
liturgy which it still ohserved was not the same, or nearly 
the same, as the Gallican, I do not see why any douht 
or. hesitation should have risen in his mind, as to the 
immediate introduction of the Roman Use. Had there 
been no prejudices to remove in the case of the British 
Churches which still existed in many, even though per- 
haps remote, parts of the island ; prejudices which the 
holy missionary knew and felt were to be considered, 
and if possible to be indulged ; if, I say, there had been 
none such, there does not seem any reason whatever to 
suppose,®^ but that he would have required everywhere 
the adoption of the Roman liturgy, to which he had 
been always accustomed. We learn also from the answer 
of S. Gregory, that although it diflfered from the Roman, 
yet that in his judgment the Gallican or (if we may s6 
conclude it) the British liturgy contained nothing that 
was objectionable* 

' Naturally however the influence of S. Augustine and 
his successors led to the general adoption, in its main 
features, of the Roman liturgy : and it has been said, that 
the few manuscripts which have come down to us of the 
Anglo-Saxon age, are but transcripts of the sacramen- 
tary of S. Gregory.®* But this,, (as I am convinced a 
more accurate examination would shew, if my present 
subject more particularly required it,) is a somewhat 
loose and incorrect manner of speaking of them . In a ge-» 
noral way only, it can be true : in the same way in which, 
about the middle of the 8th century, Egbert Archbishop 
of York, must be understood in one of the answers of his 
Dialogue.®* I say must, as even a great upholder of the 

^ I do- not overlook, but rather into England : and to whic^ I attri- 

would remind the reader of the hute no weight in this respect, 

fact, that he might himself consider ^ Origines Liturgicae. voL i. p. 

it, of the Bishop and congregation 186. 

who accompanied Queen Bertha ^ *'Nos autem in ecclesia An* 



early and complete introduction of the Roman Use into 
England cannot but allow, who owns, that ^^ even at the 
close of the eighth century, the Scottish liturgy was in 
daily, though not exclusive, use in the church of York.''®* 
That is, in Egbert's own cathedral : what Dr. langard 
means by " though not exclusive," I do not compre^ 

. About the same time, a.d. 747, a council at Cloveshoo 
added the sanction of its authority to the observance, ^ 
for as the various dioceses would receive them, of tiie 
Roman ritual and missal. We must be careful not to 
press beyond such a limitation these canons, as otherwise 
we should be plainly contradicted by other records which 
are extant : and it is not clear that we must even go to 
that extent ; for the object seems rather to be directed 
to an uniformity of time, and the Roman or Gregorian 
chant. I extract the first of these, which relates to the 
Liturgy. " xiii. Ut uno eodemque tempore nhiquefesti- 
vitates dominiccBj seu martyrum ncd;imt(ites percfganiur. 
Tertio decimo definitur decreto : ut uno eodemque 
modo dominicsa dispensationis in came sacrosanctse festi- 
vitates, in omnibus ad eas rite competentibus rebus, id 
est, in baptismi officio, in missarum celebratione> in caii- 
tilenae modo, celebrentur, juxta exemplar videlicet quod 
scriptum de Romana habemus ecclesia. Itemque ut pw 
gyrum totius annl iiatalitia sanctorum uno eodemque 
die, juxta mart3rrologium ejusdem Romanae ecclesia^ 

glorum idem primi mensis jejunium, 
ut noster didascalus beatus Grego- 
rius in suo Antiphonario et Missali 
libro per paedagogum nostrum bea- 
turn Augustinum transmisit ordina- 
tum et nescriptum -^ servamus." 
*' Hoc autem jejunium idem beatus 
Gregorius per prsefatum legatum in 
Antipbonario suo et Missali, in 
plena hebdomada post Pentecosten 

Anglorum ecclesiaB celebrandum 
destinavit. Quod non solum nostra 
testantur Antiphonaria, sed et ipsa 
quae cum Missalibus suis conspexi- 
mus apud apostolorum Petri et 
Pauli limina." Wilkins, Concilia. 
torn, i. p. 85. 

^ Idngard. Anglo-Saxon Churcli. 

cutn sua sil^ cdnvenienti psalmodia seu cantilena vene^ 

Le Bran mentions a remarkable* manuscript, which 
he says proves that for a considerable period, the Anglo- 
Saxon church, or at least some part of it, adopted not 
the Gregorian, but the Gelasian sacramentary..^ Whe- 
ther this may have been so, or not, there can be little 
doubt, but that the Cajion of the church of Rome, sub- 
ject to certain variations, was admitted and generally 
observed by the Anglo-Saxon churches, long before other 
portions of the missal, or other rites and ceremonies. 
This Mabillon allows was the case with respect to the 
Gallic liturgy in France."^ 

Without delajdng longer upon this enquiry, I think 
we may conclude, that as Christianity spread among the 
Anglo-Saxons, the Canon of the church of Rome, as 
distinguished from the old Gallican, was gradually re- 
ceived by them, and also in the British churches which 
still existed in remote parts of the country. But, espe- 
cially by tbe latter, it would be the general arrangement 
only, and not the exact words. And not merely would 
ancient prejudices, and ritual peculiarities have influence 
dgainst the newer Form, but the Bishops of the several 
dioceses into which England was divided, it may well be 
thought, exercised the power of which I have already 
spoken, to enjoin, within the limits of their respective 
jurisdictions, rites and ceremonies and prayers. It would 
be absurd to say that this power was invariably exercised 
with due discretion : much indeed is it to be wished it 
had been ; and we should not have had to complain of 

** Wilkins. Concilia, torn. i. p. Liturgy, has been somewhat un- 

96. The other Canon, xv th, con« fairly by Dr. Lingard mixed up with 

cems the daily office of the canoni- the xiiith. VoL i./>. 299. 

cal Hours: and, although it does ^^ ^ ^ .. m 

^ - ^ , x» r i.1. * Opera, torn u. p, 91. 

not affect the question of the exact ^ ^ 

reception of the Roman Course and ^ De Lit. Gallicana. p. 46. 


trifling and blameable practices which occasionally were 
suffered to interfere with the solemmties of the public 
service and offices. Yet, after all, these were to no 
great extent ; and there is ample proof how careful the 
rulers of the Church were, to prevent these scandals : 
and in fact, when we remember how rude the manneni 
of the Anglo-Saxons were, how little learned manT^I 
the most pious and earnest of the Bishops, how nimuM^ 
less the superstitions which prevailed, we must own At 
constant presence and direction of tiie Almighty Heacl^ 
Who alone could preserve a due and fitting Order, 
against the pressure of so many difficulties. 

One error the Anglo-Saxon Church was most anxious 
to prevent ; although it has been with superficial writers 
not uncommon to assert the contrary: viz. the intro- 
duction of any pagan rites. It will be sufficient to quote 
two examples. The 19th canon of the council of Chal- 
cuith, A.D. 785, at ^ time when it would have seemed to 
human policy most desirable by any way to conciliate 
the heathens, enjoins in the plainest terms : ^' Ut nnus- 
quisque fidelis christianus a catholicis viris exemplum 
accipiat ; et si quid ex ritu paganorum remansit, aveUa- 
tur, contemnatur, abjiciatur. Deus enim formavit ho- 
minem pulchrum in decore et specie : pagani vero dia- 
bolico instinctu cicatrices teterrimas superinduxerunt."" 
And again, in the 11th century, the 5th of the Eccle- 
siastical Laws of King Canute. "Prohibemus etiam 
serio omnem ethnicismum."®^ 

^ Wilkins, Concilia, fanu i. p. 160. 
^ Ibid, torn^lp. 306. A.D. 1033. 




jHE Eucharisdcal offices therefore of the An- 
glo-Saxoa Church may have been, for many 
years, distiiiguished from each other by 
very important variations : and it is probable 
that throughout EngUind, up to the century preceding 
the conquest, they differed in some degree or other, so 
far as the number of dioceses would permit. Doubtless 
they all preserved the essentials of the Service, accord- 
ing to the very brief account which ^Ifric gives us in 
his Easter-homily. " Da apostoli dydon swa swa Crist h&U- ' 
)iat hi halgodon hlaf and w!d to htisle eft ^%an on his gemynde. 
Eic Bwylce beora sefter-gengaa and ealle sacerdas be Cristes 
hese halgia^ hlaf and win to biisle on his naman mid ;i8ere apo»- 
tolican bletsunge ; "** And these differences of each diocese 
from another continued,*' until the civil subordination of 
the whole land under one head, and consequent in- 
creased facihties of intercourse introduced a greater 
sameness of practice, well fitted to their Unity of Faith. 

*° "Apostoli pTODt ChriHtuBJuB- 
rit fecernnt; exbitic enim panem et 
yinum consecntverunt iterum in 
Euchariatiam, in Ejus memorlam. 
Pariter (fadunt) horum successo- 
res, et onmes sacerdotea, jubente 
ChriBto, in nomine EjuB paaem et 
^iim in Eucharistiam consecnmt 
per benedicdonem Apostolicam." 
Ecclea. Anglic Vmdex Catbol. vol, 
iiLp. 348. 

" There. were also varieties ob* 
served by tbe different Monastic 
orders: several of which have been 

printed in later years. Those ac- 
cording to the Uses of the Bene. 
dictJnes, the Cisterdans, the Car- 
thusians, the Dora inicans, and Fran- 
ciscans, were published before the 
year 1500. These nere upon the 
one hand forbidden to the secular 
clergy ; see Benedict. XIV. Opera. 
torn. ix. p. 408 : and on the oiber 
were binding upon the members of 
the respective Orders ; Axevedo. 
DeDiv.Off-Exercitx.p.55. But 
compare tbe order presently, about 
Barking monastery. 



About the year 1085, Osmund, then Bishop of Salis- 
bury drew up and promulgated a Form which should be 
used in his ^ocese :^ and whether from the known abi- 
lity and earnestness of Osmund himself, whether from 
the fame of his new cathedral, and the college of learned 
clergy which he had collected, or from whatever cause, 
this Use of Sarum was very generally adopted in the 
south of England, as well as in other parts of the country, 
and even, it has been said, upon the continent.^ It did 
not however altogether exclude the other Uses, of York, 
Bangor, Hereford, and Lincoln, which still obtained in 
their respective districts : these were small perhaps in 
comparison with the wide reception of the Use of Sarum, 
and neither their exact limits nor their authors can be 

^ " At the Conquest, monasteries 
had a deep share in the afflictions 
of the conquered nation ; some of 
the hest of their manors were sacri- 
legiously taken away, their treasu- 
ries plundered, and their liberties 
infringed. Most of the English 
Abbots being deposed for little or 
no causes, strangers were preferred 
to the richest abbies in the king- 
dom, who introduced several new 
customs to the grievance of the old 
Saxon monks. 

. The first thing which seemed 
very hard was the altering their 
missals: upon this account what 
great heats were therein the Abbey 
of Glastonbury! when Thurstan, 
the pragmatical Norman Abbot, 
would have forced the monks to 
lay aside the old Gregorian service, 
which had been used there time out 
of mind, to make use of the new 
devotions" i.e. manner of singing, 
« of WUliam of Fiscamp. These 
and several other innovations, 
which were bringing in upon them, 

were stopped by the pains of Os- 
mund, Bishop of Salisbury^ who 
composed a new ritual, afterwards 
known by the name of the Mksah 
in usum Sarwoy and generally used 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland.** 
Tanner* Notitia Monastica, Pref. 
4, Edit. 1787. I do not think it 
necessary to stop to correct the 
above statement, which the reader 
may easily do for himself. 

^ Into Ireland it has been said 
the Use of Sarum was intrbdoced, 
upon the authority of a canon of 
the Synod of Cashel, a. d. 1172« 
'* Quod omnia divina ad instar sa- 
crosanctsd ecclesiae, juxta quod An- 
glicana observat ecclesia, in omni- 
bus partibus ecclesiae amodo trac- 
tentur.*' WUkins. Concilia, lorn. 
i. p. 473. Compare also, Collier.. 
Eccles. Histv voL i. p* 379. As 
regards the Church of Grlasgow in 
Scotland, see WUkins. toin, \,' p, 
741 : and the Monumenta Ritnalia. 
voL Lp, xlvj. Note 78. 



asc^tained J it' seems certain^ that the Uses of Lincoki 
and Bangor were not so general as those of York and 

But we must not suppose that this extended influence 
was obtained all at once, or even in less than a long 
lapse of time, by the liturgy and ritual of the Church of 
Salisbury: nor,: again, must we forget, that those who 
testify to its greatest renown lived some three or four 
huiidred years after its original settlement under the 
direction of Bishop Osmund.^ During that period many 
severe struggles, of which all memory has been lost, 
may have occurred ; and many dijficulties and jealousies 
which opposed its progress may have been gradually but 
slowly overcome. In less however than two hundred 
years after Osmujid's death, we have a proof how high 
the character of the Sarum Use already, was, in the 
constitutions of one of his successors; who in the year 
1256 declares, that **like the sun in the heavens, the 
Church of Salisbury is conspicuous above all other 
churches of the world, diffiising its light every where, 
and supplying their defects."^* 

There are two important cases upon which a. few re- 
marks will not, I trust, be out of place. And first of the 
cathedral of S. Paul in London, the chief city of the 
kingdom. Collier tells us, that in the year 1414, and 
therefore we may conclude not till then, an order was 
made by Bishop Clifford " with the assent of the chapter, 
that from the first of December following. Divine Ser- 

•* One reason why in later years, 
writers have perhaps too much ex- 
alted the Salisbury, to the dispa- 
ragement of the other English 
Uses, has probably been because 
the Service Books of that Church 
are, with few exceptions, the only 
ones which are extant. None exist 
of Lincoln ; only two MSS. viz. the 

Missal in my possession, and the 
Pontifical belonging to the Dean 
and Chapter of that Cathedral, 
claim to be of Bangor ; and but ten 
or twelve copies altogether are 
known of the books of Hereford 
and York. 

^ Wilkins. Concilia, torn. L p. 



vice should be perfonned in his Cathedral, Mcumbem 
usum Sarum : and that the old fonn and rubric called 
S. Paul's should be laid aside.**^ With this is xjuite 
agreeable the manner of expresdon in two inyentories 
of the church, printed in Dugdale's history of S. Paul's : 
in the one made a.d. 1298, books are simply spoken of 
♦* de usu S. Pauli : " but in the other, in 1486, we have 
" Vetus Missale," ** Aliud vetus Missale secundum usum 
S. Pauli : " and ** Unum Ordinale secundum primariam 
ordinationem et antiquam ecclesise S. Pauli/' ^ But we 
have the best evidence that in the cathedral of S. Paul 
the Use of Sarum was not admitted without also the re- 
taining of some of its own old peculiar ceremonies : I 
mean^ that of the author of the De/ensarium Directoriij 
who says, speaking on a certain point: ^^ Probatur istai 
assertio esse vera per venerabiles viros ac patres canoni* 
cos ecclesisB sancti Pauli Londonensis, qui totum officium 
diviuum in cantando et legendo observant secundum 
usum Sarum ecclesise. Sed de cserimoniis vel observa- 
tionibus ejusdem nihil curantes : sed custodiunt antiquas 
observantias in ecclesia sancti Pauli a primordio illic 

^ Ecclesiastical Hist. voU i. p. 
649, And Dugdale. S. PauFs. p. 

^ P. 233. 284. 

^ Monumenta Ritualia. voL ii« 
p. 346, The practice of the Ca- 
thedral of S. Paul was, as we may 
suppose, of considerable authority : 
and the '^ Defensorium '* appeals in 
another place to it, upon a disputed 
point : (P, 342,) where the deci- 
sion of the '' Venerabiles Cardinales 
Ecclesisa sancti Pauli " is given. As 
Du Cange tells us, ther^ were 
in many Cathedrals and Monaste- 

ries appointed some chief among 
the priests, '* quibus ex concessione 
summorum Pontificum licitum erat, 
ut soli ad prfficipuum altare, quod 
cardinaJe vocabant, unde- CardU* 
nales dicti, solemnem Missam cele- 
brarent." Verb. PVesbyter. But 
I think in the present instance re- 
ference is made to ** the Cardinals 
of the Choir," who were officers of 
S. Paul's cathedral, chosen from 
the minor canons by the Dean and 
Chapter, to have the direction of 
the choir. See some andetit sta- 
tutes, printed in Dugdale. Hist of 
S. Paul's* Appendix, p.^ ^4 1 • 

In the library of the British Museum is preserved a 
manuscript^ wHch is called in the catalogue, *^ Missale 
in usum D. Pauli : "^ from which we might have hoped to 
obtain much information upon this point. And we doubt- 
less should, had it been a copy of the old Use of that 
church: but it is later than 1414, and the rubrics 
throughout speak of, and are according to, the Use of 
Sarum : nor do there seem to be any variations of the 
slightest importance, with one exception. Indeed, the 
only authority why it has been so called, "of S. Pauls" 
appears to have been a tradition, and possibly a correct 
one, that it formerly belonged to that Cathedral. I say 
correct, because although like most copies of the missal 
in that age it has numerous directions which refer to 
parish churches, and not to cathedrals^ it has also some 
rubrics which could relate only to a large establishment 
of priests and mimsters. Nor can there be any doubt but 
that it was the property of some great church in London : 
which is clear from the rubric upon the feast of S. Mark, 
directing the procession upon that day to go to some 
church in the city or in the suburbs, and return after the 
celebration of mass to their own church. But the excep- 
tion which I spoke of is very remarkable : viz. the Canon 
of this manuscript contains the prayer " Agimus tibi Deo 
Patri gratias :"* which is the only example I have met 
with, except in the Hereford missal. The prayers which 
precede it are however not according to the Hereford, 
but to the Salisbury Use. 

That the old Use of S. Paul's was held in high esti- 
mation, we have a proof in an order^relating to Barking 
monastery, in Essex, about 1390. " Nota'iquod diversis 
temporibus intra conventum nonnuUse emanarunt alter- 
cationes igitur nos cupientes dictas altercationes et 

» Harleian MS. 2787. Imperfect, 
^ See below: "Canon Missae/'^. 121. 



discordias radicitus extirpari prsBsenfi extirpamiis edicto 
secundum antiquas consuetudines istiuB domus approba- 
te^ quod conventus prsedictus tares modes diversos habeali 
sui serritii dicendi ; primo boras suas dicat secundum 
regulam Sanctl Benedict! ; Psalterium suum secundum 
cursum Curiae Romanse ; Missam vero secundum usum 
ecclesise Sancti Pauli Londoniarum." * 

The otber case to whicb I alluded, is of Exeter. In 
tbe year 1339 Bishop Grandisson drew up a body of 
statutes for his new and most munificent foundation of 
the collegiate church of S. Mary, at Ottery. These 
enter into minute particulars of the services to be per- 
formed by the members of the college ; and two or three 
chapters, whilst they prove that the Sarum was then the 
received Use of the diocese, no less shew a sort of jear 
lousy still existing, and an earnest desire upon the part 
of the Bishop to establish an " Exeter Use." Thus in 
the 7th he speaks of the Divine Office on certain occa- 
sions being performed ^^ secundum ordinale et consuetu- 
dinarium quae eis fecimus et extraximus ex Exoniae et 
Sarum usibus."^ Again in the 10th that all the mem- 
bers should attend chapter, ^^saltemin sabbato, ut Exoniae 
fit." In the 36th we have the two Uses identified: 
" Item volumus quod in majoribus festis— — sicut Sarum 
et sicut Exon." and, once more, in the 77th the Bishop 
speaks out very plainly. "Item statuimus quod ubi^ 
cumque ordinale vel consuetudinarium vel statuta nostra 
non sufficiant forte in multis faciendis per totum annum, 

^ Dugdale, Monasticon Anglic 
vol. \.p. 437. Note k. Upon the 
distinction between the Use " Ro- 
man ae ecclesiae/' and '^ Romansa ca- 
riae," see Azevedo, De Div. Off. 
ExercU. ix. p*33. *< Officium Cu- 
riae contractum erat, et mutationi- 
bus obnoxium ob varias et conti- 
nuas occupationes Summi Pontifi- 

cis, et Cardinalium, alioromque 
Praelatonim, qui ei in sacello diu, 
noctuque interesse solebant." 

' This Ordinal is still extant; 
and preserved in the Exchequer 
Chamber ef 4he Dean and Chapter 
of Exeter. See some account of 
it in the Monumenta Rituaiia^ vol. 
i. p. xliij« 

(j[uod tuBc recufratur ad ordiBale et consuetudmarium 
Sarum. Ita tamen quod semper omnia per nos disposita 
firmiter observmitur. Nolumos tamen quod allegent vel 
dicant unquam se usum tenere Sarum, sed magis.Exoniee, 
vel, ut yerius dicant, usum per nos eis traditum proprium 
et specialem."* But the extent to which the Bishop's 
wishes were carried in this matter, must remain doubtful : 
at least however we find about one hundred years after, 
in 1436, an order made by the founder of ^^'Godeshous," 
a charitable institution for the poor in the same city of 
Exeter, that the chaplain should say his office ^^ secun- 
dum usum Sarum.^^ 

I would add before I pass on, that we have proof of 
the acceptancie of the Use of Sarum in the county of 
Suffolk, from the fact that one of the Ordinals of that 
Chiurch preserved in the library of the British Museum, 
was one of the service-books of the parish-church of 
Rysbey.^ And again, the Sarum breviary itself refers 
to the Use of the Chiurch of Lichfield, upon S. Gedde's 
day. (March 2nd.) We must not however conclude 
that in other respects the Use of Lichfield varied from 
the Sarum : . but that this particular exception was .al- 
lowed as a peculiarity retained by that Church, upon the 
festival of its patron. 

According then to these various Uses of Sarum, York, 
Bangor, Hereford, and Lincoln^^ (various yet harmoiU' 

- > O/tWr. Monasticon Exon. p. 
268. et seqq. 

^ Monasticon £xon. jo. 404. 

* See Monmnenta Ritualia. vol. 
i. p. xlvij. Note 83. 
< ^ So Asseman reckons five Uses, 
upon the mithority doubtless of the 
Pk«face to the Common Prayer 
Book. Codese LUurgic. tom. iv. 
pars. ill. 36. And the author of 
the " Ordinarye of a Christen 

man," speaks of them in a general 
way : " That on the holy sondaye 
and other grete feestes and solemp- 
liytees gyuen by comaundemente, 
after dyuersyte of the eountre and 
of the dyoces, euery man ought ta 
here masse entyerly yf he haue no 
lettyng nor excusacyon reasonable 
by the whiche he may be excused." 
Sign. L. iiij. b* Edit* Wynkyn de 



'^r, i 

ouBy) the Holy Eucharist was celebrated in England 
until the year 15479 the first of king Edward VI. Their 
origin cannot be attributed merely to man's ingenuity 
and learning, or even piety ; but they are to be traced, 
as has been very briefly shewn, through the Sacrament^ 
aries of Gregory and Gelasius and Leo, to the well- 
spring of aU Christian truth, the age of the Apostles. 

In March, 1548, a Form was drawn up to be used in 
the distribution of the consecrated elements, at Commu- 
nion. By this there Was to be no alteration made in the 
old services, although a very significant hint was given 
of the intention of the King's advisers ; but after the 
priest had himself communicated,® he was to exhort the 
people to a worthy partaking with him, in almost the 
words which we still use ; beginning, " Dearly beloved 
in the Lord, ye, coming to this holy communion, must 
consider what St. Paul writeth to the Corinthians," &c. 
This was to be followed by a charge to all open sinners 
to withdraw, and the invitation (as at present) " You 
that do truly and earnestly repent you of your sins, &c. :" 
after which (also very nearly as we have them now) a 
confession, and absolution, and the comfortable words, 
and the prayer of humble access; and then the Body 
and the Blood were given, with these words : " The body 

' The first Rubric relating to 
the distribution is sufficiently im- 
portant to be g^ven at length. " The 
time of the communion shall be 
immediately after that the Priest 
himself hath received the sacra-r 
menty without the varying of any 
other rite or ceremony in the mass, 
(untU other Order ahaU he pro* 
vided) but as heretofore usually 
the Priest hath done with the sacra* 
ment of the body» to prepare, bless, 
and consecrate so much as will serve 
the pieople; so il shall continue 

still after the same manner and 
form> save that he shall bless and 
consecrate the biggest chalice, or 
some fair and convenient cup or 
cups full of wine, with some water 
put unto it ; and that day not drink 
it up all himself, but takmg one 
only sup or draught, leave the rest 
upon the altar covered, and turn to 
them that are disposed to be par* 
takers of the communion, and shall 
thus exhort them as followeth; 
Dearly beloved in the Lord,*' kc^ 



of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, pre- 
serve thy body unto everlasting life : " and, " The blood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, pre- 
serve thy soul to everlasting life/' Having received, the 
people were dismissed with a Blessing.' 

Doubtless this was a good order of communion so far 
as it restored the Cup once more to the laity ; and the 
letter of the privy council to the Bishops, which accom- 
panied it, truly said, ^^ that according to the first institu- 
tion and use of the primitive Church, the most holy 
Sacrament of the Body and Blood of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ, should be distributed to the people under the 
kinds of bread and wine." " This indeed is a fact which 

' The whole form is in Wilkins. 
Concil. iv. 11. And at the end of 
the two Common Prayer Books of 
Edward the Sixth, reprinted by Dr. 

It may not be amiss to remark 
that the necessity of some revision 
of the Service-Books and Rituals, 
was about this time generally ac- 
knowledged throughout the west- 
em Church : and steps, not only in 
England, were taken to reduce the 
numerous variations of particular 
Uses, to a greater uniformity. See 
upon this, the Preface to the mo- 
dem Breviary and IVDssal of the 
Church of Rome; and compare, 
Gerhert De Cantu. torn, ii. 175) 
^tc* Gavantus. Thesaurus, torn. ii. 
p. 13. Indeed so great a stress was 
laid upon uniformity, that although 
consideration was had of a pre- 
8cripti<n> of 200 years, yet if the 
revised Roman Use was once ad- 
mitted, there was no change to be 
allowed again. ^^Usus Misaalis, et 
Breviarii Romani semel introductus 

in aliqua ecclesia, quae habebatpar- 
ticulare Missale et Breviarium, con- 
firmandus est, nee licet redire ad 
usum antiqui Missalis, et Brevia- 
rii." Sac> JRit, Congr. 15. Martii. 
1608. Gavant. i. 564. 

^^ A Proclamation was attached 
to the Order of Communion, which 
referred to the decision which the 
Parliament, in the first Act passed 
in this reign, had come to upon this 
subject. The words of the Act are, 
'* Forasmoche as it is more agree- 
able, both to the first institution of 

the saied Sacramente, -and also 

more conformable to the commo use 
and practise bothe of the Apostles, 
and of the primative Churche, by 
the space of five hundreth yeres, 
and more, after Christes ascention, 
that the saied blessed Sacramente 
should be ministred to al Christian 
people under bothe the kindes of 
bread and wine, then under the 
fourme of bread onelie." Graf- 
ton's *' Statutes made in the first 
yer^ of Edw. 6th. &c" This Act 



the mo6t learned suppmiers, of the practice of comma- 
nion under one kind only do not attempt to deay : to 
use the words of Cardinal Bona: ^'semper enim, et uhi- 
que ab Ecclesise primordiis usque ad sseculum XIL sub 
specie panis et vini connnunicarunt fideles.''^^ No 
change could be therefore so justifiable, so necessary, as 
that which afteran interruption of some three hundred 
years, restored the undoubted practice of twelve hundred 
years, and of the age of the Apostles : and which more- 
over, faithfully relying upon the command of our Blessed 
Lord, cut short aU disputes upon a question which in- 
volves very terrible consequences, viz. how far commu- 
nion under one kind only is communion at alL 

Again, this order of communion was a most praise- 
worthy step towards a revival of the liturgy in **a 
tongue understanded of the people." I do not deny that 
stronger reasons have been produced by many authors 
for the sufferance, it cannot be put upon higher grounds, 
of a dead or foreign language in the celebration of the 
Holy Eucharist, than ever have been, or can be alleged 
for the denial of the Cup : but these avail not in those 
cases, where liturgies are adapted by learned men, and 
under the guidance and authority of national Churches, 
to the gradual changes which, as time goes on, must take 

ordered the Communion in both 
kinds to be given, when desired, to 
every person : and that the Priest 
should make '* a godlie exhortaci5> 
wherein shalbe foorther expressed 
the benefeicte and coumfort pro- 
mised to them, which woorthelie 
receive the holie Sacrament, and 
daungier and indignacion of God 
threatened to them, whiche shall 
presume to receive the same un- 
woorthelie, to the ende that every 
manne maie trie and examine his 
ownet!onscienee before he shal rer 

ceive the same." Whatever may 
be said about disobedience to the 
Form soon after published, it is 
scarcely to be supposed, that many 
priests paid attention to an order 
merely of the parliament; and. in* 
terpolated an'^extemporary exhorta- 
tion into the authorized Use to 
which they had be6n accustomed, 
and whose rubrics they were car 
nonically bound to observe. 

^ Remm Liturg. lib. ii. cap. 
xvuj. §• 1. 

Pt^aC|« Ixvii 

place in the vulgar tongue. Hence, it may remain a 
question^ whether we do not too hastily now-a-days, 
translate our Common Prayer Book, at least the more 
solemn parts of it, those I mean, relating to the due ad- 
ministration of the sacraments, into the languages of 
heathen people, which we do not ourselves fully under- 
stand ? One thing is unhappily most certain : an easy 
door is opened for designing men^ to intrude their own 
heretical opinions. Secure from almost the possibility of 
detection, innumerable errors may be foisted in, and the 
most, important doctrines of the Faith perverted, under 
the apparent sanction of the Catholic Church of Eng^ 
land herself ; the truth of regeneration in Baptism be 
denied, or of the communion of the Body and Blood of 
our Blessed Saviour in the Holy Eucharist. Thus we 
may give in name only and not indeed the Common 
Prayer Book of the church of England^ to some new- 
converted nation in their own tongue; and blindly by 
her authority plant in most pestilent heresies, winch even 
succeeding centuries may not be able to eradicate* 

And to such a reason would I refer the instance which 
has been more than once appealed to, as shewing an in- 
consistency in the practice of the church of England ; 
(especially within the last few years, by one of the most 
eminent living writers of the Roman communion in this 
country i)^* namely, that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
the observance of the Common Prayer Book was made 
obligatory upon the Irish people, although as yet it had 
not been translated into their language. Heylin says," 
"that no care was taken:" thSIs a mere assumption: 
and as . a fact, the first edition in Irish was published 
very early in the reign of James the First, in 1609 : arid 
theire might have been^ as doubtless there were^ many 

" Dr. Sock, Hierurguu voL up. 319. ^ 
^ HejfUn. Hist, of the Reforms^tioQ. p. 128. 

Ixviii l^ttUti. 

better reasons for enforcing the Preformed service and 
offices of the church of England, than for hastily at- 
tempting the very difficult task of a translation 6f lihem 
into the vulgar tongue. But this is neither the time 
nor the place for me to do more than allude to thiis mdst 
important subject. ' 

The evil which must follow a stubborn, because un- 
necessary, adhesion to the use of a dead tongue in the 
public offices of the Church, is not unacknowledged by 
several writers of the Roman communion. Thus Gerbert, 
whilst he dares not perhaps go so far as to own the ne- 
cessity of translations, yet complains of the consequence 
in the case of those who, though ignorant of the lan- 
guage, are bound by their rules to recite the Office 
daily. " Dolendum vero est, illud deinceps penitus 
cessasse studium, ita ut hodie moniales nee quidquam 
intelligant, quid psallant, contra Apostoli monitum et 
adhortationem."^* Extracts from earlier authors have 
been collected by Cassander/^ to which I would refer 
the reader: particularly directing his attention to one, 
Billet in Summa^ who, speaking of the abuse in persist- 
ing in the observance of a dead language in his day, 
concludes : " Videtur ergo potius esse tacendum, quam 
psallendum ; potius silendum, quam tripudiandum." 

Nevertheless serious objections lay against this order 
of 1548, not the least of which was that a custom very far 
from primitive was continued ; viz. that either those who 
intended to communicate were not required or expected 
to be present during the Holy Service*, or that having 
once confessed and received absolution, they should 
again confess and be absolved. It must be remembered 
that the point before us now is, the distribution to the 
communicants during the celebration of the service. 

^^ De CantUr ^om. iup, 202» 

^ Opera, p. 86. Liturgica. cap. xxxvL 

PttfiEiet. ixix 

AiK^^ily it Ib well known such was not the practice : 
as RotOB^ acknowledges. ^' Equidem olim quando sub 
sacrificio distribuebatur Eucharistia, iis prsetermissis, 
sacerdos accedebat ad communicandos, quibus distribuens 
sacramentum simpliciter dicebat : Corpus Domini nos- 
triy Tel alia verba, juxta disciplinam antiquam Eccle- 
si«."^^ And this custom was not intruded upon until 
the 13th century, when the mendicant orders, fond of 
novelties, introduced the new one,*^ which was soon 
adopted into the liturgies of the Roman and English 

^ Opw^ torn* iv. p. 364. 

^^ MorisiUi 3 de ptxnit, lib. viii. cap. 9. Cit. Romsee. 




S AS SING by another queetion which at the 
time of the publication of the Order of 1548 
excited very great displeasure, viz. that au- 
ricular confession'* was not enjoined by it 
as a necessary preparation to a worthy receiving of the 
Eucharist ; there are two points upon which I would make 
some remarks, and of which the Order not unnaturally 
suggests to us the consideration; occupying as it does 
the intermediate ground between the total rqection by 
the church of England, as liturgies, of the old Uses, and 
the acceptance of the first Common Prayer Book of 
King Edward the 6th. To these I shall devote the pre- 
sent chapter. 

First, with regard to being present during the previ- 
ous service, I do not mean of Matins and of the Litany, 
which in modem practice almost always are joined with 
it, hut of the Liturgy itself, there are some who argue 
that this is not necessary, but that a parishioner (or in- 
deed any one) may partake of the consecrated elements, 
who enters the church for that purpose even so late as 
after the distribution has commenced. I am sorry to 
say that this is no exaggeration, because not only did I 
myself witness such an instance, not long ago ; but it is 
even still in the same parish defended upon (we must, I 
suppose, conclude) some principle, and persisted in as a 
matter of practice. But no one who has examined these 

'* Hie reader must remember (of vbich therefore the Bame view 

that the absolution which it did re- was held) was not sacramental, but 

quire, and which had. already oc- of a far lower kind, of defects and 

curred in the Ordinary of the Mass, failings, rather than of uns. 



questions can assert, that it is either according to primi* 
tive custom or to the intention of the English church. 

People, I conceive, who are hindered against their 
wills from being present at the beginning of our present 
Communion Office, maybe allowed to* enter at any time 
previous to the exhortation, " Ye that do truly and earn- 
estly repent you of your sins, &c." Following this and 
the confession and absolution, (a portion of the service 
which it is most desirable all communicants should be 
present at,) begins the more sblemn part, the Anaphora, 
with the ancient form, " Lift up your hearts." After its 
commencement, surely they should not enter. Else how 
can they say that they have offered up that sacrifice, which 
together with the priest, as God's people, they have power 
to offer ? ^^ In the Apostolical constitutions, people are 
allowed to be admitted during the previous prayers, or 
the. reading of the lessons, or the sermon : but it is not 

^ It is not necessary to heap up 
authorities upon this point: but, 
referring the reader to Johnson^ 
Unbl. Sacr. ch, ii. §. 4. and to the 
Gemma Animue. lib. i. cap. 30, I 
sbaU make two extracts from wri- 
ters of the English and the Roman 
Churches. Le Brun says: "Ve* 
teres patres animadvertunt bifariam 
dici posse Fideles sacrificium offerre. 
Sacrificium offerri censetuvy in- 
quit Hilarius Diaconus sseculo IV. 
cum ohlationes prastantur, guas 
cwn us omnibus qua ad sacrifi" 
cium requiruntur^ ad altare sa^ 
cerdos offert. Secundo loco Fide- 
les offerunt sacrificium laudis, sacer- 
doti se addentes, ut spiritu una cum 
ipso Christi sacrificium offerant, 
quod verum laudis sacrificium est, 
quodque unum honore Deum affi- 
cere, nobisqne. nullum non ad salu- 

tem subsidium et beneficium com-> 
parare potest." Opera, tom. i. p, 
208. And Archbishop Laud 
against Fisher: " At, and in the 
Eucharist, wee offer up to God 
three sacrifices. One by the Priest 
onely, that's the Commemorative 
Sacrifice of Christ's Death repre- 
sented in Bread broken, and Wine 
poured out. Another by the Priest 
and the People^ joyntly, and that 
is the Sacrifice of Praise and 
TTuinksgivingi for all the Benefits 
and graces we receive by the pre- 
cious Death of Christ. The Third, 
fty everif particular mun for him" 
self onely y^xiA that is the Sacrifice 
of every man's Body, and Soule^ 
to serve him in both« all the rest of 
his life, for this blessing tiius be- 
stowed on him." § dd. p, 305. 
m^. 1639. 

ixxii IptefiAu; 

conceived that such liberty wpuld. be t^ken aftprward^- 
I would refer especially to the 58th Ch. of the 2nd book» 
where particular directions are given how honourable or 
poor persons are to be received who should ^nter up to 
that time. And again, to the latter part of the llih 
Ch. of the 8th book, where deacons are appointed to 
stand at the door by the men's side, and deaconesses . bj^ 
the other, that no one should go out, or the doors b^ 
opened, even though one of the faithful should apply for 
admission, during the offering of tiofi sacrifice : *^ xotra 

In large towns where there are many diurches, some 
only very short distances from each other» and consider- 
able numbers to communicate, it is not an uncommon 
thing for the clergy of one church, where there is not a 
communion, to hasten after the conclusion of their own 
duties to assist in a neighbouring churchy where there is 
one. So long as communions are not more frequent than 
they are now and the number of the clergy so limited, 
this is an assistance, against the giving of which not only 
nothing which I have said militates, but which is per- 
haps to be commended. But it is a practice which must 
not exceed its due and accustomed bounds, those, I mean, 
which have already been laid down: it is a practice 
which is rather permitted under the necessities of the 
time, than to be looked upon as allowable if those neces- 
sities were removed. 

For, and it must be remembered that I am speaking 
of our own days in which three Offices properly disitinct 
are, it may be said, invariably mixed up and joined to- 
gether, it is not even when most decorously conducted, 
quite free from an appearance of intrusion into sacred 
duties which have long before begun. And if this is the 
case when every care is taken to prevent it, by arriving 
at the church before non-communicants have departed, 
I must leave the reader to imagine^ how utterly devoid 
of all reverence must be the hurried and breathless en- 

l^etece; ixxiii 

trtoce of a person, not merely into the church, but into 
the chancel, and throwing off of coats, and huddling on 
of a surplice, at any time during the celebration of the 
Holy Eucharist, thoujgh (as has been said) after the dis- 
tribution has conimenced, provided only that it be not 

The second question to which I have alluded will re- 
quire rather a longer consideration : it is this ; whether 
non-communicants ought or ought not to be present 
during the entire Service : and of course another is in- 
cluded in this, viz. whether the almost universal practice 
of the church of England now, which allows and recom- 
mends their departure from the church at an early period 
of it, is to be defended or not ? I shall now attempt to 
shew that non-communicants ought not, if possible, to be 
allowed to be present during the whole celebration of 
the Eucharist, and much less therefore should their de- 
parture be prevented. 

It cannot be said that this is not a subject which de- 
serves consideration, or one upon which a reasonable 
conclusion is not likely to be of benefit. For it has been 
already made a practical question : the constant custom 
of the church of England for some three hundred years 
has within the last four years been interrupted, and 
whole parishes (in more instances than one large and im- 
portant parishes,) have been thrown most unnecessarily 
into confusion and excitement. Nor has this passed 
away ; at the time that I am now writing, there is a sort 
of public controversy being carried on, and attempts 
made to enforce and to prove the propriety of non-com- 
municants remaining in the church during the whole 

The first point to which I shall direct the reader's atten- 
tion will be, a passage in the well-known judgment of the 
Lord Bishop of Exeter, in the case of the Rev. W. Blunt. 
It appears that Mr. Blunt had " compelled all persons to 
remain in church on sacrament Sundays until the con- 

ixxiv Ipteface; 

elusion of the exhortation. That is, " Dearly beloved 
in the Lord, &c." This was the charge against the 
clergyman ; and the reader will see that it does not 
strictly enter into the exact question before us, as Mr. 
Blunt seems then, after the exhortation, to have been 
accustomed to pause, and allow all to depart, who were 
not disposed, or able with safe consciences, to commu- 

But in expressing his disapproval of Mr. Blunt's mode 
of proceeding in this matter, the Bishop further says : 
" What may be the particular part of the service, and 
whether there be any, when those who do not propose to 
partake of the holy communion may properly leave the 
church, is not declared. Manifestly they ought not to 
go before that part of the service begins which is used 
only at the actual celebration of the holy communion — 
not, therefore, until after the prayer for the church mili- 
tant. But ought they to go then ? There is no direc- 
tion requiring them to go, or recognising their departure. 
The earlier Books of Common Prayer plainly contem- 
plate their remaining during the whole administration ; 
for the invitation to those who come to receive the sacra- 
ment was, -tmtil the last review, worded thus : * Draw 
near and take this holy sacrament to your comfort ; 
make your humble confession to Almighty God before 
this congregation here gathered together in His name 
meekly kneeling upon your knees.' In the present form 
there is no such recognition of a congregation^ besides 
those who are about to communicate; yet there is, I 
repeat, nothing to indicate their departure before th^ 
close of the service."^ Now I conceive there can be 

^ Stephens. Collection of Ec- lating to the diocese at the same 

clesiastical Statutes. P. 2053. A time, is carefully reprinted : espe- 

very valuahle puhlication : in which ciially, a most excellent " Letter 

the Bishop of Exeter's judgment in from the Bishop of Exeter to the 

this case, with other documents re- Editor^** commenting on, and ex- 

l^tefacer « ixxv 

little doubt, that the Bishop decides nothing in the above 
extract) and indeed shortly afterwards by approving of 
non-communicants not departing " until after the exhor- 
tation," it would seem that we might conclude they 
ought to depart then; — nevertheless, I say, this extract; 
has already been more than once appealed to, as confirm- 
ing the opinions of those who would allow no one to de-J 
part until the conclusion of the service. 

The difficulty which the Bishop puts, if I am not mis^ 
taken, rests upon the term congregation in the earlier 
Books and upon the acknowledged fact that in our pre- 
sent Book there is no express order made, or time 
appointed, for non-communicants to leave. And the 
congregation is therefore supposied to mean the non- 
communicants. But surely if this is so, it would be a 
most strange thing, unheard of elsewhere during the 
whole history of the Church of Christ, that those who 
with earnest and contrite hearts, in ftill assurance of 
faith, are prepared to receive the Body and the Blood 
of Christ, and to show their entire communion with 
Him, and with His Church, should first be called upon 
to make their confession to Almighty God, general 
though it be, in the presence not accidental but desired 
of the profane, the careless, the despisers ; it may be, of 
the unbaptized. Humiliation is a chief part of confes- 
sion and repentance ; but such a humiliation as this 
could never have been intended. Nor can I omit to 
add, that in the sentence cited by the Bishop, it was not 
always "this congregation" but in the Order of 1548, 
and the First Book of 1549, " His holy Church." And 
could this apply to those of whom I have just spoken? . 

The congregation means therefore the communicants 
themselves: all the Common Prayer Books from the 

posing the extraordinary statements in his Charge to the candidates for 
made by the Bishop of Worcester ordination, in Dec. 1844. 

First in; 1549 to thai o£ 1662, declare that dieM sfaaU^ U 
no coiainuiiioxi).*^ except there he wofm^^^ ^ mJGeptiSbmtm 
he four, or tfareeiatithe least,'- ^ to commnnicate with>1he 
priest. Such a rule was uncalled for in &e Order <xf 
1548, .which was intended only to he temporary, and 
which in its second ruhric necessarily supposes the pre-^ 
sence of others hesides the priest. These then consti-* 
tuted the " holy church" or the " congregation'* of the 
Common Prayer 'Books down to 1662: and there is a 
very satisfactory explanation to he gi^en, why some such 
words should havQ; heen inserted. Because the form, of 
confession, (as the reader may see helow) ran, acceding 
to the old missals, [^ Confiteor Deo, heatae Marise, ominbus 
Sanctis," as well as " et vobis, fratres :" and, without 
entering into the question of the presence of hoLy spirits 
with us and among us, when we are engaged in the 
duties of public wordiip, I think that the revisers of the 
liturgy acted wisely, in removing aU reference to them 
on such an occasion : for it was not in any way re^' 
quired, and they had had lamentable proofs of the pra(> 
tical evils which had followed an unscriptural excess oi 
devotion to the blessed Virgin and the saints, and of a 
continual offering up of prayers, which we have not au*' 
thority to assure ua will be either heard or answered. « • 

But in 16^^^ ,the sauie reasons existed no longer :- 
men's minds had become fixed in a more pure belief, 
and a better judgment as to whom prayer should address: 
namely, the Only,, Three Persons of the Undivided Tri4 
nity. Hence, without .specifying before whom the con- 
fession to Almighty God should be made ; or appearing 
any longer to limit it to things visible, viz. the congrega- 
tion gathered in His holy Name ; this passage, as alto- 
gether uncalled for, was wisely omitted. 

More than this, all the Common Prayer Books after 

» Ma^. 1549. « 1552. 1559, 1604. 1662. 

]|^tffiEK(^ Ixxvii 

lS4^t& 1662^ dirnot *^ plainly contemplate non-commu- 
nicanta remaining during the whole administration," hut 
rather insist in strong terms upon their departure. Even 
the &£st< Book directs them to depart out of the quire, 
and I am not at all inclined to think it recognises their 
continued presence in other parts of the church ; hut 
having just used the word, it was somewhat heedlessly 
repeated: it is quite clear that no such separation is 
ordered^ as that communicants should he bound to go' 
into the qmre ; and the intention of the rubric, as it 
appears to me, was to keep these quiet in their places, 
whether in the quire, or out of the quire, whilst the non- 
oommunicants naturally departed altogether. 

But the rubric is, I allow, not clear either way, and 
perhaps at the time, contrary to the intention of the revi- 
sers of the ' liturgy, hon-commnnicants occasionally did 
remain, gazing and looking on, resting upon its doubtful 
manner of expression. What then do we find in the 
Books of 1552, 1559, 1604, 1625, down to 1662 ? we 
do not find this ill-expressed^ rubric : but, in the exhor- 
tation to negligent people, these remarkable words. 
" Whereas ye offend God so sore in refusing this holy 
banquet, I admonish, exhort, and beseech you, that unto 
this unkindness, ye will not add any more : which thing 
ye shall do, if ye stand by as gazers and lookers of them 
that do communicate, and be not partakers of the same 
yourselves. — Wherefore rather than ye should so do, 
depart you hence, and give place to them that be godly 
disposed." Surely here the non-communicants are de- 
sired to depart, in order that they might not " gaze and 
look on," whibh those who insist upon the meaning of 

^''^ Perhaps those who think munion) shall depart out of the 

otherwise will explain what we are quire, except the Ministers and 

to understand hy, " All other (that Clerks/* 
mind not to rgoeiye the Holy Com- 

Ixxviii ^tt&Mr 

the word quire in the ruhiic aboYci, and would now ui'- 
duce them to remain, propose as the object of their doing 

Again, it is to be considered, that the short-lived 
abuse which may have sprung up under the authority of 
the rubric of the 1549 Book, having been put an end to 
by the express denunciations of the Book of 1552 ; and 
the practice of non-communicants leaving the church 
having been confirmed by the constant observance of one 
hundred years ; the revisers of the Liturgy in 1662, not 
needlessly shortened the exhortation, whilst they scarcely, 
it would seem, thought it necessary to lay down a strict 
rule, and appoint a set time for the departing^ • As inatr 
ters have turned out, it would have been well if they had 
done so. 

I said above, that a controversy is being, at this time, 
carried on, upon the subject which we are now discussing: 
but this is not easy to be referred to, occurring as it does 
in a weekly periodical.** This controversy labours also, 
except in one case, under the disadvantage of anony- 
mous authors ; but the chief point is, it plainly shows 
that agitation, if I may so call it, is continued upon the 
question, and we have reason to fear that further attempts 
may be made to induce, if not to press, non-communi- 
cants to remain. This is, in fact, the sole point of im- 
portance about it ; for except one letter, signed " Pres- 
byter Anglo-Catholicus," the whole is characterized by 
great looseness of argument, and an unwarranted assump- 
tion of facts, upon the proved truth of which the decision 
would depend. One writer quietly cuts the matter very 
short, and would have us understand, that " the English 
Church does not sanction any appeal to the example of 
the primitive Church." 

^ The English Churchman, bound to say upon Churcli prin- 
1846. A paper conducted I am ciples, and not a little influentia]. 



Thinking otherwise however, and reminding the 
reader of the canon made in the year 1671, my first 
business would have been to explain what the custom of 
the primitive Church was : but it is so well known that 
during the first five centuries at least, the universal pracr 
tice was to allow no one to be present except communi-^ 
cants, and the last class of penitents, that it would be a 
waste of space and time to repeat authorities which have 
been cited over and over again. Those who wish to 
examine them, may especially consult Bonay de rebus 
Liturgicis, Lib. 1. Cap. xvi. : and Bingham^ Christian 
Antiquities, Book 15. I would repeat that I pass on 
thus briefly, only because the feet of the practice of the 
earliest ages of the Church is both so certain and so 
generally owned ; and not because it is of little importance 
in the decisi(m which we ought to come to in this matter : 
for on the contrary, it is not simply of importance, but 
in all doubtful matters, of obligation : both by the deci- 
sion of the Church of England herself, and by the united 
testimony of her best divines. So that even allowing 
that there was no more to say, we should already have 
learned enough, having discovered the rule which go- 
verned the first five centuries.^ 

^ There is one canon which I 
would notice in a note, being of the 
highest importance, and apparently 
opposing the unvaried agreement 
of all other ancient practice. It is 
the ninth of the Apostolical Canons. 
^^Omnes fideles qui ingrediuntur, 
et scriptiiras audiunt, in precatione 
autem et sacra communione non 
permanent, ut ecclesia confusionem 
afferentes, segregari oportet." But 
the object was, not to enforce the 
attendance of non-communicants, 
as we call them now-a-days, und 
oblige the unworthy, or the sceptic. 

or the scoffer to remain, but the 
necessity of communion. The ca^ 
non does not speak only of the 
prayers, but of the actual partaklngi 
And this is the view which the 
greatest commentators have taken. 
Thus Bahamon says : " Praesentis 
canonis constitutio est acerbissima. 
Segregat enim eos qui in ecclesiam 
conveniunt, et non ad finem usque 
expectant, nee communicant.'^ And 
Zonaras to the same effect : ^' Car 
non praesens exigit omnes, dum 
sanctum celebratur sacrificium, ad 
finem usque in oratione, sanctaqud 



' But there seemd to be no slight ground to stippose 
that for a much longer period the cild discipline was, if 
not in all churches, yet retained in many : Bona*^ owns 
that it fell not into disuse until the 8th century, and 
Morinus*^ acknowledges to the same: but in the 9th 
century Amalarius has the following important testi- 
mony ; speaking of the origin of the term Missa, he con- 
tinues : '^ Consuetude nostra tenet, ut catechumenos re- 
pellamus ante Evangelium. Non mihi videtur ex ratione 

communione perdeverare. Siquidem 
turn temporis a laipis exigebatur, 
ut frequenter communicarent." Be- 
verege. Pandect. Canon, torn, i. p. 
6. Nor, in connection with this 
famous canon, must we overlook 
the second canon of the council of 
Antioch, which repeats almost the 
same words : and in his exposition 
of this, Balsamon lays down what 
we are strictly to understand by 
the term Liturgy, or that part of 
the Holy Service, up to the begin- 
ning of which non-communicants 
were at liberty to depart He re- 
fers to the former one of the Apos- 
tolicd collection, and continues: 
" De Hturgia autem, eaque sola 
dictos Can. hsec decrevisse intellige; 
non item de aliis ecclesiasticis offi- 
ciis. Quoniam autem dicunt qui- 
dam, et quamobrem Patriarciha uni- 
versalis sancta dominica a loco ejus 
prodiens . non perseverat usque ad 
liturgis absolutionem, sed post 
evangelium recedit? Hisce dici- 
mns, quod divina liturgia post 
sancti evangelii lectionem proprie 
celebratur. Quandoquidem enim 
in Sanctis ecclesiis omnia canimus 
in Dei gloriam, sive e veteri sint 
testamento, sive e novo ; post prin- 

cipium eHim protinus ordine red^ 
tantur psalmi, usque ad Apostoli 
lectionem qui quidem sunt ex veteri 
testamento. Post evangelium au- 
tem incipit cserimonia celebrandi 
incruentisacrificii: Patriarcha ante 
hanc, et post sanctum Evangelium 
recte discedit, et can. non transgre- 
ditur. Ut nee quis transgreditur, 
si post evangelium vel ante evange- 
lium discedit ; verum ob necessariam 
piamque causam, non ob vituj^ra- 
iMlem." Ibid. p. 4S2. To return 
for an instant to the Apostolical 
canon, it may be added, that this 
last explanation reconciles com- 
pletely with the rest, that also of 
Arist^nuSf who declares, that it 
forbids any one to depart, ^Mum 
adhuc sacra liturgia celebratur." 

The present practice therefore 
of the Church of England, that 
non-communicants should leave the 
church before, the Liiurgy, in its 
strict sense, begins ; and that all 
should communicate who remain, 
is as it appears to me in exact ac- 
cordance with the Apostolical and 
Antiochean canons. 

*• Opera, torn, i. p. 850. 

^ Opera posthum : de Catech. 
cap, 16. 

incumbjeri^, qiuq,^ .pr/^puldubio ,,pr;^3di<j#iiaribia&, {gentium 
prseceptum sit^ ut evaQgelima eis p^^iQ^i^^t,; ^ad saciiin 
ficio omnino iiitei;esse non ppssunty juspfp^tii^^ quia neque 
pro eis rogatur a sacer^Qt^ in conspcratione.corpoirip 
Domini, neque confectum illis porrigitur. Sic jorolsii/ 
cerdos pro circimistantibus : Memento Domiue famulo- 
rum ^mularumque .tuarum, et omnium ^dstantium^ 
quorum tibi fides cognit^ est, et ii^ota deypjio. ^ Nondum 
renati, infidieles Yocfa;itur, ^on,,£dp}es* > ligiti^: npn, ,p^ 
sumus animadvertere pro illis constitutam esse orationem 
in officio confectionis corporis Christi. Quapropter 
merito eo tempore recedunt, quo sacrificium celebratur." ^ 
I am aware that Bona, who cites the first words only, 
attempts to explain this statement away, as if its author 
was speaking of some ceremony on a particular occasion ; 
but of this there is not a trace ; Amalarius is describing 
the whole service of the liturgy, and all its parts. 

Now it must not be forgotten that there is a wide 
difference between this practice ceasing to be observed 
in the fifth century, or in the tenth, because according 
to Amalarius, it is certain it was still observed in the 
ninth. How much later, it may not be easy to decide : 
and the Church of England would have restored a cus- 
tom which had been interrupted not for a thousand 
years, but for five or six hundred only. . ^ 

Nor is it to be overlooked that without an exceptioii, 
the ritualists of the middle ages never mention in terms 
of disapproval the ancient custom, nor even speak of that 
which had taken the place of it and was observed in 
their own times, as the rather to be commended. One 
would suppose that the primitive rites had never been 
discontinued, from the manner in which the old distincr 
tions were carefully preserved : and it is difficult to con- 
ceive but that, if it might have been, they would have 

De eccles. Off. lib. iii. cap, 86. 


ixxxii ipteface. 

desired to have had the early discipline restored. Thus 
in the 13th century, Duraud says : '^ Missa csatechome- 
norum est ah introitu usque post offertorium, quae missa 
ab emittendo dicitur, quoniam quando sac^rdos incipit 
consecrare eucharistiam, catechumeni foris de ecclesia 
mittuntur. — Missa yero fidelium est ab offertorio usque 
ad post-communionem/' ^ Again, Gabriel Biel, in the 
14th century. <' Melius dividitur Missa in tres partes, 
sc. in praeparationem tarn populi^ quam materise conse- 
crandse ; in eucharistiae consecrationeim et oblationem ; 
in consecrat8e communionem et mysterii condusionem. 
Prima pars potest dici missa catechumenorum, pro eo 
quod major pars admittit catechumenos, secunda canon, 
tertia communio."*^ And, once more, Radulph Tun- 
grensis about the same time, after describing the rites 
observed at communion, plainly states the fact, " omnes 
debent communicare." '* 

In after years, at a period when every concession 
made in favour of the return to a better practice in the 
Church of England, by her opponents who refused 
to remain in her communion, is of importance, we find 
the same opinions expressed in even plainer terms. Thus 
Harding in his reply to Jewell's apology, is excusing 
Fighius who had been cited as allowing that abuses had 
crept into the celebration of mass. *' He meaneth not," 
says Harding, ^^ that the Masse itself is erroneous, as ful 
wel there he declareth : but that men be faulty in abusing 
that holy sacrifice. For many come to the aulter un- 
worthely. Many be present at it, that ought not to 
come within the church dores."** Again the authors of 
a catechetical work in 1647: "whosoever doth hear 
masse in sinne, doth besides the irreverence committed 

^ Rationale, lib, iy. cap, 1. 45. densis : de Sacramental, iv. 33. 

** In Canone. lecU 15. foL 76. 

'* De Canonum ohserv. Prop. ** Confutation of the Apology. 

23. And see also T^omo^ Wal p. 207. Edit. 1565. 4to. 

Wtt&LU. Ixxxiii 

against the highest mysterie in Christian religion, render 
himself unworthy of those speciall henefites, which are 
ohteined hy this Sacrifice. Which appeareth plainely 
by the practise of the primitive church, arid also by the 
present practise ordained by the councell of Trent, 
which commandeth Bishops, that they should not permit 
in their Diocesses any puhlicke and notorious sinner to 
he present at Masse. Yea, the same councell,: to ex- 
presse more fully the great reuerence that is required at 
this holy mystery, commandeth all Bishops, that they 
should not suffer any Priest to say Masse^ unlesse those 
who -be present^ do first hy a decent composition of their 
hody^ shew J that they are present not only in hody^ hict 
also in minde, and with a devout affection of heart r^^ 
These extracts fully recognize the principle which I am 
contending for. Once more, the author of the " Litur- 
gical discourse of the Mass." He is considering whether 
indiscriminately men should be allowed to be present 
during the whole service : and concludes in the nega- 
tive: *^as being more conformable to the practice of 
God's holy Church, which did never esteem any one 
worthy, to be present at these sacred mysteries, until 
they were fully instructed, and truly converted, and 
made true members of the Catholic Church." ^ 

I shall only further make one or two extracts from 
documents which were published about the time, or soon 
after, of the Reformation : as confirmatory of the inter- 
pretation which has been given above, as the correct one 
to be put upon the Common Prayer Books of Edward's 
and Elizabeth's reigns. 

^ A Declaration of the principall being' extracts from the Council of 

pointes of Christian Doctrine, ga- Trent : Sessio xxii. '* Decretum 

thered ovt of diuerse Catechismes, de observandis et evitandis in cele- 

and set forth by. the English Priests bratione missse." 
dwelling in Toumay Colledge. p, 

582. The italics are in the original : ** Preface^ p. 20. 

ixxxiv j^reface; 

The first which claims attehtion is the 23rd of the In- 
junctions of K. Edward in 1547 : that is, just hefore the 
publication of the Order of Communion so often spoken 
of. I quote from the original edition by Grafton. " In 
the tyme of the Letany, of the high Masse, of the Ser- 
mon, and when the priest readeth the scripture to the 
parishioners, no manor of persones, without a just and 
urgent cause, shall departe out of the Churche.** With- 
out insisting upon any argument which may be deduced 
from the exception of " a just and urgent cause,** which 
supposing that the ancient discipline was restored would 
fully meet our present case, I think that this order set 
forth in 1547 is of espiecial value, when compared with 
the corresponding injunction, the 18th of Queen Eliza- 
beth's in 1 559. I again quote from an original edition of 
that year ; and I do this because Dr. Cardwell has said,^ 
either carelessly or unfairly, that this is ^Hhe same as 
before ; except that communion of the sacrament \a sub- 
stituted for high ma^sSj and the last sentence respecting 
perambulation of parishes is new ;" although, as the 
reader will see, there is another and most important 
variation. This Injunction says ; " In the tyme of the 
letanye, of the common prayer, of the sermon, and when 
the priest readeth the scripture to the parishioners, no 
maner of persons without a Juste and urgent cause shall 
use any walkyng in the church, ne shall departe out of 
the churche." Here there is a total omission of all refe^ 
rence to the " Mass/' or " Holy Communion :" which 
cannot be set down as other than very significant ; for 
we know that those by whom these later Injunctions were 

^ Documentary Annals, vol, i. editions of the Injunctions of 1547, 

j9. 186. Note. I cannot conceive and seven of those of 1559, hefore 

that Dr. Cardwell had seen any the year 1601, are now lying hefore 

copy of Elizaheth's Injunctions, me : with which, moreover, his own 

which agp*eed, according to his ac- test agrees, 
eoonib, with K. Edward's. Three 



drawn up, had the earlier ones of Edward before them; 
with which, if, they were at all .adopted, they did not in- 
terfere,, e^ept for s^uae especial purpose. 

, About the same time Dr. Guest writing to Sir Wil- 
liam Cecil, cancemiog: the new service book, that is, 
th^ GommoA Prayer of Q. Elizabeth, and " why the 
service is set forth .in such sort as it is," explains among 
other points objected against, " the dividing the service 
of the Gommigidon into two parts," and proves the cor- 
rectness of what we are therefore forced to conclude was 
thjB practice, intended to be observed, by the authority of 
Diirant, S. Ghryso^jton^, and Dionysius : viz: *^That 
they ofjly did remain which did receive."^ . 

To, the like eflFect speaks Bp. Jewell in his apology, 
upon the subject of the Eucharist. " Ad hoc epulum 
invitandum esse populum, ut omnes inter se communis- 
cent, et societatem suam inter se, spemque earn, quam 
habent in Christo Jesu, publico significent, et testificen- 
tur. Itaque si quis fuisset, qui spectator tantum esse 
velit, et a sacra communione abstineret, ilium veteres 
patres, et Romanes episcopos in pripaitiva Ecclesia, ante- 
quam nata esset privata missa, tanquam improbum atque 
cthnicum excommunicasse."^^ 

Archbishop Parker, among other directions to be ob- 
sc|5y^d,aji his Visitation, ordered: "Item, these things 
being dpne^ the preacher to proceed to the sermon, 
which. being done, aU the extern laity to he commanded 
out by the beadle."^ Again, the following* rubric is of 
no little weight,, if we remember that it is in the Form 

^ Car dwell: Hist, of Confe- 
reDces./>. 51. 


EDchiridion Theologicum. 
Randolph, vol. i. p. 217. The 
same is to be seen repeated in the 
Harmony of Confessions ^ published 
in 1586. jp. 425 : which, although 
very far from being an authority, 

is still to be considered as a witness 
of facts. 

38 Strype. Parker, p. 303, Cited 
by a writer in the English Church- 
man. (March 12, 1846.) The 
same also quotes a passage from 
the Life of Bp. Bedell, p. 54. "As 
I was at the Lord's table beginning 




of the consecration of a church drawn up and used by 
Bishop Andrews. '^ finitis precationibus istis Dominus 
Episcopus sedem separatim capessit, (ubi prius) populus- 
que universus non communicaturus dimittitur, et porta 

It is necessary that I should notice what at first sight 
has seemed a strong proof that in the reign of Elizabeth^ 
notwithstanding the exhortation of tl^ Ccwnmon Prayer 
Book, and the authorities above quoted, the non-com- 
municants nevertheless did remain, during the entire 
service. The place is in the Reply of Thomas Cart- 
wright to the answer of Whitgift against the famous 
Admonition : he is speaking of wafer-lnread. *^ I haue 
spoken" he says ^' of tiiys bread before in general!, and 
if Maister Doctor dyd not disagree wyth hymselfe, we 
are heere well agreed. For first he sayth it skilleth not 
what bread we haue, and by and by he sayth, that he 
wysheth it were conmion bread, and assigneth a great 
cause which the booke of service lykewise assigneth, 
which is to avoyde superstition. And it is certaynely 
known by experience, that in dyvers places the ign(»:aunt 
people that haue beene mysled in popery, have knocked 
and kneled unto it, and helde vp theyr handes, whylest 
the mynister hatii geuen it, not tiiose only which have 
receyued it, but those which have been in the churche^ 
and looked on. I speake of that whiche I knowe, and 
haue sene wyth my eyes." ^ This passage is extracted 

the service of the Communion be- 
fore the sermon he came in, and 
after the sermon was done, those 
that communicated not being de- 
parted, &c." It has been asserted 
that the exclusion of the ^^ extern 
laity,*' refers not to a communion, 
but to the Archbishop's Charge: 
but this is incapable of proof, and 
what then means " extern" ? 
^ It is not at all beside the mark 

to add, that in our own time, the 
order of the consecration of the 
church of S. Maiy, Lamb^h, has 
this rubric: ^^The Sennon being 
ended, and all who do not receive 
the Holy Communion having left 
the Church, and the Doors shut, 
the Bbhop proceeds to the Com- 
munion Service." 

^ P. 164. b. From a copy of 
this rare tract in my possession. 



in the Hierurgia Anglicana, p. 104 : arid the learned 
editors of thi^ useful publication, do not, I must observe^ 
exhibit their usud.1 judgment in a note which they sub* 
join. ^* Here" we are told " is an incidental proof that 
the Holy Eucharist was then celebrated in the presence 
of the congregation, non-communicants as well as com- 
municants, as in other parts of the western Church 
at and since the great schism. The present custom 
of excluding non-communicants from witnessing the 
commemorative sacrifice, is an innovation, unsanc- 
tioned alike by rubrick and canon." These are some- 
what bold conclusions to arrive at upon the faith of one 
evidence : and to say nothing of the rapid decision, that 
a return, even though it were in our own days, to primi- 
tive practice was an innovation, it certainly would have 
been as well if the editors had also told us, since we are 
to believe this innovation is later than EUzabeth's reign, 
when it did begin or established itself. 

But as I own this to be if not the only authority,*^ at 
least an apparently strong one, brought forward by those 
who advocate the continued stay of non- communicants, 
it must be examined. Now, to pass by the question of 

** Two ar^ments have certainly 
been adduced in favour of non- 
communicants : but really they 
scarcely seem to be worthy consi- 
deration. One is, that the Church 
of England considers every person 
to be a communicant, (which in a 
sense is true,) who communicates, 
at the required times during the 
year, according to the rubric. But 
in the first place this rubric cannot 
be understood to enforce the com- 
munion of parishioners, living in 
sin, or under penance ; and in the 
next, it does not say one word 
about them, on those occasions 
when from any just or urgent cause, 

they do not communicate. The 
other argument is, that the Church 
does by courtesy (a strange cour- 
tesy it would have been thought of 
old) admit the presence of non- 
communicants, because, " at Coro- 
nations the Sovereign receives the 
Sacrament in presence of her sub- 
jects, not one of whom is permitted 
to communicate, except the officia- 
ting Bishops and the dean of West- 
minster." Strictly, the Order of 
the Coronation, as used at present, 
is said not to be an authorized For- 
mulary of the Church of England : 
but, waiving this, (and it cannot be 
denied very high authority) there 

ixxxviii ]preface» 

who Cartwright was, and that he would not be unlikely 
to strain facts, there is not the slightest reason to sup- 
pose that he is alluding to communions at that time, 
about 1572, in the Church of England. He is arguing 
against the allowance of wafer-bread : and remembering, 
as he well could, the performance of the Divine Service 
during Q. Mary's reign, and probably in King Henry's, 
he reasons from the superstitious gestures then made by 
the common people : and I somewhat wonder that the 
editors of the Hierurgia^ have in their extract left out 
the words " that have been mysled in popery." So that 
even if this was all the information which Cartwright 
furnishes, he leaves the question exactly where it was 

But I think he gives unanswerable witness upon the 
other side, in proof that it was not then the custom to 
celebrate the Holy Eucharist in the presence of non- 
communicants. He says, a few pages before : " Nowe 
remayneth to be spoken of the number of communicants, 
and that there is fault in the appoynting of the service 
booke, not only for that it admitteth in the tyme of 
plague, that one with y® mynister may celebrate the sup- 
per of the Lord in the house, but for that it ordayneth a 
communion in the church, when of a great number 
which assemble there, it admitteth three or fower.-^The 
departing therefore of the rest of the church from those 
three or fower, is an open profession that they have no 
communion nor unitie with them, that doe communi- 
cate." And presently afterwards, as if to set at rest 
what he means by departing^ we read : " So that it must 
needes folow, that the not receiuing of those whych de- 

are ample reasons why on such an to every one, or of permitting them 

occasion, some relaxation should to be distributed. It certainly, in 

be allowed of the general rule : short, is not a case from which 

omitting all mention of the impos- fairly any argument can be brought, 
.sibility of distributing the elements 

IPteface* ixxxix 

part out of the church, whto there is any communion 
celebrated, proceedeth either of vaine and superstitious 
feare, growing of grose ignorance of themselves, and of 
the holy sacramentes : or else of an intollerable negli- 
gence, or rather contempt, &c." *^ 

Possibly my own opinion expressed above, of the cele- 
brated Puritan, as to his dealing with facts, may be 
thrown back upon me ; and it may be said, he misrepre- 
sents matters, or did not know what was the custom 
observed in churches which he was very careful not to 
enter. But he had an acute adversary, who would not 
overlook, neither has he, any such mistakes. And what, 
does Whitgift say in his Defense of the Answere to the 
Admonition? '*The booke of common prayer doth 
greatly commend, and like the receyving of the whole 
church togither, but if that cannot be obteyned (as it 
cannot,. and they will not, have men compelled unto it) it 
secludeth not those that be well disposed : so they be a 
competent number^ And the booke doth exhort those 
to depart which do not communicate, with a warning 
from whence they departe, so that you may well under- 
stande, that the meaning of the booke is, that all that be 
present should communicate."^^ 

Without longer delaying upon the subject, I would 
upon these grounds conclude, that non-communicants 
ought not to be allowed to remain during the entire ser- 
vice. It is acknowledged upon all sides that for the first 
five centuries such was the rule of the Catholic Church, 
and the best ritualists agree moreover in extending this 
time to the end of the seventh : and I have cited a pas- 
sage from Amalarius in the ninth, (with some remarkable 

^ P. 147. 150. b. Cart Wright Church of England still suffered it, 

is attempting to prove, upon a text and private Mass. 
as it were from the Admonition) 
" private Communion,'* that the ^ P. 530. 



observations of Durand and Bid long after,) asserting 
its continuance : it has been shewn that the rubrics and 
phrases of the Prayer-Books of Edw. and Elizabeth do 
not suppose the continued presence of all persons, with- 
out distinction, in the church ; but, on the other hand, 
urge the departure, at some time, of those who are not 
about to communicate : and such has been proved to have 
been the actual practice of the Church of England 
in the early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign ; since 
which time no one, I believe, pretends that there has 
been any general change, or even an attempt at it, until 
our own day. 

But, it is not to be concealed, a difficulty is instantly 
suggested, and a very practical one, viz: when are the 
non-communicants to depart ? This is a question which 
I cannot now discuss so fully as it deserves, and which I 
am certainly not entitled accurately to decide. On 
those occasions when an Office is performed, for which 
we have no name,** consisting of some collects, a lesson, 
the Epistle and the Gospel of the day, the Nicene 
creed, and perhaps a sermon with other additions ; an 
Office which, whatever it may be called, is not an imita- 
tion of a communion service, is not, as I have said in 
another part of this volume, a Missa sicca; at that 
Office there is no reason why all, who may be present at 

** Within some twenty years 
after the review of the Common 
Prayer Book, people knew not what 
name to give this Office, now so 
very commonly said in our Church. 
Thus the authors of the famous 
Admonition to the Parliament call 
it a '* halfe-communion, whiche is 
yet appoynted like to the comme- 
moration of the Masse :'* (^n, B. 
ij. V.) hut Archbishop Whitgift will 
not, and rightly, allow this to be the 
name of it, in his Answere to the 

Admonitiony though he doed not 
tell us what we are to call it. ^' I 
knowe not" he says, ^'what you 
meane by the halfe-communioni I 
find no such word in the Commu- 
nion booke : — ^if you meane the 
scriptures and prayers appointed to 
be read when there is no Commu- 
nion, then do you uniustly liken 
them to the comm£moraHon of the 
Masse, being most fruitful scrip- 
tures and godly prayers." P. 183. 
kh^ Defense of the answer Cy p. 737. 



the beginning, should not remain throughout. But 
when we inteiid to celebrate the Divine Service of the 
Holy Eucharist, non-Communicants should depart before 
the Oflfertory, I do not mean to say that it is absolutely 
necessary that always when the Offertory is said, offer- 
ings and alms of the people should be collected; but 
these must be collected, if at all, at that time : an ancient 
custom which the Church of England has most laudably 
revived, and (we may say) constantly observes. Upon 
such a point it would be waste of time to accumulate 
authorities : I may adopt, however the words of a very 
learned writer, who speaking de offer torioj says : " Hia 
olim missa incipiebat, caetera enim quae ante ponebantur, 
scilicet orationes et instructiones, habebant rationem 
prseparationis ad sacrificium: unde illis interesse pote- 
rant catechumeni, et peccatores pcenitentes. Ast ad 
offertorium missa catechumenorum terminabatur, et in- 
cipiebat missa fidelium ; quare tunc ejectis catechumenis 
et pcenitentibus, soli fideles illi adesse poterant."^ Hence, 
whilst in the case-of that Office which pretends not to 
proceed to a communion the continued presence of the 
entire congregation may be not only unobjectionable, 
but quite in accordance with the rubrics, I cannot but 
regret that the same judgment as to what ought to be 
observed has been extended to the service of the Holy 

We readily agree with the excellent 
Archbishop in his last assertion. 
The reader may see below, in the 
^'Additional Note "p. 149, some re- 
marks upon the Missa Sicca, which 
at least our present Office '^ when 
there is no communion," is not. 

** Romsee. Opera, torn. iv. p. 
140. I am aware it may be said 
that anciently non-communicants 
were not allowed to be present at 
the recital of the Creed ; which is 
true : but as the circumstances of 

the Church now are, there do not 
exist the same grounds for pressing 
this, as in the case of the Offertory. 
To depart at some time or other 
they ought, but the principle which 
rules the one, has not the same 
force in the other : in the primitiye 
church they heard and repeated not 
the creed, for totally different rea- 
sons from those which prevented 
their taking a part in the oblations : 
these reasons have ceased as regards 
the first, but not the second. 

Communion : nor do I hesitate to say, that a general 
return to the old practice of non-communicants leaving 
after the sermon on communion days, even though at 
other times we ended, also as of old, with the sermon, 
would be far better, than a general introduction of what 
has been attempted by some, and insisted on against the 
will or wishes of the people by others, namely, not dis- 
missing the congregation or any part of it until the offer- 
tory has been said. K it should hereafter seem good to 
the rulers of the Church to revise the Common Prayer 
Book, an undertaking more perhaps to be dreaded on 
account of the numberless alterations that the clamour of 
a thousand tongues would suggest, than to be desired be- 
cause of some doubtful rubrics which might be cleared up, 
it can scarcely be supposed but that they would consider 
this question of non- communicants : and, to say the least, 
there would be no light grounds to fix for the time of 
their departure, the conclusion of the sermon* 

With one remark more, I shall return to my proper 
subject. Those who wish the non-communicants to 
remain throughout, scarcely explain their reasons ; they 
declare their departing to be an innovation, which is a 
misconception ; and tell us that it would encrease the 
number of communicants, which is not only extremely 
doubtful, but imless such encrease be based upon good 
grounds, not desirable. I cannot think that any mem- 
ber of the church of England would say, that if a person 
is not fit or willing to communicate, he can obtain any 
more benefit by looking on during the whole service 
than if he leaves the church at a proper time. It is true 
that the church of Rome urges the people to be present, 
though they do not intend to receive the Eucharist : it 
insists in fact upon their doing so, believing that a bene- 
ficial effect is wrought ex opere operato in those, who 
hear .mass with devotion : but not to say that there is 
not a trace of such a doctrine in the records of the first 
ages of the Christian Church, what do they mean by de^ 

IPreface/ xciu 

votion ? we are told, " If one have capacity and commo- 
dity, he should attend to all such passages, as the priest 
speaketh out plain ; for the rest, he should have his pri- 
vate devotions, which be so much the better, if they be 
accommodated to the course of the mass : but if not, no 
great matter, as long as one's devotion doth recall itself 
by a particular attention, at the chief mysteries of mass, 
which are the consecration, and the consummation, 
which is done when the priest receiveth."^ 

Is this the kind of devotion which is to be desired also 
among the members of our own Church? and does it 
lead to a due reverence of the Sacrament itself ? Let 
us hear another author, of the Roman church. " Many 
who ga under the notion of Catholics, do in a luke-warm 
manner hear mass, rather for fashion or custom sake, or 
in exterior shew, contenting themselves with a corporal 
presence, and little or no application of the mind; nay 
some do it with contempt, derision, and at least culpable 
negligence."*^ And such I venture to assert, would be 
some among the evils which would follow the introduc- 
tion of such a custom, as the non-communicants remain- 
ing, once more among ourselves. Far from returning 
to a practice, recommended by the primitive Christians, 
we should have, in direct opposition to them, only the 
example of the middle ages : we should not find a better 
knowledge among our people, than may now be gained, 
of the doctrines which are involved in the celebration of 
the holy Eucharist, of the blessings which it conveys, of 
their duties and responsibilities as baptised members of 
the Church of Christ : we should not see reverence 
towards it encreased, nor do I believe that more com- 
municants would press forward to the Altar. 

^ Declaration of the principal *'^ Liturgical Discourse of the 
pointSy &c. pt 578. cited above. Mass. Prefi p. 18. 



3|E must now return to the Order of Commu- 
nion put forth in 1548. This was not pub- 
Ushed without some notice, not only as we 
have ahready seen, that other order should be 
soon provided, but also of an intended uniformity of 
service in the church of England, and that the ancient 
Uses were no longer to be allowed. The letter which I 
have mentioned before directs the Bishops to cause 
copies of this new book to be delivered as soon a^ might 
be to every parson, vicar, and curate, and " that this 
order is set forth to the intent there should be in all 
parts of the realm, and among all men, one uniform 
manner quietly used.'"* 

The clergy in general did not obey and use this Form : 
nor perhaps was it either expected that they would, or 
much pains taken to enforce it.** Within a few months 

^ Documentary Annals, vol. i. 
p. 62. WUkins. Condlia. torn, i 
p. 82. 

*° " Notwithstanding the diSe- 
rence of opinions, the new Coi 
m union -book was received ot 
England, without any oppositio 
Thus Bishop Buroet. But Heylin 
reports the matter somewhat diffe- 
rently: he acquaints us the bishops 
were not equally disposed to a com- 
pliance: that Gardiner of Winches- 
ter, Bonner of London, Voyeaie of 
Exeter, and Sampson of Coventry 
and Lichfield were more backward 
than the rest: that many of the 
parochial clergy were no less dis- 

inclined to tlie order : &c." CoU 
Uer. Eco. History, vol. ii. p. 248, 
It may be sud, that even Heylin's 
account scarcely comes np to the 
assertion in the text : bat I do not 
doubt its correctness, upon the evi- 
dence which still exista about this 
famous Order, independently of the 
short time it was in use, the diffi- 
culty of so suddenly enfordng in 
remote parts of the country such 
great citanges as it involved, and 
the little real authority upon which 
it rested. However, the reader 
can examine, if he thinks it worth 
while, Burnet's stat^ent. Vol. iii. 
p, 139. 



not only it, but all the old liturgies were suppressed, and 
a new Order published in what is called the first Com- 
mon Prayer Book of King Edward VI. entitled, " The 
Supper of the Lord and the Holy Communion^ com- 
monly called the Ma^s'* I have reprinted the liturgy 
of 1549 in the present volume after the Clementine:*^ 
and the reader will see that so long as it was authorized, 
the rites and prayers which have always been held to be 
essential, and which had been religiously observed, since 
her earliest existence, in the English Church, are plainly 
and fuUy set down and required. The Act of Unifor- 
mity declares that the Book had been completed "by 
the aid of the Holy Ghost,*^ with one uniform agreement," 
i. e. o€ the compilers ; and about a year after, another 
statute speaks of it in scarcely lower terms of praise, 
beginning, " Where the Kinges most excellent Maiestie 
hath of late set fourth and established by aucthoritie of 
Parliament, an uniforme ordre of common and open 
praier — agreeable to thordre of the primatiue churche, 
muche more comfortable unto his louing subiectes, then 
other diuersitie of Service as heretofore of long time 
hath been used, being in the saied boke ordeined nothing 
to bee read, but the very pure word of God^ or whiche 
is euidentlie grounded vpon the same."^^ 

^ It may appear an useless ad- 
dition ; because there are already 
80 many reprints : for example, 
within the last few years, by Dr. 
Cardwell, and by Mr. Keeling. 
But these are parallel arrange- 
ments, not easily to be read through- 
out : and perhnps a better reason is, 
that those books may not happen 
to be at hand, and if they are, many 
readers will not take the trouble to 
refer to them. 

^ It has been remarked, that 
*' although the Parliament judged, 

and rightly perhaps judged, that 
the Holy Ghost assisted the Bishops 
and Divines who composed the 
First Book of Edward, yet we do 
not find that Bucer, or Peter Mar- 
tyr, or Archbishop Cranmer, pre- 
tended to any aid of the Holy 
Ghost in the alterations which they 
made afterwards." 

« Grafton's Edit, of the Statutes 
dT Edward VI. Fol. Lond. 1653. 
The Act is the 3rd and 4th Edw. 
VI. cap. X. entitled : " An Acte for 
the abolishing and putting awaie of 



Those, however, were not days when men would rest 
satisfied with merely cutting off superfluous branches, or 
feared to venture upon healthy limbs, nay even upon the 
trunk itself. It was emphatically a time of changes. 
During the few short years, or rather months, of the 
continuance of the first Book of Edward, foreign influence 
was actively at work, hourly encreasing in pertinacious 
opposition to catholic antiquity, until its successful 
efforts became unhappily apparent in the remodelled 
Common Prayer Book of 1552/^ The new sects at 
Geneva and other places earnestly desired to bring down 
the Church of England to the level not only of their 
heretical platform of discipline, but of ritual. And it 
must be acknowledged that their interference was not 
altogether unasked : because at the recommendation of 
spme individual in authority, the Book of 1549 had been 
translated into Latin, for the express purpose of obtain- 
ing the opinions of their leading men upon it.^ 

diuers bookes, and Images." 

Upon Merbecke's book which 
preceded the publication of the 2nd 
Book of K. Edw. little need be said : 
nor do I know how far it was to 
be called an adaptation of the old 
chaunts, or a new arrangement and 
composition of his own. Gerbert 
says; "Medio item sseculo xvi. 
Jo. Markeck ad librum precum, sen 
cantionum publicarum modulos fe- 
cit." De Cantu. torn, ii. p. 333. 
In the dissertation on Service 
Books, the reader will find an ex- 
tract from an ancient parish regis- 
ter, about M erbecke's publication, 
very curious as regards the date of 
the entry. Monumenta Rittbalia. 
vol. i. p. xxi. Note 32. 

^' I cannot but remind the reader 
of the fact, one to which I shall 

again have occasion briefly to refer^ 
that this Second Book was never au- 
thorized by the church of England. 
Dr. Cardwell acknowledges this ; 
speaking of the' convocation, and 
the disrespect with which the ad- 
visers of K. Edward treated it, in 
the latter part of his reign, he says : 
"It was not permitted to pass its 
judgment on the second Service 
Book put forth by authority of par- 
liament in the reign of King Ed- 
ward VI., and for this plain reason, 
that it would have thrown all pos- 
sible difficulties in the way of its 
publication." Synodalia. vol. i. 
Pref. p. X. 

^ This is a fact generally known ; 
Bishop Burnet tells jus, in his ac- 
count of the First Book, " So now 
a review was set about. Martin 



Still, in spite of all, though inverted in order, and 
more than half-obscured, the essentials of a valid conse- 
cration are to be found in the liturgy of 1552 : much 
more then after the improvements, few though they may 
be, which from time to time have been made in it, by 
the Bishops in the reigns of Elizabeth, and James, and 
Charles, struggling to retrace their steps, and free the 
church of which they were the overseers, from the per* 

Bucer was consulted in it; and 
Alesse,the Scotch divine, translated 
it into Latin for his use.*^ The 
book is very uncommon : the title 
is, from a copy in my possession, 
** OrdinaHo EcclestcB^ seu mmis^ 
tern Ecclesiastidy in Jlorentissimo 
regno AngluBy conscripta sermone 
patrioy et in Latinam linguam 
honafide conversa, et ad consola^ 
tionem JEcclesiarum Christy ubi' 
cunque locorum ac gentium^ his 
tristissiwis temporihus. Edita ah 
Alexandra Alesio Scoto Sacrce 
TheologicB Doctore, Lipsice, 
MJ).LL" 4to. But it is not 
also known, (at least I have never 
observed it mentioned, or any 
notice taken of the book,) that the 
Order of Communion of 1548 was 
also translated, and from the initials 
A. A. S. D. Th. at the end, pro- 
bably by Alesius. I have a copy, 
of which the title is, " Ordo distri- 
hutionis sacramenti altaris ^uh 
utraqvs specie^ et formula confes" 
^onisjacienda in regno Anglice* 
HcecLondini evulgata sunt octavo 
die MartUy Anni M.D.XL Vllir 
At the end is a short admonition, 
"Pto lectori** in which the trans- 
lator declares the great blessings 
which England enjoyed under Ed- 

ward in the pure observance of 
Christianity, and excuses the titl^ 
which the King claimed of Head of 
the Church. 

But it is not of little importance, 
and shews the way in which mat-^ 
ters were managed by the extreme 
party of reformers at that time, 
that "the Scotch Divine" has in 
many places most imfairly translated 
the English books. For example, 
from this last, the Order of Com<^ 
munion: "When he doth deliver 
the sacrament of the body of Christ, 
he shall say to every one these 
words following ;" " Et cum exhibet 
Sacramentum corporis, utatur hac 
forma orationis." So, with the cup. 
" Et cum porrigit Sacramentum 
sanguinis, sic orabit :* of which the 
English rubric is, " And the Priest 
delivering the Sacrament of the 
blood, and giving every one to 
drink once, and no more, shall say." 
Again. " And every of the said 
consecrated breads shall be broken 
in two pieces at the leasts or more, 
by the discretion of the minister, 
and so distributed." " Et quselibet 
hostia consecrata frangetur in duas 
aut tres partes, juxta institutionen^ 
Christi, accepit, et fregit, ac distrl- 



plexities into which it had been plunged by the followers 
of Calvin and Zuingle.** 

I would not be understood as desirous to speak ill of 
the reformers of our Church. There are at present two 
parties who hold very different opinions of their merits : 
the extreme of the one would exalt them to the standard 
of the great fathers of the Catholic Church, of the saints 
and martyrs ; the extreme of the other would depress 
them to the class of rash innovators, and speak of them 
in terms which may indeed be used of Peter Martyr, or 
Calvin, or Bucer. Rather let us on the one hand give 
what praise and honour may be justly due to their early 
exertions in the cause of truth, to which we owe our 
freedom from numerous errors and abuses which still 
overrun a large portion of the Church : let us upon the 
other disavow the lengths to which they were at last 
driven, not so much by the principle within, as by the 
pressure from without. Above all, let us remember that 
the Church of England has refused to ratify by her con- 
sent very many of the doctrines which have been attri- 
buted to her, by men who look upon the exiles at 
Frankfort, or upon Cranmer and Hooper and Latimer, 
and their decisions and indecisionsi as her own, and as 

" In a remarkable letter to 
Bishop Skinner, in 1806, Bishop 
Horsley has said: ^^The altera- 
tions which were made in the com- 
munion service, as it stood in the 
first Book of Edward VI. to hu- 
mour the Calvinists, were, in my 
opinion, much for the worse. Ne- 
vertheless I think our present Office 
is very good: our form of conse- 
cration of the elements is sufficient ; 
I mean, tluit the elements are con- 
secrated by it, and made the Body 
and Blood of Christ, in the sense 

in which our Lord Himself said 
the bread and wine were His Body 
and Blood.** Cfffice of the Scotch 
Church, p, 157. Let us rem^nber 
also the (pinion of Archbi^op 
Sharp, of York, " Though he ad- 
mired the Communion Office as it 
now stands, yet, in his own private 
judgment, he preferred that in 
King Edward's first service book 
before it, as a more proper office 
for the celebration of those myste- 
ries." Works, vol. vi. p. 355, 

l^reface* xcix 

It is not a matter of comparatively little importance 
according to what rite the Eucharist is celebrated. For 
example, even if we allowed that the establishment called 
the kirk of Scotland, or the Wesleyan methodists, or 
BrownistSy or any other schismatical sect are still in 
some way not out of the Church, yet it would by no 
means follow, that they either possess the power, or in 
£act do rightly consecrate the sacred elements and re- 
ceive the blessings of communion. Again, that a priest 
duly authorized and ordained by a Bishop of the Catho- 
lic Church should be the minister, is not the only thing 
essential to a valid administration. Our Blessed Lord, 
the great High Priest, blessed the elements of bread and 
wine, and gave thanks, and said, " This is My Body :'* 
" This is My Blood." Even if it were a proved truth, 
which it is not, that He left no exact Form (I do not 
mean to be then committed to writing, but the method 
and the chief particulars) how the holy Eucharist is 
to be consecrated, it would not therefore follow that all 
Forms are indifferent. It may be allowed to be a ruled 
point, among theologians who deserve the name, that 
there must be, not only the instituted Matter, but the 
proper Form : and although different churches may law- 
fully use different words, although they may lawfully 
observe some one order of the Rites, some another, yet 
there must be certain things either expressed or necessa- 
rily implied, without which the Form would be deficient. 

The Hqly Apostles, it is not to be doubted, imitated 
so far as they could the example of our Lord, and 
obeyed His instructions : they therefore, and after them 
the various Churches which they founded, observed in 
the administration of the Eucharist certain rites, which 
they held to be essential : and the varieties which exist 
in the primitive liturgies prove by the extent to which 
they reach, their full agreement in substance. Hence 
it becomes a question of deep importance, whether the 
service used in the Church of which we are members pre- 

serves this necessary agreement : and it is a part of our 
duty to enquire, whether the Communion of the Body 
and Blood of our Blessed Lord he rightly and duly ad- 
ministered, Qvjen as we are hound to try an4 examine 
ourselves hefore we presume to eat of that Bread and 
drink of that, Cup^ ^ 

The church of Rome has declared her belief that thQ 
consecratioif of the elements is entirely conveyed by the 
utterance of these words " This is my Body :" " This is 
my Blood." Cardipal Bona is express upon this point ;^ 
and relies also upqn the admissions niade by certain 
Greeks, who attended the council of Florence, in 1439, 
which admissions however ought not to be pressed against 
the received doctrine of the Greek church, which rather 
attributes greater efficacy to the Invocation and Prayers.^ 
When therefore we find a general consent and testimony 
among the fathers, that the Holy Eucharist, is .conse- 
crated by the repetition of the words of Institution and ' 
by prayer, we are to understand (the Rotnan doctors 
tell us) that su9h statenients merely mean, that prayers 
preced,e and follow the words.^ But, in short, to adopt 
the determination of Pope Benedict the XlVth. follow-^ 
iiig Tournely and Bessarion, " nuda et praecisa forma 
cdnsecrationis consistait in'Chn^tiyefhisj Hoc est Corpuk 
meum ; hie est Calix sanguinis mei ; omnibus ab ea 
forma precibus exclusis, tum quae praecedunt, turn quae 
sequuntur.'- ^ 

^ Rerum. Liturg. lib, ii. cap. 

• •• 


^ Examine also the exact state- 
ment made by them, Collatio 22. 
Cone. Labbe et Cossart. tom. xiii. 

^ Sala's additions to Bona, tom, 
iii. />. 301. 

^ Opera, tom. ix. p, 164. An- 
gelo Bocca incidentally speaks in 

terms no less strong : " Ex vi ver- 
borum, panis in varum Christ! cor- 
pus miraculose transubstantiatur.** 
Opera, tom, i. p. 111. See also 
Thomas TValdensis, de Sacramen- 
tis. cap. xxix : and Bellanmn, de 
Sacram. Euch. iv. 13. 

Catalani, although of course he 
could not venture to oppose the de- 
cided judgment of the Church of 



It will be observed that these sentences, (the ^* verba 
amsecrationis'* of the Roman missal,) are not exactly as 
they are to be pronounced in the Canon : the conjunc- 
tion enim being omitted in both. But this is not an in- 
advertent omission. " Forma enim verborum" says 
Lyndwood " quoad corpus est talis : Hoc est enim cor^ 
pus meum: haec tamen conjunctio enim non est de 
substantia formse, sed de bene esse, unde non debet omitti. 
Aliud namque est forma necessaria, sine qua non potest 
fieri transubstantiatio : et aliud est forma debita, sine 
qua non potest {aL debet) fieri/' ^ This assertion of the 

Rome, as given above, yet allows 
the almost necessity also of prayer 
in addition to the bare recital of 
the Words : " Licet" he says " cer- 
to oertius teneat Ecclesia, solis 
Christ! verbis hoc mysterium posse 
confid; horret tamen animus, mens 
titubat, affectus refugit, sine preci- 
bus, aut hostiam consecfare, aut 
hoc irreligioso -more consecratam 
pecipere." — ** Secundo, cum ad con- 
secrationem absolvendam duo con- 
currant principia effectiva Christus 
et homo, convenit utrumque in tam 
sublimi, tam difficili, tam mirando 
opere edendo, non tam virtutem 
suam exercere, conjungere actio- 
nem, sed et agendi rationem status 
sui condition! congruentem prodere 
et manifestare : Christus autem ut 
Deus omnipotens, imperio, vel sal- 
tern verbo, opus illud producendum 
aggreditur ; homo velut ejus minis- 
ter, et ad agendum concurrens^ 
licet ab eo dependeat, virtutemque 
omnem ab eo, sen subjectum instru- 
maitum mutuetur ; in ejus Persona 
loquitur, verba ejus usurpat, praeci- 
poam ejus potestatem, et velut auc- 
toritotem arrogat; quidni tandem 

sui status memor, suse debilitatis 
conscius, et infirmitatis reus, quod 
non nisi precibus quantum in se est, 
posset obtinere, precibus quoque 
exposcat, et quod jam effectum vires 
suas superare agnoscit, velut effici- 
endum desideriis, votis, obsecratio- 
nibus comparare moliatuf ?" His- 
toria. Cone, FlorenU Concilia. 
CEc* torn, iv. p. 258. This very 
learned writer is speaking upon the 
fact of the general consent of all 
the early liturgies in the use of 
prayer and invocation ; and as he was 
not able to deny it, he thus attempts 
to explain it away. See also Goar^ 
in his notes to the Liturgy of & 
Chi^ostom, whom Catalani fol- 

^ Lib. iii. tit 23. Ad excitan- 
dos. v&rh, Consecratione. Com- 
pare also Bellar^ifif arguing en 
this point. ^' Secundo dicit, sola 
Christi verba debere pronunciari; 
ex quo arguit Catholicps, quod qusB- 
dam addiderint, ut ex canone mis- 
sae perspicuum est. Sed in 'hoc 
etiam fallitur, aut mentitur. Nam 
verba omnia quae dicimus, Christi 
sunt, licet non ex eodem loco ha- 



canonist explains somewhat his gloss on another consti- 
tution: although in neither place does he exactly lay 
down the rule agreed upon in later times by the church of 
Rome ; for the question is not what amount of power, if 
I may so speak, is attached to the words of Institution, 
but whether the sole repetition of them is all-suflBcient. 
So to proceed : Lyndwood there says ; " Canon missae 
vere dicitur regula ilia, per quam Eucharistia conse- 
cratur : hoc est, illorum verborum per quae panis in cor- 
pus, et vinum in sanguinem transubstantiantur/' ^^ 

Not that I think it can be denied, that Lynd wood's 
meaning may be extended as far as the above quotation 
from Benedict the XlVth. Because not only does he 
$oon after, oh the same constitution, make a distinction 
between the Canon "i.e. sacramentalium verborum," 
and the Canon, « i.e. omnium qu» sequuntur praefatio- 
nem usque ad orationem dominicam ; " but, not to mevt^ 
tion other statutes, it had been thus laid down in the 
13th century, by a synod of Exeter, in terms which 
possibly might be explained away, though scarcely with 
fairness : " Per haec verba, Hoc est enim corpus mewm^ 
et non per alia, panis transubstantiatur in corpus." And 
this same canon proceeds to order, "prius hostiam non 
levet sacerdos, donee ipsa plene protulerit verba, ne pro 

beantur; et praeterea verba ilia, 
quae adduntur, ut, enim^ in forma 
consecration] s corporis, et, myste^ 
riumjideiy in fonna consecrationis 
sanguinis, Hon putamus ad essen- 
tiam formed pertinere.*' Opera* 
torn, iii. />. 331. De Sacr. Euch. 
lib. iv. cap. 12. 

" Lib, i. tit 10. Ut archidia- 
eoni ve7*h. Canon misssB. Ljnd* 
wood in the same note gives six 
reasons {1 may add) why the Canon 
should be said seer eta : " Prima est, 
quia Deus cordis, non vocis, cla- 

morem attendit. Secunda est, ne 
sacerdos in longo clamore defieiat. 
Tertia est, ne impediatur popnlus 
orare. Quarta est,' ne verba tanti 
mysterii quotidiano usu vilescant. 
Quinta est, quia ha^ ad solum sa- 
cerdotem pertinent. Sexta est, ne 
verba Canonis saepius audita dis- 
cantur a laicis, et locis incongruis 
recitentur." Such reasons caiti have 
but little weight, againflt the prac* 
tice of the first thousand years of 
the Church. See also^ beloW, Noie 
8. p. 79. 



creatore creatura a populo veneretur.''^'^ Still it is not 
to be forgotten that the ancient English Uses do not con- 
tain such a rubric, as does the modern Roman missal, viz. 
immediately succeeding the pronouncing of the Words ; 
" statim hostiam consecratam genuflexus adorat." 
. There seems to be no need whatever to accumulate 
evidence either to prove or to disprove the fact, of the 
expressed decisions of the church of England having 
reached to such an extent as the later decrees of the 
church of Rome : let it be allowed that for some two or 
three centuries her canons may be so interpreted, 
although not necessarily so. Errors and abuses had been 
gradually creeping into the English, as well as into other 
branches of the Church of Christ ; and far more impor- 
tant is it to ascertain, on such a point, the doctrine of 
the primitive fathers and liturgies, than of councils and 
canonists of the middle ages. 

To limit the eflFect of the recital of the Words '' This 
is My Body;" "This is My Blood;" to say how far 
they reach, and where they stop, in the consummation 
of the Eucharist; and how little is the consequence of 
ftie pronunciation of them,^^ no prayers having preceded. 

^ Wilkms* Concilia, torn. ii. p. 

** Is it possible, on the other 
hand, (although some writers of 
no small authority have gravely 
cited it,) that any person can be- 
lieve the legend told by the author 
of the Gemma Animce'^ He is 
bring^g argruments against the 
audible saying of the Canon. **Fer- 
tur, dum canon primitus publico 
qaotidie rjecitaretur, ab omnibus 
per usum sciretur, ei cum eum pas- 
tores in agro super panem et m- 
num dicerent, repente camem et 
sanguinem ante se invenirenty at- 

que inde divinitus percussi inter i- 
rent,'* Cap. 103. Sibl, Patrum, 
Auct, torn i. p, 1210. The italics 
are in that edition. 

And from what Zaccaria says, 
BihL Ritualisy ^om. iii.p. cxvj. the 
shepherds spoke only the words of 
consecration, "verba consecratio- 
nis," as they are limited by the 
Church of Rome. He says, that 
once he did not give credit to this 
story : but having seen it in other 
writers than the author of the 
** Gemma," he since supposes it 
to have been true. The other au- 
thors to whom Zaccaria alludes, are 



and none following, is not within my purpusej^ iior;shaold 
I dare to attempt it. That joined with the <idiei* eflsen- 
tial rites, which without exception dl the early* liturgm 
contain, they are productive of the inostn nnysterious 
effects is not for onfe instant Whe doAbtbd ocideniednii' 
' HearS. Chrysostom: ^^ ^Exflfifou nx%fv$ i(rr9iX£if''Srfhimv7^nx 

ten, Tovto juou fmro eu[Aayjfniri. Totict; ra ^fApi^fAtr»^ji^ 

fAt^u rot^vpoxufMiPu;''^ And S. ^Augustine : ^Dixi Yofais, 
<|aod ante verba Christi quod offertur, panis dicitpr, nU 
verba Christi Heprompta fuerint, jam non pamajdioHiiv, 
sed corpus appellatiu'.'-^ So agam^'S. Amlwose') *^^. Ante 
benedictionem verborum coelestium alia.specied nomir 
nator, post conseerationem corpus signifiKmtun f i JpoB 
dicit sanguinem suum. Ante eonserrationem aliud dUh 
citur, post conseerationem sangmsnuncupatur."<^ It may 
be argued that by ** consecratio" in this place S, Ajgi- 
brose means the Service, not the mere and only repeti- 
tion of the words. But again, the same Father declare^: 
^^antequam consecretur, panis ^« est; vUbi autdkn iVevlia 
Christi accesserint, corpus est Chri8ti.---^Ante veitia 
Christi, calix est vini et aquae plenus : mbi verba Christi 
operata fuerint, ibi sanguis Christi efficitur/'^. And, 
once more, S. Irenseus : ^^ Quando ergo et mixtus calix, 
et factus panis percipit verbum Dei) et fit Eucharistia 

sanguinis et corporis Christi, quomodo carxmaoi n#* 

gant capacem esse donationis Dei ? etc.^^ And presently 

» r I 

Durandy Innocent, and Belethus ; 
by each of whom the same tale is 
related. yBecoriy in his Reliques of 
Rome, has some curious remarks 
upon this story : and not unfairly 
argues, that those who believe it 
must believe also ''that any laye 
man, if he can pronounce the words 
of consecration, havyng bread lay- 
ed upon a stone, may make Christes 

body as wel as y* priest." Edit, 
1563. foL 129. 

^ Hom. 1. De- prodk^. hfuda. 
Opera, torn, ii.^. 4&3. >;; 

*'Serm. xxviL torn, 5. ^ 

/^ De Mysteriis. cop. ix. Opera, 
torn, ii. p. 340. 

^ De Sacramentis. Ub. iv. cap. 
5, Opera, torn, iL p, 372. 

lAwtraORds vkihp sanne^ chapter, speaking of the hread a^d 
wine »fa&r^ysd ^ ^percipientia verbum Dei Eudiaristia 
ftrnt^^qtod wt vbrpus et sapguis Christi." ^ 
"iTt Bat neither these: nor any of the fathers, give any te&- 
timtey f which •decWes .that solely by the repetition , of 
die WMids^of Institution, the Eucharist is perfected^ 
IrttiSBas, wlipse remarkable teaching I last quoted, hixn- 
Mlf ^hi'^anoti^er place attributes the same effect to invo- 
eoiiim dflthe. Deity. . ^^ Qnemadmodum enim qui est -a 
thfra^j^latds, pereipiens invocationem Dei, jam non com- 
Aunii^ panis est, sed ]£ucharistia, ex duabus rebus con- 
stsiis, terrena* ei ce^lesti : sie et corpora nostra perdpi- 
entufc Eucbaristiajn, jam non sunt corruptibiUa, spem 
if^ifarr^Dtionil? habentia.^''^ And before him §►. Justin* in 
Us woond apology declares that the; Eucharist is conse- 
crated '*per preces/' Thisplace of-^S. Justin .Bellar* 
iai<i,^^ho cjtes it^ meets by saying that the holy apolo- 
gbt(alt^wardd explains himseli^ and adds^ that by these 
prayers' he imciatvtMthei words of iGhrkt, " This is my 
'^fifdy, "TAfy is* My BloodC' But it is not true that Justin 
^SietHyy adds thod(^ words, or at all mentions the instiitu- 
^on^df tiHi'saei^amentifirGm the Grospels, except to prove, 
flfM the EttchaiKstical bread and wine are the Body and 
HiMdr of' the 'Lord ; and he is very far from asserting 
4iiait;^tbe^wbrd6 of Chilist, are the. prayers by which the 
-ihicAiarist is consecitated : indeed, who without some ap^ 
^taNffl[C^iof4ibsurdity, cbiild say ao2) > ^ 

. jOrigen declares that ^[ the Eucharist is sanctified by 
the word of God and by Prayer." ^^ S. Cyril of Jeru- 

^>*#VCcrftra Hnres. lib, v. cap, 2. '^ Tom. ii; p. 17. The same 

Openuj9«2M. Father asserts, writing against Cel- 
^ Ibidt /t& iv. cop. 16. Opera* • sas/ that we ''eat the sacrificial 

jD. 251. The reader wUl excuse, I bread, which is by prayer made a 

doabt not, toy having quoted the holy Body, sanctif3dng those that 

whole of such a sentence. make a righteous use of it." Book 

•* '^ De'^Eucharistia. lib. iv. cap. viii.jt>. 399. 
13. '"^^ ^ 



salem^ that " the invbcatioD being completed (tmxXnvm 
ii ytvo/Aivtuf ) the bread is made the Body and the wine the 
Blood of Christ."^' S. Gregory Nyssen, that "the 
Eucharist is sanctified by the word of God and prayer," 
and at the end of the same chapter that " by the power 
of the Blessing, (ti? rtjf fuAoyia? ivyx/Aii) the nature of the 
holy symbols is changed." ^* And, once more, S. Augus- 
tine : " Corpus Christi et sanguinem dicimus illud tan- 
tum, quod ex fructibus terrsB acceptum et prece mysticg. 
consecratum rite sumimus ad salutem in memoriam 
Dominicae pro nobis passionis."^* 

Nor are there wanting later writers of the highest au- 
thority, who speak to the same effect, up to the time when 
another and a new opinion was definitively settled by a 
«ynodical decree. Thus in the ninth century, Amalarius, 
includes more than the mere repetition of the Words, 
under the essentials of a valid consecration : ^' Cum 
satis esset sola benedictio Episcoporum aut presbytero- 
rum, ad benedicendum panem et vinum, quo reficeretur 
populus ad animarum salutem." He declares that the 
attendance of singers and readers and the observance of 
the usual solemnities, are not necessary, but the *^8ola 
benedictio." Somewhat later, Rhabanus Maurus, ex- 
plaining the term Sacrificium, as applied to the Eucha- 
rist, says: "Sacrificium dictum, quasi sacrum factum, 
quia prece mystica consecratur in memoriam Dominicse 
passionis, unde haec, eo jubente, in corpus Christi et 
sanguinem Domini, quod dum sit ex fiructibus tertae. 

'^ Catech. Mystag, J. 
'^ Orat. Catechef. 37. 

'^ De Trinitate. lib. iii. cap. 4. 
The extracts which I have given 
above, are but a few out of many 
which, if I had thought it necessary, 
might easily have been added, from 
collections already made by writers 

on this subject. But these are suffi- 
cient for my present purpose. If 
the reader would enquire further, 
he will find a large number of au- 
thorities from the Fathers, on this 
point, arranged chronologically in a 
posthumous tract of the very learn- 
ed Gvahe : " De forma Consecra- 
tionis Eucharistise." 1721. 

sauctificatury et fit sacramentum, operante inyisibilitei^ 
spiritu Dei."^* And in his next chapter, the same au- 
thor tells us : . " Sicut corpus Christi aromatibus unctum 
in sepulchro novo per piorum officium condebatur, ita 
modo in Ecclesia mysticum corpus illius cum unguentis 
sacrse orationis conditum, in sacris vasis ad percipien- 
dum fidelibus per sacerdotum officium administratur." 
And once more, even in the homilies read to the Eng- 
lish people in the 16th century, we have this remark- 
able testimony : I quote, from the Liber Festivalis^ a 
part of the sermon on Corpus Christi day : where we 
read, " All crysten peple that wyl be saued, muste haue 
sad byleue in the holy sacramente, that is goddes owne 
body in fourme of brede, made by the vertue of crystes 
wordes that the prest sayth, and by workynge of the 
holy goste."^^ . 

If then we rely, as we are bound to do, not upon the 
unsupported assertions of late councils of the church of 
England, before she had freed herself from difficulties 
which were sure to follow in their course, her acceptance, 
though but for a short time, of so great an error as the 
doctrine of transubstantiation ; but on the contrary, upon 
the consent of a thousand years of the Catholic Church, 
upon the united voice of the fathers of the first five cen- 
turies, and more than all upon the unvaried testimony of 
the primitive liturgies ; we shall find that certain rites, at 
least three in number, were always observed in the con- 
secration of the Holy Eucharist ; and because we do so 
find them, we cannot be exceeding our due bounds, in 
supposing them to be essential. They may perhaps be 
more clearly expressed in one Form than in another: 
still, in some degree or other, if in such a case we may 
speak of degrees, they are most certainly in all. If 

^^ De Instit Clericorum. lib, i. 4to,Q.d. in myposgession. ^^Sad" 
cap. 32. firm^ settled. See MonumetUa Bit. 

'* From an edition, by Pynson, vol. ii.p, 29. Note. 7 5, 

cviii ]PlS(teei 

dierefore) these ritasarefesseotkil^'tiMMea^ 
vaUd coasecraliion of the'Euchftrffli accor<tiiig: to'tmjr 
Form in which they tae not to* he found. ' As in <iie oa^B 
of another sac^-ament, viz. ^&t of Baptism, the blessing^ 
and privileges attached to it, are not (so far as we know) 
to 'be obtained^ except thei^ be an >aatiiorized ^hfknstePi 
and the proper Matter, and the- proper iF'omu?'^»n« > a-, iv 
'Theserthree rit'^sure^i^^ ef^the Wonb' of In- 

stitution, the oblation^of the Blements^* and a prayet.for 
tine descent of the Holy (Spirit, to make' thefli 'in leffeot 
the Body fand the Blood of Chrkt.^ Allithese are io1;fae 
old liturgy of the English diurch^ according to 'the iva^ 
rious Uses which were permitted' before 15-48 t theyare 
expressly and in clear words in Ki Edward's first fOSodk 
of 1549: less clearly but still in the second Bodkf^f 
1552 : and lastly, in our present Service. ' ' ' ^ 

/ I shall for the present pass by the c<msiderationK>f:oar 
present liturgy, and that, so similar ta it, ef 1552^ stand 
as briefly as*' possible give the necessary extiracts'lrom 
file old' English missals^ and from the first Bookrof »Kiiag 

Edwardi t rr. .r., ,» ! .., I 

The recital of the Histgiry^ and W(^ds of InstituUm, 
is most |)lain in all of these. In the Salisbury^ York, 
Hereford, and Bangor missals these words ebctipy ta-ceok^ 
spicuous place, often distinguished' also by a Vs^ty^ih 
the type or writing. "Qui pridie qukm pateretiir, de- 
cepit panem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas,>^ 
elevatis oculis in ccelum, ad te Deum Patrem suuiti omr 
nip(rtentem, tibi gratias agens, benedixit, fregit^ deditque 
discipulis suis, dicens : Accipite et manducate ex hot 
omnes. Hoc est enim Corpus meum. Simili niodo 
postquam coenatum est, accipiens et hunc praeclarum 

^ In saying an authorized Mi- declaimed permission, 

nister, I would avoid disputes upon ''^'I omit for the present any 

the question of La(y-Baptism» ad- mention of the ceremony c^miauiig 

ministered in the Church, by her water with the ^ine. 

ealioem >ui; sanetas advenerabilas manus suas : item-^ibi 
gratias ageitev benedhait, deditque digcipulis suis, didens : 
Acoipibe, etbibite ex eo omnes. Hic est mmm gam± 


BiBiifsaDd'NtaiN B£cc ATORCM;' Hsec quotiescunque fecentis^ 
in mei memorial facietis/V ^ • . ... mI . 

n\Ia tlJerfirfit Book of Edwirdo "Who in tbe^rsame 
ii)^te. that he was betrayed : tooke breade^ and when 
he^'hadifUessod, and geuen thanked: lie brake >4t(' and 
ganeit^to hi^^discipleSy sayiiige: Take, eate, this i^ ntfy 
bodye wbiche j is geuen: for you^ do this in remembraunoe 
of me.^ likewise after supper he toke the cuppe, and 
whe he had geuen thankes, he gaue it to them, saying : 
drink ye all of this, for this is my bloude of the newe 
Testament, whiche is shed for you and for many, for 
remission of sinnes : do this as oft as you shall drilike 
it, in remembraunce of me." 

' Tim Prayer for the descent of the Holy Spirit jb 
byv xla means express in either of the ancient English 
Uses, or in the Roman ; still it is included in the follow- 
11^ petition : and necessarily must be, if only by ^ the 
ojperation of the Third Person in the Blessed Trinity, 
the sacred elements are indeed made the Body and the 
Blood of Christ. And who would deny this ? The old 
Missals and the Roman invocate the Holy Spirit there^ 
fore in the prayer : *< Quam oblationem tu Deus in 
omnibus, qusesumus, benedictam, adscriptam, ratam, 
ra4nonabilem, acceptabilemque facere digneris : ut nobis 
Corpus, et Sanguis fiat dilectissimi Filii tui Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi."'^^ 

'^ Much more express, I would terbury. In the Office for the Epi- 

reoKurk, is the mvocation m the old phauy we find a proper Preface with 

Gallic liturgy used in the extreme .the prayer, '* ut qui tunc aqua3 in 

west before the days. of Charle- vina mutavit; nunc in Sanguinem 

magne, and of S. Augustin of Can- suum oblationum nostrarum vina 



But in Edward s first Book the prayer is in plain 
words : " Heare us (o mercifull father) we beseche thee : 
and with thy holy spirite and worde vouchsafe to blesse 
and sanctifie these thy gyftes, and creatures of breade 
and wyne, that they maye be unto us the bodye and 
blond of thy moste derely beloued sonne Jesus Christe." 

The Oblation to the Almighty God of the Body and 
Blood of Jesus Christ was in this form in the old Eng- 
lish Uses, after declaring how mindful both priest and 
people were of the passion, resurrection, and ascension 
of the Son : " Offerimus praeclarsB Majestati tuae de tuis 
donis ac datis^ hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hos- 
tiam immaculatam : panem sanctum vitae aetemae, et 
calicem salutis perpetuae." 

In the first Book of Edward : " Wherefore, O Lorde 
and heauenly father, accordyng to the Institucyon of thy 
derely beloued sonne, our sauioure Jesu Christe, we thy 
humble servauntes doe celebrate, and make here before 
thy diuine Maiestie, with these thy holy giftes, the me- 
moriall whiche thy sonne hath willed us to make : hauyng 
in remembraunce his blessed passion, mightie resurrec- 
tiop, and glorious ascension, entyerely desyringe thy 
fatherly goodnes, mercifully to accepte this our Sacrifice 
of prayse and thankes geuinge." 

We know that of these services the more ancient were 
derived, by a constant succession, from the very highest 
antiquity, their source being no less than Apostolic: 

conyertat : et qui aliis saturitatem, 
meri potatione, concessit; nos po- 
tationis suae libamine, et Paraclyti 
Spiritus infusione sanctificet. Per 
Dominum, &c/' And again, upon 
the Feast of the Assumption, in 
the " Post Mysteriumy' " Descen- 
dat, Domine, in his sacrificiis tusB 
benedictionis coseternus et coopera- 
tor Paraclytus Spiritus : ut oblatio- 

nem, quam tibi de tua terra fructi- 
ficante porregimus, ccelesti permu- 
neratione, te sanctificante, suma- 
mus. Ut translata fruge in Cor- 
pore, calice in Cruore, proficiat 
mentis, quod obtulimus pro delic- 
tis. Prsesta omnipotens Deus : qui 
viyis et regnas in ssecula." 7%o- 
mas. Codic. Sac. 287. 293. 

Ipte&cf cxi 

and of the latest it will be suflSlcient to remember how 
acknowledged and undenied at any time in the church 
of England is the excellence of the first Book of King 
Edward the sixth. I have already spoken of the asser- 
tion that it was compiled by the aid of the Holy Ghost, 
but more than this (the evidence of friends) is the testi- 
mbny given by the Act itself by which it was superseded 
in 1552 ; this, whilst it enjoins the observance of ano- 
ther Form, expressly recognizes the excellence of the one 
which it abolished as being "a verye Godlye ordre, 
Hgreejable to the woorde of God, and the primative 
Churche ; " and declares that it had been made (to use 
its own language) *' ftdly perfect " to please too scrupu- 
lous & tender consciences : and to set at rest doubts 
which had arisen "rather by the curiositie of the minis- 
ter ajid mistakers, then of any other worthy caicseJ'^ 


The Act for Uniformity. 5th and 6th Edw. VI. cap. I. 




|N aJl'tte FormB"wHcl/ *e'i«taitiatetffti"tliB 
lasf'ibaptei', it U evident th^'ttie'tteseftttftl 
rites which I haVe 'spdkett of are to be fc^d : 
I ttC ftlii' febt let -as add an extract from th^ 
Hoittily of the' worthy deceiving of the Sacrament : and 
i)C'win"iricf*ed appear,' as I have sfiid,'of no sHghtiti- 
^rtimiOe'aecordnig io what Order we admbU^t^i- -thb 
Etl(!h'4H^ diid m&k'e the enqtiiry an atixioias'ener,'whfr>- 
the'i* #^'d6 in tlie fii-st pl^e' administer Tighdfvii vaMfy 
c6h8ecrate ; 'frhethel-,' sfefiohiHy, We 'giVe due ^^omioKfMJd 
to all, and have not obscured any, of the nbcessti^y 'paHi'- 
ddki^' df 'thfe celebration Of so great a MysWryl" The 
fromfil^ declares: "Betote aSl' tbiitg8,"tJiifl 'tr^liiaiik^m 
^^'*if e^dally.'that'thig'sujjpet'lw'iti sUctl'Wfeti'dori^ 
aAd niuJi^te^d, ^' Oui- tio't-d akd BS'tJoti:^ Sid, '^^'^oift- 
■fliaili'ded^tb be d&tae; ashii^tdly Apostl6tf ii90rf?t,'.kttd«!(* 
^M fttbers in Ae primitii/e (ihUrdh freqUirifM itl""'^"' ' 
"Now', 'of 'these two questions, the:first ii'infimtely Of 
^e gi'eatest ciflsequehce : if the liturgy of toy Chiltf eh 
fids'the essentials whiclt the'Consecrdtlota 6f "tlhe-'HWjh 
EWbilriSt requirfes, whether thtfy'bfe alt ' expi^gseed' 'or 
i^pliid,' irtiethdr thfe;^ be cl^ to every' ofle'a wJtiipte^ 
t^hsi^ WsoiAeii^af Bidden 1n'obScurityof1tm|tia&fe('dl' 
iii 1 deficieiicy of detail, neVe^belei^ the'eUhs^sMoti'b 
complete, the Ditine commahds ftilfiUei^ 'mid &e pr^ 
mised benefits coii4&yed. '' Hfence, the second qiitSslioij'ti 
important' leather in its beatring irpan the genetWI'belStf 
which is inculcated upon the members of thef.Cfatu^^ 
and there niay be' retisonsrand jiisl reaiouB, wh^ at 

" Book of Homilies. Erfit.Oriot4.\6ast.r.4Q4. 

certain periods in the existence of any Church, it 
may become a matter almost of necessity, that certain 
great truths, which have been perverted and abused, 
should for a time be veiled from the common sight and 
hearing of the people/ BAH tiiey nmst not be denied : 
and it demands a most accurate judgment, in the rulers 
ofi^a .Chmrc)^f9ot Qnlj,!t^ JkE^qi^.the time w 
Gpui^,of qfn^iuiift is to. be advised, but the li 
Tif^tu(4lit.€apnat be permitted to go : and Tru^ JbeiQ; 
Ii0r very ns^ture ppen,; it is not without risk, ofiigbrsi^Q^^Mk 
emors that any ;reserve cai^, be allowed, ,, If tji^^. is'so^ ^ 
it[,un]^Qi|btedly is,4^ pther brianphes of religiQvs^tea|Ql^i)|g 
and practice, it is^ no les^ in ,i^e matter of liturgiie^. ,^f|d 
rito^^ls: people are not a little influenced by theiff^QQi]^ 
sI|SD|; use^ and they .unconsciously fidopt from thent do^- 
truiies, as it may happen, of absolute necessity to be ,|)Q7 
lie^^^ par. to be rejected. , .... ,, 

rf }f in what. I am about to say, I may seem to spepi^ jtpo 
l^ldljf.^pon subjects .yhich, it is confessed^ the CI^ut^q]^ 
(^.,Bngl^4 in ^^r. liturgy does npfc plainly ^d ppQAly 
liQT. Wo^^ her children, the reader must rememb9i;> tbfiit 
jffit i^v^y the causes which once influence^i her io ,hf? 
cautious and reserved may have passed away, but tbat 
fears of another kind, and contrary reasons may no\^ re- 
COQunend quite a different cours^e : that one dangj^r 
liaving been happily removed, the precautions which 
Wiew once wisely taken against it, may in tjieir^ turn 
become productive of injury to some : and that if it is 
ipipossible . or even unnecessary that the Church herself 
cdhiould by another deliberate revision correct and meet 
this ni^w difficulty, it surely is i^ot a merely lawful thing 
t}iat her ^rvants and ministers should explain her 
fnfiSif^i^g^ and yindicate the purity of her faith, and the 
sii^ji^cy of hpr pr;actice. 

- Ijt jis not tp be denied that, there have been for many 
years most lax opinions prevalent with respect both to 
the nature of the Holy Eucharist, and to the blessings 

cxiv l^reface^ 

which are to be obtained through its reception. In the 
Church these have been in some measure restrained by the 
existence of a liturgy, in which are to be found, in con- 
formity with the early and later Canons, the essentials 
of a valid administration : but the extent to which these 
opinions have spread, where such restraint has been re- 
moved, and men have been suflfered to follow whither 
they would their foolish judgment, is fearfully apparent 
in the irreverent and iriipious celebrations by which 
various sects in this country profane the Lord's Supper. 
On the other hand, it is not that our people disbelieve 
the great doctrines which the Eucharist involves, but 
they either are ignorant of them, or think them of se- 
condary importance. The members of the Church of 
England, by God's blessing, well know that none but a 
priest can stand in their stead before the Holy Table, 
and oflfer in their behalf the solemn prayers and praises 
of the Office of the Communion ; that none but a priest 
can consecrate the elements ; they believe also that the 
blessings attached to a worthy partaking are very great; 
but how much is there which they forget, or which never 
has been taught them \ 

They have been told and rightly told, that the natural 
Body and the natural Blood of Jesus Christ are not 
given them; but not with equal earnestness that the 
Body and the Blood are really given. They have been 
told and rightly told, that the elements of bread and 
wine remain after consecration unchanged in sub- 
stance, but not also that after conisecration those elements 
are no longer common bread and common wine, but that 
they are endued with another and mysterious efficacy, 
tending to a better purpose than the mere supporting of 
man's earthly life. They have been told and rightly 
told, that Jesus Christ made but one oblation of Himself 
pnce offered, but not that there is also in the Eucharist 
another commemorative but most true oblation of His 
Body and His Blood. They have been told and rightly 



told, that it is a dangerous deceit to say the priest does 
offer Christ in the sacrifice of masses, but not that all 
antiquity and all ancient rituals testify, that in the Eu- 
charist the Body and the Blood of our Blessed Lord are 
offered as the efficacious and propitiatory sacrifice for 
the living and the dead.®^ 

** "The ancient Fathers were 
wont to call the Eucharist SacrU 
yickan Idudis et gratiarum ac- 
tionia; not exclusively, as if there 
were no other sacrifice but that; 
for they called it also, Sacrificium 
commemorationisy and Sacrificium 
SpMtttSy and Sacr^dum ohsequii 
he : and which is more, Sacrificium 
verwnetpropiUatorium: all other 
ways but this the Eucharist, or any 
other sacrifice we make, are im- 
properly and secundum quandam 
nmiUtudinemy called sacrifices. 
The true and proper nature of a 
sacrifice is, to be an oblation of 
some real and sensible thing made 
only to God, for the acknowledging 
of man's subjection to God, and of 
His supreme dominion over man, 
made by a lawful minister, and per- 
formed by certain mysterious rites 
and ceremonies, which Christ and 
his Church have ordained. — There- 
fore as there never was, nor could 
be any religion without a God ; so 
there never was nor could be any 
without a sacrifice, being one of 
the chiefest acts whereby we pro- 
fess our religion to Him that we 
serve,*' Sp. Overall: in the Ad- 
ditional Notes to Nicholls on the 
Common Prayer : p, 49. 

" The Eucharist may very pro- 
perly be accounted a sacrifice pro- 
pitiatory and.impetratory both, in 

this regard ; because the offering 
of it up to God, with and by the 
isaid prayers, doth render God pro- 
pitious, and obtain at His hands the 
benefits of Christ's death which it 
representeth ; there can be no cause 
to refuse this, being no more than 
the simplicity of plain Christianity 
enforceth," Thomdike. Epilogue, 
b. iii. c. v. p. 42. Again, the same 
writer : " It cannot be denied that 
the Sacrament of the Eucharist— is 
both propitiatory and impetratory." 
And, once more : " If the profes- 
sion of Christianity be the condition 
that renders God propitious to us, 
and obtains for us the benefits of 
Christ's Passion : and that the 
receiving of the Eucharist is the 
renewing of that profession, by vir- 
tue whereof the faults whereby we 
have failed of that profession, for 
that which is past, are blotted out, 
and we, for the future, are qualified 
for the blessings which Christ's 
Passion tendereth ; then is the Eu- 
charist a Sacrifice propitiatory and 
impetratory, by virtue of the conse- 
cration, though in order to the par- 
ticipation of it." p, 46. 

" There is one proof of the pro- 
pitiatory nature of the Eucharist, 
according to the sentiments of the 
Ancient Church, which will be 
thought but only too great; and 
that is the devotions used in the 



As I have said just above, there may have been, and 
doubtless were, most weighty reasons why certain great 
doctrines of the Gospel should for a season be in a mea- 
sure veiled : but if our present Service is obscure, and 

liturgies, and so often spoke of by 
the Fathers, in behalf of deceased 
souls: there is, I suppose, no li- 
turgy without them, and the Fathers 
frequently speak of them. — The 
Ancients did not use these prayers, 
as if they thought of a purgatory : 
nor did they allow prayers to be 
made for such, as they thought ill 
men, either as to principles or prac- 
tice: they prayed for the Virgin 
Mary, Apostles, Patriarchs, &c 
and such as they believed to be 
like them. — The use I make of it 
is to prove, that the Ancients be- 
lieved the Eucharist a Propitiatory 
Sacrifice; and therefore put up 
these prayers for their deceased 
friends, in the most solemn part of 
the Eucharistic Office, after the 
symbols had received the finishing 
consecration." Johnson. Unbl. 
Sacr. vol. i. p. 292. 

Nothing can be more true than 
the fact which this very learned 
writer states, that anciently the 
Apostles and the blessed Virgin 
especially among the dead Saints 
were prayed for; a point of the 
highest importance, and to which I 
shall briefly refer again presently. 
But how different, how absolutely 
contradictory is the modem prac- 
tice and doctrine of the church of 
Rome : which insists upon extend- 
ing prayer for the dead far beyond 
any limits sanctioned by Scripture 
or antiquity, and forbids that use 

of it which IS authorized by the one, 
and may reasonably be grounded 
on the other. " M artyri, vel cuili* 
bet Sancto faceret injuriam ille, qui 
pro eo beatam in coelo vitam de- 
gente, oraret.** Angela Rocca, 
Opera, torn, i. p. 139. (239.) 

This b a long note, yet these are 
but few out of many authorities to 
the same purpose : I shall however 
add but one more, the judgment of 
the present Bishop of Exeter. " Not 
only is the entrance into the Church 
by a visible sign, but that body is 
visible also in the appointed means 
of sustaining the new life, especially 
in that most sacred and sublime 
mystery of our religion, the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper, the 
commemorative Sacrifice of the 
Body and Blood of Christ; in which 
the action and suffering of our great 
.High Priest are represented and 
offered to God on earth, as they 
are continually by the same Uigh 
Priest Himself in heaven; the 
Church on earth doing, after its 
manner, the same thing as its Head 
in heaven; Christ in heaven pre- 
senting the Sacrifice and applying 
it to its purposed end, properly and 
gloriously; the Church on earth 
commemoratively and humbly, yet 
really and effectually, by praying 
to God (with thanksgiving) in the 
virtue and merit of that Sacrifice 
which it thus exhibits/' Charge 
to the Clergy. 1836. j9« 43, 

IPceate- cxvii 

all* maib must oQow this; it is impossible to' say bow mticb 
ofvthf omissiombf sound teaching, and consequent for- 
getfidiiess^ has^'been caused by that obscurity. The 
diract-porayerB which wete in the primitive Forms had the 
sure and good effect of keeping up in the minds both of 
the priest and people a remembrance of the solemn 
tratfaS'twhkii«w%ir^ expressed in them. Plainly to ipray 
fOf''the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the bread and 
wme^^ndL in plain words to offer up the sacrifice, could 
nqt but bft .followed by a corresponding faith. Practice 
and Belief would go hand in hand. But less plain words 
were to be used : deep mysteries which pass human un- 
d^tand)ing had been explained after a carnal manner, 
a^4it seemed right to the church of England that she 
should. attempt to check the errors which were abroad, 
to ^rrect the abuses which had followed such an ex- 
pjeiiijsi^^ less open declaration for a time of the 

tr^pia ith^m^elves. She trusted also, that by the grace 
oEitfiFod^j the doctrines of which I speak might still bo 
reteJBedj'Hot merely in the liturgy, but in men's minds. 
Uifliap jlily, to a wide extent her hopes were disappointed. 
Tifi plan , adppted! was not followed solely by good 
r€^tB* Iti^: effects were similar to those which were 
produced by the more open violence of breaking down 
altars,' and violating churches : " When men saw an 
alta]^\broken down with every indignity, and all its costly 
furhiture supplanted by a linen cloth, and the con- 
venienoes of a domestic ''table, no preaching could make 
tHeftl^jrteld the latter a reverence denied by their teachers 
toflie foriner." Both parties agreed in tracing this to 
tI^}JBame .cause. " John Bradford, when the harbingers 
o£irper9ecution>were gathering round him, exclaimed, 
'the cotttefaipt of the sacrament in the days of Edward 
lu^'cau^d these plagues upon us presently.' Brokes, 
in Jjus sprmon before Queen Mary, in like manner traced 
the death of religion to * the defacing of churches, in 
spoiling their goods and ornaments, the breaking down 



altars, throwing down crosses — change in altars, change 
in placing, change in gesture, change in apparel/ "^^ 

Her liturgy is a sure test of the Catholicity of any 
Church.®* There may he canons, and articles, (more 
especially if they are chiefly negative) and forms even of 
Common Prayer, which if they touch not upon vital 
points may escape censure, and, answering the ends 
which they propose, be worthy of praise. But the 
liturgy is the great storehouse in which we are to look 
for and find the necessary declarations of the highest 
Catholic Truths, the unhesitating reception of the most 
deep mysteries, and the expressed confident expectation 
of obtaining the best gifts which have been vouchsafed 
to man - This may be reUed upon as a mark which 

^ Sketches of the Reformation : 
by the Rev. J. Haweis. p. 114, See 
also K. Henry's last speech to his 
parliament in 1545 ; Collier. voL 
ii, p. 208 : and the preamble of the 
Act. 1. Edw. VI. cap. 1 : which 
was a penal statute, to such an ex- 
cess had proflmeness reached, 
against irreverent speaking of the 
Sacrament of the Holy Communion. 

" " Sunt enim (says Renaudot, 
speaking of the Eastern Liturgies,) 
non unius quantum vis magni doc- 
toris, voces et verba, sed Ecclesia- 
rum, quae cum unanimi consensu eam 
sacrorum formam, precesque proba- 
verunt, legis ilia vim obtinent, qus^ 
si sacras literas excipimus, major 
esse nulla potest. Nee id noviter 
excogitatum est, cum precum Ec- 
clesis testimoniis Augustinus Pela- 
gianos confutaverit, ut a Coelestino 
Pontifice et aliis factum est/' Dis- 
sertatio. 52. 

So Muratori : *' In tot enim ora- 
tionibus, ritibus ac carimoniis iden- 


tidem dignosdtur, quid Elcclesia 
orthodoxa credat de Unitate ac 
Trinitate Dei, de Divinitate, Jncar- 
natione, caaterisque ad Dei filium 
spectantibus, uti et de Divinitate ac 
potentia Spiritus Sancti, et de aliis 
Ecclesiae Catholicse capitulis. Prop- 
terea ad hunc ipsum fontem recur- 
rebat sanctus Angustinus, quod et 
alii ex patribos pront occasio fere- 
bat praestitere. Nam quse ibi dog- 
mata occurrunt, non unius privati 
doctoris sententias sunt, sed uni- 
versae illius Ecclesise, quae iisdem 
Liturgiis utebatur." De rebus Lit. 

^ The Bishop of Exeter in his 
Lordship's late protest against the 
consecration of another Bishop of 
the English church at Jemsalem, 
makes one of his reasons to be the 
objectionable character of what is 
called the German Liturgy: as 
" being grievously defective in more 
than one momentous particular." 
JO. 5. 


IPteface* cxix 

cannot deceive : ambiguous statements • in other formu- 
laries, comprehensive yet half-doubting confessions of 
Faith, cannot supply the evidence which a liturgy alone 
can give. During the Holy Service, in aU ages, even from 
the earliest, the priests of Christ's Church, — knowing 
that they are surrounded by tried and approved believers, 
knowing that the half-instructed and the unreconciled, 
and trusting that the timid and the scoffer and the 
merely-curious have been dismissed and put forth from 
among them^ — remove without reserve the veil which 
covers the secrets of the Gospel, praise God for all His 
mercies from the beginning of the world, pray to Him 
boldly for the blessings which He has promised, speak of 
the Flesh which must be eaten and the Blood which 
must be drunk if we would live eternally, and hiding 
nothing, obscuring nothing, consecrate by the power 
which has been given to them the simple elements, and 
endue them with the very efficacy of the very Body and 
the Blood of Christ. 

I cannot but believe, seeing the evils which are so 
widely dispersed throughout this land ; the heresies which 
hundreds preach, and thousands think but little of; and 
the carelessness, to say the least, with which numbers of 
our people, otherwise it may be well instructed and of 
sober lives, regard the Communion of the Supper of the 
Lord ; seeing all this, I cannot but think it would have 
been well for the members of the church of England if 
the reviewers of her liturgy had remembered, not only 
(as they did) the doctrine of the early disciples in the cele- 
bration of the Eucharist, but their openness no less : if 
they had not alone been anxious to secure what the 
testimony of every age assured them were essentials, but 
had also boldly proclaimed them to be so, and assigned 
them therefore their due prominence. But we know the 
difficulties by which in their day thei/ were surrounded, 
and they could not foresee the dangers which encompass 
us; and let us never forget, with all gratitude, that it is 

one thing to possess a service, claiming to be a liturgy, 
which really wants the essentials ; and it is another to be 
content with, and thankfully use a liturgy in which these 
are not wanting, but obscured. 

Throughout the old liturgies, equally of the Western 
and the Eastern Churches, there is the constant recog- 
nition of a doctrine which is not in modem days undis- 
puted. Upon this subject some notice seems to be 
necessary, though I shall make but a few brief remarks, 
because there are several excellent works which treat 
fully of the matter. I mean that there is a real and 
material Sacrifice in the Eucharist. 

Whatever may be the evidence for many chief truths 
received in the Church, whether for episcopacy, for in- 
fant baptism, for the observance of the Lord's day, or 
for the inspiration of sacred Scripture, the sanie evi- 
dence, both in kind and degree, is there for the doctrine 
of a true sacrifice in the Supper of the Lord. There 
are texts from the sacred Scripture which cannot reason- 
ably be explained other than by referring them to a 
Priesthood, an Altar, and a Sacrifice : there are abun- 
dant testimonies from the fathers of the first four cen- 
turies, clearly enough teaching us, in spite of their 
habitual caution when speaking of so great a mystery, 
how those texts are to be understood, if we would under- 
stand them rightly. We must be prepared to doubt 
every practice and every article of faith of the early 
Church, if we are determined not to allow the force? of 
the multiplied witness which can be brought to bear 
upon this point ; from fathers, and councils, and canons, 
and rituals, all telling us the same thing, all speaking to 
us in every nation, at every time, with one voice, of the 
Altar, and the Service, and the Sacrifice. 

And these are words which are not to be explained 
away. Not only are modem opinions and notions of no 
value in opposition to the original records of the Chris- 
tian Church, but upon those records we are bound to 



the same meaning in which they were at first under- 
i. The Ohlation, the Cup, the Bread, the Sacrifice, 
Table of the Lord,®^ the Altar, Blessing the sacred 
nents, Offering them, Giving thanks to God, are 
18 whose meaning could Hot be mistaken, when Jews 
Heathens were in the habit of offering sacrifice : 
lier would such have been employed either by the 
ine Writers or by the fathers, unless they were to be 
ed:^tood in their then general and proper sense, 
r dangerous must have been the use of them, if they 
3 to be interpreted metaphorically only, at a time 
a the Church was anxious above every thing to de- 
Y utterly belief in and reverence for idols, and hea- 
i ceremonies and rites. 

u denial of the Christian sacrifice leads easily to a 
sX of the priesthood. There cannot be the one with- 
the other, and we cannot say how much need there is 
16 latter, where the former is not appointed. From 

'« If it be said, S. Paul calk 
loly Board a Table: I an- 

No^ not simply a table, but 
LorcTs Table. 1 Cor. x. 21. 
I have elsewhere proved, that 
18 expression we are to under- 

an Altar; for wherever else 
sed in Scripture, that is clearly 
[leaning of it. As the reader 
be satisfied, by perusing the 
places, where we meet with 
irord in the Old Testament; 
Ezek. xli. 22. xliv. 16. and 

i. 7. 12. The truth is, the 
3 of the Lord was the most 
iraUe title that the Prophets 
\postle could give to a proper 
•." Johnson. Unbl. Sac. 1. 

also, Bishop Andrewes in his 
^er to the xviiith Chapter of 

Cardinal Perron. « The Holy Eu- 
charist being considered as a sacri- 
fice, the same is fitly called an Al- 
tar : which again is as fitly called a 
Table, the Eucharist being con- 
sidered as a Sacrament. — Nyssen 
with one breath calleth it Svo'iaarrj- 
piovy that is, an Altar; and ispoc 
rpamela, that is, the Holy Table. 
Which is agreeable also to the 
Scriptures. For, the Altar in the 
old Testament, is by Malachi called, 
mensa Dominu And of the Table 
in the new Testament, by the 
Apostle it is said, habemus Altare, 
Which, of what matter it be, whether 
of stone, as Nyssen : or of wood, 
as Optatus, it skills not. So that 
the matter of Altars makes no dif- 
ference in the face of our Church." 

cxxii l^ceface. 

saying that there is no sacrifice except what is literally 
and entirely spiritual, a few steps hring ns to the aban- 
donment of a priesthood, of the episcopate, to a con- 
tempt of the great grace of orders and Apostolic bene- 
diction, to a rejection of tradition as the recognized ex- 
positor of Holy Writ, to a setting up of our own judg- 
ments, whatever we may assert to the contrary, as the 
infallible guides whom we are determined to obey. 

The command, " When thou fastest, be not of a sad 
countenance, but anoint thine head and wash thy face, 
that thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy 
Father which is in secret," has been allowed to be a 
conclusive scriptural argument for the necessity of fast- 
ing under the Christian dispensation. What reason 
then have any to deny the same conclusion for the con- 
tinuance of a proper altar, and. therefore for a proper 
material sacrifice, to be drawn from the text, " if thou 
bring thy gift to the Altar, and there rememberest that 
thy brother hath ought against thee; leave there thy 
gift before the altar, and go thy way ; first be reconciled 
to thy brother^ and then come and offer thy gift."®'^ 

It has been argued that our present liturgy speaks of 
the " sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving ;" and also, 
" that we offer and present unto the Lord, ourselves, 
our souls and bodies to be a reasonable, holy, and lively 
sacrifice ; " and therefore that there is no other sacrifice, 
and that the priest does not also offer the Body and the 
Blood of Christ. But we might quite as justly conclude 
from the words of the collect for the Sunday next before 
Easter, that the sole end of our Blessed Saviour's taking 
upon Him our flesh, and suffering death upon the cross, 
was *^ that all mankind should follow the example of His 
great humility:"^ which would contradict the state- 

^^ See Mcde upon the argument ^ Collect, Almighty and ever- 
from this text. Works, p. 390. lasting God, who of thy tender 



ment of •nqiher collect almost immediately succeeding, 
that the , Almigbty God has given His only Son to be 
unto us not only ^^ an ensample of godly life,'' but also 
" a sacrifice for sin."®^ 

I would notice a charge which is very often brought 
against the advocates of the Christian sacrifice, viz. that 
of priestcraft : a word of ill meaning in its common 
acceptation, calculated to arouse the passions of the 
ignorant, and the alarms of men who are anxious to deny 
what they do not wish to be the truth. Let it however 
be followed with the contempt and dislike and ridicule 
which usually are in its train : these are vain weapons 
of offence, these are but most insignificant annoyances in 
comparison with the sharper pains that saints endured 
of old : from those pains at present, by the great mercy 
of God, the church of England is free : yet whether 
they again recur or not, whether we have only lesser 
evils to contend with, (and then, perhaps, so subtle is the 
adversary, we shall be accused of seeking, and provoking, 
and saying we are strong to resist what we confidently 
believe is not about to happen :) let us speak boldly all 
that we believe sincerely, let us hold back no portion of 
the whole Word of God. In this country, where so 
numy thousands claim to be baptized and confirmed 
members of the Church, every priest sins who conceals 

love towards mankind^ hast sent thy 
Sony our Sayiour Jesus Christ, to 
take upon him our flesh, and to 
suffer death upon the cross, that all 
mankind should follow the example 
of his great humility ; M erdfully 
jpranty that we may hoth follow the 
example of his patience, and also he 
made partakers of his resurrection, 
through the same Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen. 

* Collect for the Second Sun- 

day after Easter. Almighty God, 
who hast given thine only Son to 
be unto us both a Sacrifice for sin, 
and also an ensample of godly life ; 
Give us grace that we may always 
most thankfully receive that his in- 
estimable benefit, and also daily 
endeavour ourselves to follow the 
blessed steps of his most holy life ; 
through the same Jesus Christ our 

cxxiv Ipreface* 

the truth only through fear of giving offence. His plain 
duty is " with all faithful diligence to minister the Doc- 
trine and Sacraments of Christ, as the Lord hath com- 
manded ; and to hanish and drive away all erroneous 
and strange doctrines contrary to God's word ;" and he 
must claim and must assert, so that he may lead his 
people to seek it at his hands, that he and others of his 
order, are the sole dispensers of the best gift of Godj the 
food and earnest of immortality, the bread of life, the 
Body and the Blood of Jesus Christ. 

And another charge : that they who would speak thus 
are but Romanists in disguise ; or at least are wavering, 
and tending Romewards. Surely upon every point on 
which we rightly can, the more we can establish a simi- 
larity of doctrine, I would not say of practice, between 
ourselves and the church of Rome, the more we shall 
keep stragglers away from her, and promote good feeling 
between the two communions. They cannot be many in 
n^umber among us, who would hesitate to express their 
earnest prayer that the English and the Roman churches 
were at one again, and that through the western world 
there might be fellowship once more ; which, when in 
God s good time it comes, may well be looked upon as 
an earnest of a restored communion with the East, to a 
healing of the divisions which have torn asunder that 
One Church, of which the seamless robe of her Incarnate 
Lord was the appointed type. 

And yet, how deep is the gulf between us ! the doc- 
trines of Transubstantiation and of Papal Lifallibility 
present an impassable barrier, through which we can 
discern no opening, so long as the Church of Rome 
denies communion to all who do not consent to them. 
And it is our duty to contend against them : it is our 
duty no less to point out their unscriptural character, 
and false foundation, than to inculcate the truths which 
I have spoken of above. If those truths are held also 
by the Church of Rome, shall that be a just reason for 

<ffir rejecting them? shall we regard them, upon that 
ground only, even with suspicion ? We do not argue so 
in many other cases, why then in this ? There have 
been in former times men to whom the very sound of 
Rome brought tidings of nothing but what was to be ab- 
horred, and they repudiated first one part of her creed, 
and then another, first one observance and then another, 
for the single and to them sufficient reason, that so it 
was believed and done at Rome ; until they left to them- 
selves little of Christianity but the name : and all that 
was vital had been given up* Not so has the church of 
England taught her children : she has rejected the errors 
of the church of Rome, but the act of separation was 
not hers at the first, (we trust, therefore, not the punish- 
ment,) and she has never been stripped, although they 
may have been obscured, of the marks and tokens which 
distinguish her as a true portion of the Holy Catholic 

To return to our more immediate subject, the ancient 
and modem liturgies of the church of England. None 
would wish to see restored the trifling observances and 
the doubtful rites which the rubrics of the old services 
enjoin. Writers of the Roman church have made many 
objections against our present Form, several of which 
are unfounded, or may be advanced equally against their 
own, or relate to things which very few would seriously 
complain of. A collection of these are to be found 
in Mr. Palmer's book which I have already referred 
to,^ and among the latter class are such as, that par- 
ticular prayers and ejaculations, anointings, exorcisms, 
&c. have been omitted. These may safely be left with- 
out more remark, and the reader, I doubt not, will justly 
decide that they are as far as possible from necessary, 
being mere additions or alterations of late ages^ from 


Origines Liturgicae. vol, ii. p, 9 — 18. 



which the earlier liturgies are free. But it is our duty 
to retort the charge, and express our dislike to much 
still retained in the present Roman liturgy, but which 
we have not in our own. The prayers aad order of the 
old Forms are derived from remote antiquity ; many of 
the rubrics are comparatively modem and- wperstitious. 
No one can read the Uses which are reprinted in this 
volume, without acknowledging the truth of this. There 
are directions ^' for so many crossings, so many various 
gestures, that the priest should at one time stand, at ano- 
ther bow, at another kneel," without a reasonable cause ; 
'' that now he should look up, then down, now regard the 
altar,, then the people, kiss the book of the Gospels, or 
the deacon, or subdeacon, at one time take the paten 
between his finger and middle finger, at another hold 
it in a different way ;" — all these are rules, which, whilst, 
we carefully boast not too boldly of our liberty, we may 
rejoice that we are free from. 

These are not, however, after all, matters of vital 
consequence : but besides them are considers^tions of a 
very serious character. Simply to Qame them, will be 
sufficient. The great error of transubstantiation brought 
with it additional directions to bow down and aft^r con- 
secration adore the Host : then expose it to the people, 
who should adore likewise. And in this, the highest 
service of the Church of Christ, who is there but must 
feel it to be a profanation to speak of the merits of the 
saints f ^^ 

^^ I am bound to remind the 
reader that Thomdike puts an m- 
terpretation upon the term " merit " 
as used in the old liturgies, (he 
speaks only of the Roman) different 
from that in which the later Latin 
fathers used it : and therefore takes 
it " to import only the exercise of 
that communion wldch all members 

of Christ's Church hold with all 
members of it, orddined by God, 
for the means to obtain for one 
another the grace which the obe- 
dience of our Lord. Jesus Christ 
hath purchased for us without diffe- 
rence, whether dead or alive." JE^ 
logue. book iii. p^ d57. 

I^teface. cxxvii 

Again, there is the use of on unknown and dead lan- 
guage : and above all there is the denial of the Cup ; an 
abuse the evil consequences of which we can scarcely 
overrate, nor esteem too lightly the authorities and rea- 
sons- on which it rests : contradicting as it does the ex- 
press commands of Christ, and the steady practice of a 
thousand years; and throwing doubt upon the entire 
reception by communicants of the instituted Sacrament. 
There is one ceremony commanded in the old Books 
to be observed, not in like manner to be condemned, 
and which seems to me to call for a brief remark. I 
mean, the use of the sign of the Cross. The multitude 
of crossings in the old Canons may very rightly have 
been discontinued, and yet to give no direction anywhere 
throughout for the use of that Holy Sign may be equally 
far from accordant with primitive usage. I would here 
quote the words of a ritualist of great authority among 
us, whose work is generally recommended to the atten- 
tive study of all candidates for Orders. 

He says : ^^ I do not know that there is an ancient 
Uturgy in being, but what shews that this sign was 
always made use of in some part or other of the office of 
communion. A number of crossings renders the service 
theatrical: but one or two we always find: so much 
having been thought proper upon this solemn occasion, 
to testify that we axe not ashamed of the Cross of Christ, 
and that the solemn service we are then about is per- 
formed in honour of a crucified Saviour. And therefore 
as the Church of England has thought fit to retain this 
ceremony in the ministration of one of her sacraments, 
I see not why she should lay it aside in the ministration 
of the other. For that may very well be applied to it in 
the ministration of the Eucharist, which the Church 
herself has declared of the Cross in Baptism : viz. that 
it was held in the primitive Church, as well by the 
Greeks as the Latins, with one consent and great 
applause : at what time, if any had opposed themselves 

cxxviii IPteface. 

against it they would certainly have been censured as 
enemies of the name of the Cross, and consequently of 
Christ's merits, the sign whereof they could no better 
endure/'^ How common the use of this- sign anciently 
was, is clear from TertuUian, in the often quoted passage, 
"Ad omnem progressum atque promotum, ad omnem 
aditum et exitum, ad vestitum, ad calciatum, ad lavacra, 
ad mensas, ad lumina^ ad cubilia, ad sedilia, quacunque 
nos conversatio exercet, frontem crucis signaculo teri- 
mus."^' The reader will see that the use of the sign of 
the Cross is enjoined in the first Book of King Edward. 

There never, however, has been any question of 
necessity as regards the ceremony of the use of the sign 
of the Cross : but not so with respect to another, the 
mixing of water with the wine. The epistle of S. Cy- 
prian upon this subject is weU known : and in short, 
from the earliest times of which any account has come 
down to us, there is an uniform and concurrent testimony 
that such was the observance. But passing by the proofs 
which the ancient liturgies furnish, and the often-quoted 
authorities of the fathers and ritualists of the middle 
ages, which are to be found in the works of almost every 
later writer, I shall merely add to these a few other testi- 
monies which bear more immediately upon the practice 
of the church of England. 

In one of the earliest documents which have come 
down to us, the very famous penitential of Archbishop 
Theodore, we fiind : " Nullus natnque presbyter nihil 
aliud in sacrificio offerat, praeter hoc quod Dominus 
docuit offerendum : id est, panem sine fermento, et 
vinum cum aqua mixtum ; quia de latere Domini san- 
guis et aqua exivit." ^ In the succeeding century, the 

^ Wheatley^ Rational lUustra- ^ Cap. xlviij. 17. Thorpe* An- 

tion, &c. p. 293. cient Laws and Institutes, vol. ii. 

^ TertulUan* de Corona. Edit. p. 58. 
Rigalt. p. 102. 

Preface* cxxix 

lOOth of the excerpts of Archbishop Egbert directs: 
*^ Sacerdotes Dei diligenter semper procurent, ut panis^ 
et vinum, et aqua, sine quibus nequaquam missse cele- 
brantur, pura et munda fiant." ^ Still later, among the 
canons of iElfiic : " The priest shall purely and care- 
fully do God s ministries, with clean hands and with 
clean heart; and let him see that his oblations be not 
old-baken, nor ill seen to ; and let him always mix water 
with the wine ; because the water betokens the people 
for whom He suffered." ^ And the abbot iElfric in his 
homily upon Easter-day, speaks to the same purpose: 
(I quote frona the Latin translation;) "Libri sancti 
praecipiunt, ut cum vino Eucharistiae immisceatur aqua, 
aqua enim significationem habet plebis, et vinum sangui- 
nis Christi, et hac de causa neutrum horum offeratur 
unquam per se, in sacra missa; ut sit Christus cum 
nobis, et nos cum Christo, cum membris Caput, et cum 
Capite membra."^ Once more, from the Anglo-saxon 
Ecclesiastical Institutes : " V. We also command, that 
the oblations which, in the holy mystery, ye offer to God^- 
ye either bake yourselves, or your servants before you, 
that ye may know that it is cleanly and neatly done ; 
and the oblations, and the wine, and the water, destined 
for the offering in the mass-singing, be minded to pre- 
serve with all cleanness and earnestness, and with fear 
of God, so that there be no uncleanness or impurity in 
it ; because no mass-singing may be without those three 
things, viz. oblations, and wine, and water, as the holy 
writ says. Be the fear of God with you, and all that ye 
do, do with much zeal. The wine betokens our Lord's 
passion, which He suffered for us ; the water the people, 
for whom Christ let His blood be shed."^ 

^ Ibid./>. 111. thol. torn. iu.p, 355. 

^ Ibid. j9. 361. ^ Thorpe. Ancient Laws, &c. 

^ Eccles. Anglic. Vindex Ca- vol, ii. p, 405. 



In later years, we have an abundance of canons to the 
same effect. Thus in 1237, among some synodal consti- 
tutions it was ordered ; ^^ In sacramento sanguinis domi- 
nici major pars vini, et modicum aquse ponatar."» Once 
more, a canon of Richard Bishop of Chichester, a.d. 
1246 : '' Celebret sacerdos cum pane ex tritico purissimo, 
et vino in debita quantitate, nullo modo corrupto, et 
modica aqua, quae a vino penitus absorbeatur/'^ Lastly 
let the reader refer to the second of the Cautells of the 
Mass, printed below, p. 168. ^^certo sciat se debitas 
materias habere : hoc est, panem triticeum, et vinum cum 
aqua modica, etc^ 

This observance of mixing water with the wine was 
continued according to the order of the first book of King 
Edward. The rubric is ; ^^ Then shall the minister take 
so much Breade and Wine, as shall suffice for the per- 
sons appoynted to receiue the Holy Communion, laiynge 
the breade upon the corporas, — and putting the wine 
into the Chalice, or els in some faire or conuemente 
cup, prepared for that use, puttyng therto a little pure 
and cleane water : And setting bodi the bread and wyne 
upon the Alter : then the Prieste shall, saye, &c." 

But in the year 1552 this good cathoUc custom was 
made to give way to the fancies of Bucer and others, 
^^ the scandal of the Reformiation ; " ' and from that time 

^ Wilkins, Concilia, torn. i. />. 

1 Ibid. j». 688. 

^ Kemnitiiis allowed that the 
mixture was simply indifferent, ar- 
guing that it rested, as in fact it 
does, solely upon the authority and 
precept of the Church. Exam. 
Cone. Trident, pars 2. Sess. 22. 
cap. 7. Luther however went to 
a greater length, declaring, " meo 
sensu melius, et tutius foret, aquam 

non miscere vino, cnm sit memm 
figmentum httmamim, et simsiram, 
immo pesaimam habeat aignificatio- 
nem.** Contra Henric. 8* But 
according to Bellarmin, Calvin and 
his followers expressed, as in other 
matters so in this, most extreme 
and rash opinions: affirming thi^ 
those who mixed water with wine 
in the Eucharist, were ^ sacrile- 
gious heretics and blasphemers.'' 
Opera, torn. iii. p, 328. 

jpceface^ cxxxi 

to the present the rubric of the English liturgy omits all 
notice or rule about it. Mr. Pahner in remarking upon 
the point haa said ; ^^ Even if we were to admit this custom 
to be of apostolical antiquity " (what doubt is there about 
it?) '^it is yet not essential to consecration by the ad- 
mission of Zaccaria and Bona, who say that no one will 
contend that it is necessary, and that the opinion of 
theologians is fixed that it is not. But the Church of 
England has never prohibited this custom, which is pri- 
mitiye and canonical » Wheatley also argues that it is 
not essential: ^^It must be confessed," he says, ^^that 
the mixture has in all ages, been the general practice, 
and for that reason was enjoined as has been stated 
above, to be continued in our own Church, by the first 
reformers. And though in the next review the order 
for it was omitted, yet the practice of it was continued 
in the King's chapel royal, all the time that Bishop 
Andrews was Dean of it : who also in the form that he 
drew up for the consecration of a church, expressly 
directs and orders it to be used.' Whatever may have 
been the cause of laying it aside, since there is no reason 
for thinking it essential, and since every Church has 
liberty to determine for herself in things not essential, it' 
must be an argument sure of a very indiscreet and over 
hasty zeal to urge the omission of it as a ground of sepa- 

Both these writers are correct in the conclusions which 
they arrive at, although it is not quite true that no one 
has contended for the necessity of the mixture. Every 
one must remember the differences of the non-jurors 
upon this point also among others, to which Wheatley 

^ Wheatley does not give the ru« recedentihus) lotisque manibusy 

brie or a reference. It is, " C»- pane fracto, vino in Calicem effusoy 

teris rebus ordine gestis demum et aqua admistay sti(ns ait, Al- 

Episcopus ad sacram M ensam redit mighty God, &c." Form of Con- 

(sacellanis utrisque aliquantulum secration of a Church, p. 42. 



alludes in the last sentence of fhc extract just above: 
and long before their time, it had formed a subject of 
controversy in the Church. Much more cautiously and 
correctly therefore speaks Angelo Rocca : ** Quamvis 
autem major scholasticorum doctorum pars, hoc est, fere 
omnes, aquam in calice consecrando, nee de necessitate 
sacramenti, nee de praecepto juris Divini esse velint, non 
desunt tamen, qui earn in sacramento calicis de necessi- 
tate sacramenti, ac praecepto Divini juris in calice conse- 
crando miscendam esse opinentur."* Benedict XIV. 
makes the same admission : but both he and Rocca decide 
without hesitation that the mixture is not necessary or 
essential, resting only upon the precept of the Church :^ 
which as of old in the Church of England might be, or 
as now, might not be, but removed. In short, those 
who hold the contrary opinion have been so few, that 
their opposition to the general agreement and decisions 
of the whole Church in this matter, serve but to illus- 
trate and to confirm the truth. 

* Opera, torn, i. p. 267. 

^ Opera, torn. ix. p. 115. And 
80 spoke the council of Trent. 
^* Monet deinde sancta synodus, 
pradceptum esse ab ecclesia sacer- 
dotibus, ut aquam vino in calice 
offerendo miscerent, etc" Sessio. 
xxii. cap. 7. 

To the same purpose also an 
earlier authority, Thomas Waldeu' 
sis ; acknowledging that our Bless- 
ed Lord consecrated wine only in 
the Last Supper, he says : '^ A ca- 
lice tamen illo dominico etiam prae- 
sens calix dominicus formam sumit 
secundum essentiam calicis, a la- 
tere autem ejus formam habuit 
admistionis.'' Again, soon after: 
** Mistio non facit alietatem rei, 
sed signi, eo quod non facit vel 
adimit substantiam sacramenti : 

a lateris vulnere originem ha- 
bet mistio calicis, et ad sanctam coe- 
nam non recurrunt (patres) pro 

ejus scienda origine. Certa ra- 

tione primo puto miscuisse Aposto^ 
los, a quibus primo defluxit de mis- 
cendo statutum. £t Paschasius; 
Plane aqua in sanguine misceatur. 
Quare misceatur, dum in natalitio 
calicis factum fuisse non l^mus ? 
nia maxime causa est, quia de latere 
Christi, ubi passio impletur, san-f. 
guis pariter cum aqua manavit. 
Quod certe mysterium apostoli 
plene intelligentes, faciendum in 
calice censuerunt, ut nihil deesset 
nobis in hoc sacramento ad com- 
memorationem passionis, quod tunc 
extitit in cruce ad consummationem 
nostraB redemptionis.'' De sacra- 
mentalibus, iv. S2.JbL 74. ' 

l^tetml cxxxiib 

Although we can scarcely go so far as to say that 
B'ellarmin held that the mixture is necessary, still it is 
not to he denied that he uses language which almost 
tends to it, and at least he does not so readily admit the 
statements of other theologians of the Roman church. 
It must be remembered however that he argues from the 
supposed fact of the Cup in the Last Supper having been 
mixed: and only in a subsidiary view regards the mys- 
tery of the Water and the Blood which flowed from our 
Saviour's side. The Cardinal says ; " Ecclesia Catholica 
semper credidit ita necessarium esse aqua vinum misceri 
in calice, ut non possit sine gravi peccato omitti. Utrum 
autem sine aqua sacramentum consistere possit, non est 
adeo certum ; communis tamen opinio in partem affirma- 
tivam propendet. Quare false Kemnitius catholicis in 
commune tribuit, quod asserant, aquam in eucharistia 
esse de necessitate sacramenti, cum paucissimi id affir^ 

The mixture was always therefore, when rightly con- 
sidered, looked upon only as having a mystical signifi- 
cation : as the same cauteU of the Salisbury missal above 
cited proceeds to declare, " Apponitur aqua solum ad 
significandum : " and as very learned writers have ar- 
gued, some things are necessary in the sacrament ad 
plenifudinem essentice^ aut efficacicBy others only ad ple^ 
nitud^em significationis. These last are subject to the 
wisdom and discretion of each particular Church, to be 
ordered as she may judge most colivenient to the neces- 
sities of the time : and the church of England having 
in 1552 been forced to submit to the wishes of those who 
disliked the mixture, the reviewers of her liturgy in 1662, 
upon a further consideration, did not think it advisable 
to restore the practice, ancient and once universal as it 
was. Certainly it was not imperative upon them to have 

' De Sacram. Euch. 4. x. Opera, torn. iii. p. 328. 

cxxxiv Ptcfiace; 

done so, although the majority might now perhaps allow 
that it would have been a wise and pious course/ 

There are many examples by which we might prove 
that priests of the church of England since the removal 
of the order in the year 1552, nevertheless have mixed 
water with the wine in the celebration of the holy eu- 
charist. The case of Bishop Andrewes has been already 
mentioned. The author of an Answer to Mr. Leslie, in 
1719> speaks of the practice being continued by some : 
and in the reign of K. James, when. Prince Charles 
visited Spain, among the royal orders drawn up for 
directing the English Service which was to be observed 
in the prince's family during his stay at Madrid, was, 
" IV. That the communion be celebrated in due form, 
with an oblation of every communicant, and admixing 
water with the wine."® There is an argument however, 
which we cannot but allow might in this matter have had 
very considerable weight with men before 1662 : viz. that 
the Coinmbn Prayer Books from 1552 until then rested 
not upon sufficient authority : and therefore Bishop An- 
drewes, and Bishop Overall, in their departure from the 
rubrics of the later Books, were but observing that 
Order which alone, during the entire period of which I 
am now speaking, was binding upon the church of Eng- 
land. It was not possible, neither would it have been 
wise, that they should in all things have returned to the 
first Book of 1549, better though it was than that of 
1552, as they were ready to acknowledge; but they 
were enabled, with safe consciences, to adopt some cer- 
tain and few observances authorized by it, to the im- 
provement of the liturgy then established, and which 
they generally used. 

But since 1662, I cannot but look upon the question 
as essentially different : and Mr. Palmer appears to draw 

' I would refer also to Bretfs son, Unbl. Sacr. vol. ii. pp. 58. 59. 
remarks upon. this observance, Dis- ® CoUier. Eccles, Hist. voUn,p. 
sertation, p. 86-102. And to John- 726. 

preface. cxxxv 

the line very narrowly when he says (as ahove) that the 
church of England has not prohihited the custom. It 
is not necessary that every ancient practice which is no 
longer to be oteerved, should particularly be mentioned : 
the mere omission of directions must, in many cases, be al- 
lowed to be sufficient. More than this ; the statute 1 . Eliz. 
c. 1. which enforces the act of 2nd and 3rd Edwd. c. 1. 
ordains, ^^ That all Ministers shall be bound to say, and 
use the Mattens, Evensong, Administration of each of 
the Sacraments, and all other Common and Open Prayer, 
in such Order and Form as is mentioned in the said 
Book so authorized by Parliament, and None other or 
otherwise.** And the statute 14 Chas. II. enacts " That 
the former good Laws and Statutes of this Realm, which 
have been formerly made, and are still in force for the 
Uniformity of Prayer and Administration of the Sacra- 
ments, shall stand in full force and strength to all intents 
and purposes whatsoever, for the establishing and con- 
firming the said Book, herein before mentioned to be 

joined and annexed to this Act." 

Therefore, although we may regret that this primitive 
practice, sanctioned by the constant observance of it by 
the universal Church for 1500 years, is not now included 
among the rites according to which we celebrate the 
holy eucharist, yet as it is not essential to the valid 
consecration and administration of the Cup, and has 
been forbidden by the rubric of our present Order of 
communion, the wise and proper course for the minis- 
ters of the church of England to pursue must be, to 
consecrate wine only without any mixture of water. The 
intention and object with which anciently the mixture 
was ordered, were mystical and to be signified by a pub- 
lic adding of the water to the wine, that those who were 
present might see, and acknowledge its hidden meaning. 
So that if this mixture be not public as of old, and ex- 
plained to the people, the purpose of it must be lost, and 
disobedience to the rubric be accompanied by no reason- 
able benefit whatever. 



lE haTe now, in this chapter, to examine our 
present oflSce of the Holy Communion, and 
point out the three rites which I have said 
I seem to be essential, and are to he found in 
it. These are the recital of the words of Institution, the 
Oblation of the Elements, and the Invocation of the 
Holy Ghost. 

The recital of the words of Institution occurs in 
(what the rubric expressly calls) the Prayer of Consecra- 
tion. The priest having made a short commemorative 
thanksgiving for the infinite mercies and loving-kind- 
ness of the Father, Who hath given for us His only Son 
Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the cross ; and having 
invoked the Divine Blessing, (which we shall come to 
presently,) goes on to say, "Who," i.e. our Blessed Lord, 
" Who in the same night that He was betrayed, took 
Bread; and when He had given thanks, He brake it, 
and gave it to His disciples, saying, Take, eat, tias is 
My Body, which is given for you : Do this in remem- 
brance of Me. Likewise after supper, He took the Cup ; 
and when He had given thanks. He gave it to them say- 
ing, Drink ye all of this ; for this is My Blood of the 
New Testament, which is shed for you, and for many, 
for the remission of sins : Do this, as oft as ye shall 
drink it, in remembrance of me."^ Nothing can be 
more accordant with ancient usage. 

But I would not pass on, without a brief notice upon 
a point which has ah^ady been alluded to : viz. wheflier 
by the recital alone of the words of Institution the bread 

■ So also the liturgy of 1552. 



and wine can be held to be validly consecrated. If 
there is any rubric which we may desire to . be altered 
in our present service, surely none rather than that which 
is so contrary in its spirit to all antiquity, so agreeable to 
(apparently) the erroneous doctrine of the modem church 
of Rome,^^ and which declares that " if the consecrated 
Bread or Wine be all spent before all have communi- 
catedy the Pri^t is to consecrate more, according to the 
iP'orm before prescribed; beginning at {Our Saviour 
Christ in the same night j ^c.) for the blessing of the 
Bread ; and at {Likewise after supper Sfc.) for the 
blessing of the Cup." The manner in which Wheatley 
endeavours to evade the difficulty which the observance 
of this rubric enjoins, is very unsatisfactory. He 
'^ humbly presumes that, if the minister should at the 
consecration of fresh elements, after the others are spenl^ 
repeat again the whole form of consecration, or at least 
from those words, * Hear uSy O mercifull Father, SfcJ 
he would answer the end of the rubric."" This cuts the 

" TheCautellsoftheoldSarum, 
York, and Hereford missals direct 
almost in the same words as our 
present rubric: for example as to 
the Cup, in case of accident, '^ — 
ne sacramentum maneat imperfec 
tmn debet calicem denuo rite prad- 
parare: et resumere consecrationem 
sanguinis ab illo loco : Simili modo«'* 
Nor is it a little worth remark that 
of these words, the " verba conse- 
craHonisy* to which, according to 
the theory of the church of Rome, 
so much power and effect are attri- 
buted, some are declared to be 
more important than the others : as 
the same Cautells tell us. '^ Uno 
spiritu tractim dicat, Hoc est enim 
corpus meum : sic non immiscet se 
alia cogitatio. Non enim videtur 

esse rationabile discontinuare for- 
mam tam brevem, tam arduam, 
tam efficacem: cujus tota virtus 
dependet ab ultimo rerbo, scilicet, 
meum, quod in persona Christi di- 
citur." Into how great difficulties 
are men driven by the first steps 
taken to define too accurately, and 
beyond the limits of human judg- 
ment, the workings of the Most 
High: and how much better, to 
say the least, must it be in all such 
cases, to repeat unnecessarily but 
reverently words and rites which 
we may have any reason to suppose 
to be essential, than to omit, without 
the authority of inspiration, even 
one which may indeed be so. 

" Rational lUus. p. 291. 



knot : and like other methods in similar cases, by break- 
ing the rule. Still, however, it does seem, unsatisfactory 
as it is, the only way left to us, when unfortunately it 
happens, that the elements first consecrated are not 
sufficient for the number of communicants. 

But in fact, if we carefully consider the matter, such a 
case can scarcely even by possibility occur : I do not of 
course mean that it does not, but that it ought not to 
occur. The rubric of which I am speaking is of course 
no more obligatory than any other of the whole Order of 
Communion : and it may almost be ai^ed that we are 
not to attend to any one, unless we observe others on 
which it may depend. Now, in this case, there is a ru- 
bric, which if we carefully obeyed, would relieve us from 
difficulty : viz. the first, which requires all " who intend 
to be partakers of the Holy Communion, to signify their 
names to the Curate, at least some time the day before." 
If, knowing the number, the priest does not consecrate 
so jnuch as, and a little more than, he can believe to be 
sufficient, he will be needlessly exposing himself either 
to doubts (if he entertain such) of the validity of the con- 
secration, or to the being obliged to " answer the end of 
the rubric" after the recommendation of Wheatley. 

Next, as to the oblation of the elements, after the 
recital of the words of Institution ; or, to speak more 
strictly, as to the offering of the sacrifice. The prayer 
of Oblation, says Wheatley,^* was " mangled and dis- 

^* Hickes> however, rather ar- 
gues that the second ohlation, ^ is 
made in suhstance, and according 
to the intention of the Church in 
the prayer of Consecration to God 
the Father, where after the com- 
memoration of Christ's offering 
Himself upon the Cross, and his 
institution of the perpetual Memo- 

rial of His precious death, God the 
Father is implored to hear us, 
while ' according to the same In- 
stitution, we receive His creatures 
of Bread and Wine, in remembrance 
of His Son our Saviour's Death 
and Passion.*" Christian Priest- 
hood, vol. i. p. 119. 



placed at the reyiew in 1552 ; being half laid aside, and 
the rest of it thrown into an improper place : as being 
enjoined to be said in that part of the Office which is to 
be used after the people have communicated." He adds, 
approvingly certainly rather than otherwise, the example 
of Bishop Overall, whose practice was to use the first 
prayer in the post-communion Office between the con- 
secration and the administering, ^^ even when it was other- 
wise ordered by the public liturgy."" 

Certainly we cannot but agree with Wheatley, that 
in our present dEfice this prayer of oblation has been dis- 
placed. But no one who requires an express prayer of 
oblation, can wish the terms of it to be in plainer words, 
than in those which are to be there found : and all who 
follow Wheatley's view, may be well satisfied, using it 
with all thankfulness, so to offer up to the Almighty 
Father, the appointed sacrifice. Thus then it stands :^* 
" O Lord and heavenly Father, we thy humble servants 
entirely desire thy fatherly goodness, mercifully to 
accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving ; 
most humbly beseeching thee to grant, &c." And 
again ; " Although we be unworthy, through our mani- 
fold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice ; yet we beseech 
thee to accept this our bounden duty and service ; not 
weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord." ^* 

^ " On this Bishop Jolly re- 
marks, that ' he must have thought 
it no breach of the Act of Uniform- 
ity* — (on the Eucharist, 155) ; Dr. 
Posey, (to whom Tract 87, p. 98, 
warrants us in ascribing the Intro- 
d^ction to Tract 81) that ^perhaps 
his so doing implies that it had al- 
ways been so done in .that portion 
of the Church, and the rubric not 

received in that Church as yet.* p. 
36." Note to Robertson's How to 
conform to the Liturgy y p. 127. 
It is but fair to Mr. R. to add, 
that he says he does not under- 
stand Dr. Pusey's explanation. 

^« So also the Book of 1552. 

^ Bishop Watson says ; " In his 
last supper, Christ beyng our most 
hye Priest, firste of all did offer, a 

It cannot but be observed that the observations which 
I have just made, are grounded upon the supposition 
that only in this prayer the offering is made ; but in the 
prayer of consecration also the same essential rite is to 
be found, as very learned writers have argued. Upon 
this point I shall extract a passage from Johnson's Cler- 
gyman's Vade-mecum, and leave it to the judgment of 
the reader. The author takes notice " how some with 
vehemency have insisted that the first collect in the 
post- communion should be inserted between the conse- 
cration and the administration, or some prayer of obla- 
tion added in that place. But," he continues, ^* I can 
see no necessity for any such alteration. The consecra- 
tion prayer, and the words used by the priest at the ad- 
ministration, seem, sufficient, if rightly applied. In the 
consecration prayer, Christ is said, by one Oblation of 
Himself upon the Cross, to have made a full and perfect 
sacrifice : and in our Saviour's words of institution, in- 
serted in this prayer, the Bread is called His Body 
given, i. e. sacrificed for us ; the Wine His Blood shed, 
as a libation for us, i. e. for the remission of our sins, as 
follows presently after. Nothing then can be more clear, 
than that the eucharisf is hereby declared to be a sacri- 
fice ; and in the words of administration, the merits of 
it are applied to every receiver, The Body of Christ, 
which was given for thee (and is now exhibited to God 
in thy behalf) preserve thy body and soul to everlasting 
life. No wise man is for alterations^ but in case of appa- 
rent necessity, which 1 cannot perceive in the matter 
now before us." 

Sacrifice to God the Father, and whyche Ohladon the Church recyv- 

commaunded the same to he done ing of the Apostles, dothe offer to 

of the Priestes of his Church that God throughoute the hoUe worlde." 

occupye hys offyce, in memorye of Holsome and Catholyke doctrine^ 

hym, and so taughte the newe ob- p. 68, edit. 1558. 
lation of the newe Testament, 

^tifatt cxii 

'' ' And, once more ; it cannot be necessary that the ob- 
lation should be in more express terms, and in plainer 
language than the invocation of the Holy Spirit, to 
which we shall next direct our attention. It is quite 
enough if the whole action supposes and carries on an 
oblation : which is so undeniable a circumstance of the 
liturgy of the church of England, that all may remain 
fully satisfied with it, who object to our present prayer 
being placed after the communion, or think that the 
ai^ument drawn from the words of institution and ad- 
ministration is of scarcely sufficient weight. 

Lastly, as to the invocation of the Holy Spirit : that 
He may descend upon, and make the representative 
elements the Body and the Blood of Christ. It is true 
that anciently this was prayed for in plain and direct 
words. As in the Clementine ; " Send down thy Holy 
Spirit, the witness of the sufferings of the Lord Jesus, 
that He may make (aTro^tivy) this bread the Body of 
Thy Christ, and this cup the Blood of Thy Christ." 
Again, in the liturgy of S. James ; " Send down, O 
Lord, Thy most Holy Spirit upon us, and upon these 
gifts which are here set before Thee, that by His de- 
scent upon them. He may make this bread the holy 
Body of Thy Christ, and this cup the precious Blood of 
Thy Christ." And once more in the Alexandrian ; 
" Send down Thy Holy Spirit upon us, and upon these 
loaves and these cups, that the Almighty God may sanc- 
tify and thoroughly consecrate them, (Ivx aura aytaeri? xa* 
TiXuatni) making the bread the Body, and the cup the 
Blood of the New Testament of our Lord Himself, our 
God, our Saviour, and supreme King Jesus Christ." It 
does not appear necessary, however, that this invocation 
should be so express. The western Church for a thou- 
sand years has not used such a prayer, and we may 
conclude with Palmer and Waterland, that it is not es- 
sential to mention before God the means by which He 
is to accomplish the end we pray for. " However true 

cxKi ^Ufm. 

it be, that Grod effects this consecration by means of the 
Holy Ghost, it is unnecessary to pray expressly for the 
Holy Ghost to consecrate the elements of bread and 
Wine, because God knows perfectly all the means and 
methods of consecration, and because any prayer for 
consecration, is, in fact, a prayer that it may be ac- 
complished by all the means which are known to Infi- 
nite Wisdom J' ^^ The invocation, therefore, in the 
English liturgy is as follows ; ^* Hear us, O merciM 
Father, we most humbly beseech thee ; and grant that 
we receiving these thy creatures of bread and wine, ac- 
cording to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy in- 
stitution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may 
be partakers of His most blessed Body and Blood." ^^ 

Although, as I have just said, the western Church for 
many centuries has not used an express prayer for the 
descent of the Holy Spirit, yet the true doctrine was an- 
ciently acknowledged by every part of it : viz. that by 
His influence the consecration was fully completed, 
which was not otherwise, as the fact of its being used 
after the repetition of the ^^ wor^is of consecration," clearly 
testified. And upon this point the passage in Gelasius, 
against Eutyches and Nestorius, is sufficient : where 
speaking of the sacred elements he says : ^^ in banc, sci*- 
licet in Divinam, transeunt, Sancto Spiritu perficiente, 
substantiam, permanentia tamen in susb proprietate na- 
turae."^® But long after this time, plain prayers were to 
be found to this effect in the GulUcan liturgy : as for 
example : " Post secreta. Descendat, precamur omnipo- 
tens Deus, super heec, quae tibi offerimus, Verbum tuum 
sanctum ; descendat inaestimabiUs glori« tuae Sph-itus/'^^ 

^ Palmer. Orig. Lit. iL 138. " EouOi. Script. Eccleg. Opus- 

cula. p. 493. 

^"^ So also in the Book of 1552. " MaUUon, De Lit. Gallicana. 
See Palmer, for further remarks j9. 331. See also aboye. p. cix. 
upon this passage. Note 79. ... 

Wtt&iCe. cxliii 

And BO late even as the xith century, Micrologus still 
speaks of the invocation, as to be said in every Service. 
^^ Composita oblatione in altari, dicit sacerdos hanc ora- 
tionem juxta Gallicanum ordinem: Veni Sanctificator 
omnipotens, aeteme Deus, benedic hoc sacrificium, tuo 
nomini prseparatum. Per Christum Dominum nos- 
trum."*^ So, once more, there are many such instances 
in the Mozarabic liturgy, such as, on the first Sunday in 
Lent : ^^ Eniitte Spiritum tuum de Sanctis coelis tuis, quo 
sanctificentur oblata:" or, on the third Sunday after 
Easter : " His sacrificiis propitius illabere, bisque bene- 
dicturus descende." 

It is true that later writers of the Roman communion 
try to explain away these testimonies, though as may be 
supposed by a most unnatural and forced interpretation, 
because they furnish an incontestable argument against 
the effect which they attribute to the sole repetition of 
the " verba consecrationis." But I cannot agree with 
Johnson, who has suggested that therefore the express 
invocation was omitted from the Roman Canon.^^ Be- 
cause it is not certain it ever was more plain and direct 
than in the modem Use of that Church, or in our own 
liturgy : and, moreover, the doctrine itself was acknow- 
ledged until the novel introduction in after-years of the 
error of transubstantiation. 

We may assert then, that our liturgy contains the 
necessary essentials to a valid consecration of the Holy 
Eucharist. That these are disjointed, misplaced, ob- 
scured, is matter for serious exertions to be employed 
upon, that they may be restored to a due order, and a 
more evident existence. We are not, however, driven 
to seek in other Forms, the certainty which we cannot 
discover in our own : and there can be no surer mark 
of the ever-abiding presence of our Blessed Lord hitherto, 

^ Cap. xi. 21 UnbL Sacr. vol, i. p. 196. 

cxiiv Ipteface/ 

with this the English branch of His Church, than that 
we still possess it. Whilst we regret what we have lost, 
let us acknowledge in deep humility the correcting hand, 
which has spared us what none will dare to say, we 
have deserved. 

There is yet one more subject upon which I would 
make some observations. In all the liturgies reprinted 
in this volume, will be found commemorations of and 
prayers for the dead. There is an uniform observance 
of the great principle that we who are alive and the dead 
saints form but One Body, " one family in heaven and 
earthy' (as it is written in the Ephesians,) under One 
Head: and that the highest service which caia be paid 
to their Blessed Lord by the living, ought to include 
also in its supplications those who have been already 
called to their eternal rest, the Dead in Christ. 

It has been a pious opinion of the Church that the 
Holy Angels are especially present with us in the cele- 
bration of the eucharist. As an old Bishop of our 
church has written; "In this geuynge of thankes by 
Christe oure Lorde, for whose merites they be onely 
acceptable, the Priest prayeth to be ioyned and associate 
with the Aungels and Archangels, and all the whole 
army of the blessed spirites in heaven, who than doo 
assist the Prieste^ and he present there in the honour of 
hym who i^ offered^ praysynge, honoring, and adouringe 
the Maiestie of almyghtye God."** Again, some cen- 
turies before his day, a provincial council of the church 
of England had spoken the same thing. ^^ Altaris oma- 
menta Integra sint et munda, et saepe abluantur per per- 
sonas a canonibus deputatas, ad reverentiam Salvatoris 
nostri, et totius coelestis curiae, quam huic sacramento 

^ Watson. Holsome Doctrine. Angels and Archangels and with 
&c. p. 79. So in the Seraphic all the company of heaven, we laud 
Hymn we say, " Therefore, with and magnify thy glorious Name. 

px&m: cxiv 

ooiifi<nendo> et confecto, non dubium est interesse.*'*^ 
And once more, the two following from the Ecclesiastical 
Institutes of the Anglo-saxon church. " Without doubt, 
there where the name of God is frequently invoked, and 
the holy mystery offered in the mass-service (on m«rre-r»n5e) 
there is no doubt, that the presence of God s angels 
is there very near." And, more plainly in the other 
place : " Much is the supplication and great is the hal- 
lowing, which sendeth away devils and putteth them 
to flight, as often as baptism is performed or housel hal- 
lowed : and holy angels hover there around, and protect 
the deeds, and through God's powers support the priests, 
as often as they rightly minister to Christ."^ 

But the Holy Angels are in the actual enjojonent of 
that unspeakable bliss which is not to be bestowed on 
man until after the great Judgment. For them therefore 
the Church supplicates not any increase, or any hasten- 
ing of anticipated joy : but for the Dead she does pray. 
At the solemn time when the Memorial has been offered 
to the Almighty of the Passion of the Beloved Son, she 
thinks not enly, speaks not only of her members who are 
militant here on earth, but remembers those who are 
equally her members still, though removed from the 
carnal sight : she acknowledges by the mere remem- 
brance, and by her commemoration, that they are yet 
living although dead: that they have hopes and expec- 
tations, and (if it be not presumptuous to say so) long- 
ings for the coming of Christ's Kingdom, for the con- 
summation of all things. 

Therefore, with an undoubting and steady voice, has 
the Church always. East and West, North and South, 
prayed for the Dead. At one time, offering *' for all 

^ Wilkins. Concilia, tonu ii. p. torn. Horn. ix. de Poenit. Opera* 

513. A.D. 1322. See also Lynd- torn, ii. p. 412. 

wood^ lib. iii. tit. 23. Linteandna. ^ Thoiye, Eccles. Laws. vol. ii. 

verb. Interesse. And S. Chrysos- pp. 829. 409. 



the saints, who have pleased God from the beginning 
of the world :"** at another calling upon God to remem- 
ber " all the faithful, from just Abel unto this day, and 
that He would make them rest in Paradise, in the bosom 
of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob." * At another, the 
dyptichs of the dead having been read, entreating that 
God would " give rest unto their souls, in the tabernacles 
of His saints, that He would dispense unto them the 
good things which He had promised, and vouchsafe them 
the kingdom of heaven."*' At another, offering the 
reasonable worship, for those " who are departed in the 
faith, our forefathers, fathers, patriarchs, prophets, 
apostles, preachers, evangelists, martyrs, confessors, 
chaste persons, and every spirit perfected in faith." ^ 
At another, calling upon God ** to remember His ser- 
vants and handmaids, who are gone before with the sign 
of faith, and sleep in the sleep of peace." ^ 

We may not be able, nor is it necessary that we should 
desire, exactly to define the reasons why this kind mark 
of charity and love for those who were departed, was 
always, from the first, exhibited by the K ving «iembers of 
the Church of Christ : this we know, that those who 
lived nearest to the fountain-head, the apostles them- 
selves and the chief Comer-stone, must have known the 
will of the Almighty Saviour. It may have been that 
they prayed for an encrease of their bliss : or for the 

^ The Liturgy of S. Clement. 
^ The Liturgy of Jerusalem. 


The Liturgy of S. Mark. 

« The Liturgy of S. Chrysos- 
tom. The words which follow are 
remarkable. " Especially the most 
holy, immaculate, blessed above all, 
most glorious Lady, the Mother of 
God, and ever Virgin Mary." 
Hence the observers of that li- 

turgy did not believe but that the 
blessed Virgin remains still with 
other departed saints, in Paradise, 
ejppecting and not enjoying the ful- 
ness of bliss. So S. Jerome says 
in his epistle to Paulina : '' the 
saints enjoy the company of An- 
gels, and are with Mary the Mo- 
ther of our Lord." 

^ The liturgies according to the 
Use of Sarum, York, &c. 

Pteface* cxivh 

hasteniBg of the great day, for the consummation of all 
things, for the gathering together of the elect, when God 
shall again he All in All. One thing they could not he 
deceived in ; that they were performing a duty acceptable 
to Him Who heard their prayers, and that, in the most 
practical of all ways, they were evidencing their full 
belief in the immortality of the soul, and the resurrec- 
tion of the dead. 

I am very far from asserting that it is necessary that 
every liturgy should exhibit the proofs of this faith, and 
the example of so just and primitive a practice ; prayer 
for the dead may conduce to its perfection, being a sign of 
brotherly charity and love, and especially proper to the 
Divine Service. But more than this, unlike the essential 
rites of which I have been speaking, it cannot be consi- 
dered : and remembering the abuses which for some pre- 
ceding ages had unhappily overrun in this matter, among 
other branches of the western Church, the Church of 
England, her rulers in the sixteenth century would not, 
it may almost be argued, have acted unreasonably, if 
they had removed it entirely from her liturgy. They 
could not but see and acknowledge the wide extent to 
which those evils, consequent upon corrupt notions and 
explanations of Catholic doctrines, had imhappily spread. 
They knew upon the one hand that masses for dead indi- 
viduals can profit nothing : that each man while he lives 
on earth " must do with all his might, whatsoever his 
hand findeth to do :" that '* where the treefalleth, there 
it shall be : " that whoso " will hear His voice," must 
** to day harden not his heart : " that " no man may de- 
liver his brother, nor make agreement unto God for 
him : " but they knew no less upon the other hand the 
testimony of all antiquity, rightly so called, of the first 
five centuries of the Christian Faith, to the observance of 
prayer for the dead in Christ. Hence they acted wisely, 
and, I doubt not, overruled by the Spirit of God ; they 
took not away all remembrance of them from the Holy 



Office, but they did not Tenture>to Jtpeak* m ^Im^fyrl'^d" 
so plainly as men did* in piirerr times a they l|eftr;tbfP ^i 
pression of their hopes and wishes, icouelned notimdnlnoui: 
but in cautious language, in. words whiebicaretefiSiByef^ 
it may be might overlook, but whose ^meoifing eaamot br 
denied. ?. » •* » 

Therefore, with gratitude wei declare, ^l^ad) the Jiturgy.- 
of the church of England is net wantingm^this part> 
cular ; in it we still include and pray fdt' those who ai>e: 
gone before ; we still beseech our Heayeoly Father, in»*^ 
cifully to accept our sacrifice, andtogvant'thati^^ weiaand' 
all His whole Church may obtain remissioittQf'aurfMnS' 
and all other benefits of His passion." How emphatical 
is the expression, ** all the whole Church " I the 
Communion of the Saints,^ " ' ^ "*' ^'' 

^ The above seDtence stands 
as it was in the first edition, and 
when it was written I knew not 
that any had before argued from 
the same passage. I mention this- 
(I trust it need scarcely be added) 
only as a proof that a careful 
consideration will be sufficient com> 
monly for every one, to discern in 
such cases, and to arrive at, the truth 
for himself: and that very often 
mere want of such consideration is 
the sole reason for the rejection or 
the doubt of it. But Bishop Over- 
all (and probably others also) has 
noticed and argued ^m this prayer 
in a passage so remarkable that I 
extract it. '^ If we compare the 
Eucharist with Christ's sacrifice 
made once upon the cross, as con- 
cerning the effect of it, we say that 
that was a sufficient sacrifice : but 
withal that it is a true, real and effi- 
cient sacrifice, and both of them 
propitiatory for the sins of the whole 

woirld. TAnd therefo^re in 4he ob-« 
lation following, we ^ray that it; 
may prevail so ^with.'Gedi -iw thoit 
we and all the whole Church -of 
Christ (which consists of moore than 
those that are upon the earth) may 
receive the benefit of it Neither 
do we call this. sacrifice of the Eu- 
charist an efficient sacrifice, as if 
that upon the cross wanted efficacy,: 
but because the force and virtue of 
that sacrifice would not be profita^- 
ble to us, unless it were applied and 
brought into effect by this eucha- 
ristical sacrifice, and other the 
holy sacraments, and means ap- 
pointed by God for that end : but 
we call propitiatory both this and 
that, because they have both force 
and virtue in them to appease God's 
wrath against this sii^l world." 
Notes on the Communion Service •* 
printed in Nicholls' commentary, p. 
46. Again, upon the same words* 
** This is a plak oblation of Christ'f 



This prayer however is so far at the discretion of the 
officiating priest, that he may use one other in its stead : 
in which the important duty of which I have been 
speaking, is not, it must be acknowledged, so forcibly 
recc^nized. It seems to look more to the living actors, 
and has less in it of ^that forgetfulness of self, as the 
sole object of prayer, which characterized the Church 
cf.old,.... And yet, after all, the catholic truth is acknow- 
ledged and in all its fulness : that the mystical Body of 
the Son, by a part of which and for all of which the 
sacn^ce haa been offered, ^* is the blessed company of all 
fidthful neop: 

»» SI 

death once offered, and a repre- 
sentative sacrifice of it, for the sins 
and for the benefit of the whole 
woild, of the whole Church ; that 
bodi those which are here on earth, 
ud those that rest in the sleep of 
peace, being departed in the faith 
of Christ, may find the effect and 
Tirtae of it. And if the authority 
of the ancient Church may prevail 
wiih us, as it ought to do, there is 
nothing more manifest, than that it 
always taught as much : and it is 
no absurdity to say, here is an Ob- 
lation made for all, when it is not 
imly commemorated to have been 
once offered, but solemn prayers 
are liere also added, and a request 
made, that it may be effectual to 
alL-— And in this sense it is not 
only an eucharistical, but a propi- 
tiatory sacrifice : and to prove it a 
sacrifice propitiatory, always so ac- 
knowledged by the ancient Church, 
there can be no better argument, 
than.lbat it was offered up, not only 
far Uie living but for the dead, and 
for those that were absent, for 
them tiiat travelled, for Jews, for 

heretics, &c« who could have no 
other benefit of it, but as it was a 
propitiatory sacrifice : and that thus 
they did offer it, read a whole army 
of Fathers." Ibid. p. 60. See 
also above, p. cxv. Note 82. 

^ In the Bodleian library, is a 
copy of **-4 Form of Common 
Prayer^ to be used upon the thir^ 
Heth of January^ SfCy published 
by His Majestic^ s direction, Printed 
by John Sill, 1661," in which the 
following prayer occurs. " But 
here, O Lord, we offer unto Thee 
all possible praise and thanks for 
all the glory of Thy grace that 
shined forth in Thine anointed, 
our late Sovereign, and that Thou 
wert pleased to own him (this day 
especially) in the midst of his ene- 
mies and in the hour of death, and 
to endue him with such eminent 
Patience, Meekness, Humility, 
Charity, and all other Christian 
virtues, according to the example 
of Thine own Son, suffering the 
fury of his and Thine enemies, for 
the preservation of Thy Church and 
People. And we beseech Thee to 


And how great a mark of, her BtiU .being a porttf>|ii of 
Christ's Holy Catholic Chuvch is this, that Uie chvr^ 
of England has not in her eucharistic service, thrown 
off communion with the Invisible Chiurch. No valid 
objection can be made to her liturgy upon that pretence 
and the great duty of which I have spokim is always to 
be fulfilled.^* 

gi\e us all grace tQ remember and 
provide for our latter end^ by a 
eareful, studious imitation of this 
Thy blessed Saint and Martyr, and 
all other Thy Saints and Martyrs 
that have gone before us, that we 
may be made worthy to receive be- 
nefit by their Prayers, which they 
in Communion with Thy Church 
Catholick offer up unto Thee for 
that part of it here Militant, and yet 
in fight with and danger from the 
flesh : that following the blessed 
steps of their holy Lives and 
Deaths, we may also show forth 
the Light of a good example ; for 
the glory of Thy Name, the con- 
version of our enemies, and the im- 
provement of those generations we 
shall shortly leave behinde us : and 
then with all those that have borne 
the heat and^ burthen of the day 
(thy servaut particularly, whose 
sufferings and labors we this day 
commemorate) receive the reward 
of our Labors, the harvest of our 
Hopes, even the Salvation of our 
Souls ; and that for the Merits and 
through the Mediation of Thy Son, 
our Blessed Saviour Je^us. Christ. 

^ I have avoided adding autho- 
rities which have been cited over 
and over again, in all books upou 

this subject, from ^e earlier fathers 
of the Christian Church : nor need 
I remind the reader that I bate 
stated n<>thing iu the teit» 9S being 
the doctrine of the Church of Eng- 
land, beyond what is fully wsurrant- 
ed by the united testimony of her 
best divines since the reformation, 
by Andrewes, and OveraUt and 
Bull : by Field, Thomdike, Hanf- 
mondf and many others. 

But I would herQ protest against 
the making any unauthorized at* 
tempts to introduce the practice of 
praying for the dead, tQ a greater 
extent and in more particular term^ 
than the church ^ England, not 
pnly in her liturgy> hut in oiher 
parts of her Common Prayer Book, 
has recommended and allowed^ Wq 
know the evils which have fbl« 
lowed in the church of Rome, tbQ 
scarcely reverential maBuer in 
which the conditioii of the nnseeo 
world of departed ^irits has beeOf 
with an almost miQute exacUifs^^ 
explained : we know tiie evils which 
have followed the introduction of 
the onscriptural doetrinea at Pur- 
gatory, and Indulgenciesjt and Par-' 
dons. It is much therefore to be 
lamented that adaptations ef th« 
devotions of that Church, qhoold he 
put forth for the vse of member^ oC 
our Qwn: they lyre contrary t^oth 

l^<ftrat^i cii 

"It'^ !Mto«&niu^'tliat I 'i(lA^ some account of the 

cil]l£6in "which I have used in preparing the following^ 
ufiDiyiemcrnt of the EngMi and Roman liturgies. 

* The Use of Jtome is printed from the edition hy 
Flioithi, Anbrerp, 1759, 4to. 

The. Use of lief^/bfd hos heen taken from an edition 
of that missal in the Bodleian library. Of this Use, no 
other cc^ies are known to exist than the two there pre^ 
served, and one^ which may rather be called a fragment, 
80 imperfect is it, in the library of S. John's college, 
Oxford. One of the Bodleian copies is upon vellum, 
the other upon paper : both imperfect, and unfortmiately 
will hot bfetween them give us the perfect book. As, for 
^qgunple, in the Canon (see p. 121, and the note) there is 
aa erasure, which occurs in a leaf altogether wanting in 
ihe odier copy. This book is a folio, and the following are 
the title and colophon. Title: — "Anno Incamationis 
dgmini secundo supra quingentesimum atque millesimum^ 
die v4^ro prima mensis Septembris, opera et industria M. 
Petri qliverii et lohannis mauditier Impressorum Rotho- 
magi, iuxta sacellum diui apostolorum principis Petri 
cdnimorantimn. Impensa vero lohaimis nchardi mer- 
catoris : hoc novum et egregium opus sacri Missalis ad 
usum famose ac percelebris ecclesie Helfordensis nupeir 
instant! ac peruigili cura visum correctum et emendatum. 
Necnon^auctoritaterenerendi in Christo patris et domini 
ejusdem ecclesie epyscopi meritissimi, ac dominorum 
^cani et capituli : est in propatulo venale facili precio 
coram cunctis productum et exhibitum." Cohphon. 
** Finis Missalis ad vsum Celebris ecclesie Helfordensis. 
summa cura ac vigili opera nuper Impressi Rothomagi 
cum additione, Accentuarii legentibus in ecclesiis yalde 

to the Bpm% and intentioa of the vis. discontent and sdusm. Nor, 

church of England, and cannot be more than all, haye such, pfmyera 

admitted without the fear of even the example of the earfy Chnrdi to 

worse c^nsequencea than of old, plead in J&eir defence. 

eiii mami 

YtUi« £t > hoc iflftpensis Ibhaniiift richardii eioddeio: Eo- 
thomagi civis non immeriti : iuxta ecdesiafloi diui nicb^ 
lai commorantis."' Ii would add that at si^. .A« 1« aft^ 
the calendar and several pages ^ontaiaii^t .directions 
how to say the collects, the kyriesi &;c^'thet8hortitHl6 
at the head of the service for. the first min^ftyiw Advent 
is, ^> Incipit missale secundum vsum .iSidrfordenaeivu' i 7 • 
- The Use of York is taken feom mi edition^t 
missal in my possession : 4to. TUh..{f.liSia&al^\eJi yhWi 
celeberrim^ ecclesie Ehoracensis optimis carajGteribi)^ 
nouissime Impressum cura peruigili maximaxpie lucubiv^ 
tione mendis quampluribus emendatum atqqe in fpinBSk 
portabili marginatum. Ere et impensis hpi^^* 
rorum GuiUermi bemard et Jacobi cougin^.bMopol^KUmt 
Bibthomagi degentium: ante .i^trium librarionjim majiigins 
ecclesie^ atque in ipso atrio e regione curie, ecolesiastiqa 
Asmo salutis christiane decimoseptimo «upra.millesimum 
et quingentesimum, die vero vicesimasextal m^n£fis> octq- 
bris completum." This edition has not <a jC!iilQp)?iffn,^,M 
" The York missal. is a, book, . of extceo^eL rarity j; .3^r 
Harris Nicolas in his very i^efid Chronology 6f v|3fe- 
^^ says, " it is doubtful whether any. perfecl^ copy ,exi^ts, 
except the one preserved at Cambridge . in jtjh^ Ubraxy pf 
S, .John's college." ^ This however is incorrect, be- 
cause iabout five or six perfect copies are known to be 
extant,*^ In the British Museum is a firagment of a 
York missal, which has been long supposed to. be of an 
unknpwn edition. It is in fact a part of the edition of 
1516, Rothom. foL 

» In the first edition 1 used a continually befoFO me. 
copX of the Yprk missal (Folio. ^ ?«\"s. Francis Regnault m. 

Rouen. 1516.) in the Bodleian Li- cccccxxxiii. So. 
brary : but, if I am not mistaken, ^ For an accoAmt of the York 

the twa-aie exactly alike. For the mbsals, I must refer the read^ to 

presei^.Kb<t I have naturally pre- the Dissertation. on Service Books, 

ferred a copy which 1 could have M(mum,Bitwii>lia* yo\. i. p,lx]:r«>. 



*^Th^^'Use of Skrum fe printed from a Cdpy of the 
0ilti<iii of tiiat missal, in my possession, of 1492y at 
Rxraeii^ hi folio. This is the only perfect^ copy known 
f»' exist, and ih all respects is a very important book. 
IflMrA^'Seems no reason to doubt that it is the Ediiio 
priiit^ of the Sarum missal, but it is not mentioned 
by GoAgh^ or Brdliet, or Hadn : ^ all of whom speak of 
thK' option of 1494^ by John Hertzog, as the first.* 
^e^ Title iff simply upon else a* blank leaf, '^Missale 
titif^dtitai Tsum ecelesie sarisburien.'* Then follow a 
tKldildar, ' sAid the ' ^^ benedictio salis et aquse:" after 
iribdi^'Und<^ a wood-cut, begins the service for the first 
simday^iir Advent, with the usual title, '^ Incipit inissale 
AeaiiidtEitt- Vitim Sar.'' Before the Canon, is a large 
#6od-cut (the* 'reverse blank) representing the First 
PdrsiiJn of the Evfer-blessed Trinity, with the Evange- 
fflbtlfe Sjtobols in the comers, and below is a cross. 
Thb Cddphon : ** Impensa et arte magri Martini morin 
civls Rothbmagen^is iuxta isignem prioratum sancti laudi 
eiiisdem ciuitati^ moram trahentis officium sacrum ad 
vston sar. (ut vulgo loqmur) missale dictum, soflerti cor- 
Mctionis lima nuper castigatum et impressum : finit fe- 
licit^r. Anno domini. M.CCCC. Ixxxxii. die xii. Octo- 

♦t ■- 

^ I say perfect, because there is 
ja large fragment of this edition in 
the Bodleian upon vellum. The 
imperfections have been supplied 
from a copy upon paper with the 
date 1510, printed also at Rouen 
by Joh. Richard. Until lately, this 
vellum part was supposed to be of 
about the same date, and is so en- 
tered in the library catalogue. 

*T Repertorium Bibliographicum. 

^ There was one other edition 
during this century : printed in 
England, by Julian Notary, folio. 

with this colophon: "In laudem 
sanctissime Trinitatis totiusque mi- 
licie celeatis ad honorem et decorem 
see ecclesie Sarum anglicane eiusq. 
deuotissimi cleri. hoc missale diui- 
norum officiorum vigilanti studio 
eraendatum lussu et impensis prse- 
«tantissimi viri Winkin de Worde. 
Impressum London, apud. West- 
monasterium per lulianum notaire 
et lohanem barbier felici numitie 
explicitum est. Anno dni M.cccc. 
Ixxxxviij. XX. die knensis Decem- 
bris." The next was by Pynson. 
fol. 1504. 



bris/' Upon the feverBe is the pHhtet'^B^ device^ VS. a 
negro's head and the letters M. M. within a Oirde sup* 
porting a double cross, with the following I^ettd is^ the 
border: "Imprime. A. Ronen. Deyant* SiiAdf. I-o." 
in gothic letters. 

No printed copy of the Use of Bangor has been dis- 
covered. If there ever was an edition, it has, so for ks 
we know, utterly perished, perhaps by the commotl acci- 
dents of time, but more probably by means of the ebger 
inquisitors under Edward VI. I have arrange the 
Ordinary and Canon according to the Use of Banff or 
from a manuscript in my possessiori. written somewhere 
about the year 1400 : a large folio, upon vellum. I do 
not venture to say that it is Certainly that Use, but I 
conceive there are many reasonable grounds for sup- 
posing it to be so. It is undoubtedly an English missal, 
and not according to the Uses either of Sarum, York, 
or Hereford. A very slight examination even of the 
small portion reprinted in this volume will be sufficient 
to establish this : a point confirmed by many variations 
in the collects and offices throughout the book. 

But I would mention particularly the Ordo sponsa- 
lium. This agrees with the prayei*s and oi:^er,in the 
famous pontifical according to the Use of Bangor, still 
preserved in the cathedral library of that city ; to which 
it was given in the year 1485, by Richard Ednam, the 
then Bishop.'^ That pontifical does not, however, con- 
tain the forms of giving trothy and at the putting on of 
the ring : which were anciently in all the missals, in 

^ This volume origmally be- 
longed to Anianus, Bishop of Bao^ 
gor from a.d. 1268 to about 1300. 
It was for some time lost from the 
cathedral, but with better fortune 
than happened to the great major- 
ity of such books, it was preserved 
and restored to the libraiy by Bi- 

shop Humphreys in 1701. I have 
given a particular desmption of 
this most valuable manuscript i» 
the Dissertation on Service Bopks, 
to which i must venture again to 
refer the reader^ Monftm..RiiuaL 
vol. L p. cxv. 



fjKtigKah .; 9ffkd ^ eannotithink it altogether out of place 
to^give them at ilengthc , 

-.1^ In the Salkl^ury missal the man is directed to say : 
"»I; i\r,.jtab6 tbo, iVi to my weddyd wyf to haue ad tho 
holde fro thys day far warde for beter, for wurs, for 
ij^chere for po^er ; in eykenisse ad in helthe tyl deth us 
^epi^rte yf holy chyrche wol it ordeyi^e, and therto I 
.{4yght.>the my trouth." , The woman repeats the same 
t&rm, adding after the words and in helthe y ^Ho be 
.honour ad buxum^ in bed and at horde." At the putting 
on of the ring the man says : '* With tys ring I the wedde 
aaxd tys gold ad siluer I te geue : and with my body I te 
worscjrpQ.and wyth all my worldly catell I the honore." 
The York missal directs both the man and woman to 
say as follows : " Here I take the, iV, to my wedded wt(fe 
or husbandy to have and to holde at Bedde and at 
Borde, for fayrer, for fowler, for better for warse, in 
^ikenes and in hole (or helth) tyll dethe us departe. 
And therto I plyght the my trouthe." Putting on the 
ring :*^ ** With this rynge I wedde the and with this 
golde and siluer I honoure the, and with this gyft I 
honoure the/' 

: The Hereford missal directs the man to say : " I, iV, 
linderfynge |7e, N, for my wedded wy^ for betere for 
worse, for richer for porer, yu sekenes and in hel)?e, tyl 
de]9 us departe, as holy churche haj? ordeyned, and J^erto 
y Pb^*^ J^ ^y trovv|7e," The woman repeats the 

* There are more meanings than 
one given to this old English word. 
The usual is that it signifies obe- 
dience^ The dictionaries do not 
commonly mention the privative 
-form of the word, which, however, 
leads us to the true meaning, and 
.occurs in HyUons Medled Ijufe. 
Printed by R. Wyer, p. 4- "Also 
it longeth to all yongre begynnynge 

men, the which come newe out of 
worldly synnes to the seruyce of 
god : for to make them able to 
ghostly werkynge, & for to breke 
downe the unbuxumness of the 
body by discrecion." 

4^ The old books, both Salis- 
bury and York, say, upon the fourth 
finger, "qtua in illo digito est qu»- 
dam vena procedens usque ad cor." 


p^9^<tytskgiy]\miW^d(di a]!idi(})7S^ld^iiiV4^elner ycbijto 
36Ut9'and'VT}i]>tiiiyne>bidly j^j^^'li^noUDei^^^^ "Z'^-' tot 

'^ I iV;tt0k f^e,'dAiQltoiiii^twfed4^^ t6 lmla&ii'<tfff}kA^ 
biem th}i»diiytftKr#ard^fdP better^ 
fer«ibK^leirq^{rfi>ii rycliwet lflrBpol^fei>iiit)«yime^ 

deyna. And- ilierMi ^ >]^y^fator • theuHjP tno^vthdL"^ i > ?Sbe 
MTomanitepeai&KIhe «amey addiki^fdfta* Af^^wordrifadl^ 
^Sto be booieeiie & buxunv ili-all lawfoUeflac^^' *'*Tfafe 
fQrm<«it tfaetgivitt^tof tb*^ ring^iis ?i^^ ^jA^^hys criiig«il 
J^e wedde & ys gold Aifiyhnri* I'jlerr^i^ft kydi'my bedl 
tlA woixrchepenand wyHdbtallitaiiy()wclFlcfli «^ I tbe 
oiiore and<e]idiL4k*^"*^^ '* ' ri U'«i- 't i ,>'»fvi 'ti l iir.»')p/' 

i I do not'isay(tbafc.lAiBBairaidatMm9iAipi*oVe^1^ 
to be c^A2^V2l^4fae j^(!mgw* XJBe,lwhi]$^<}ohi6d[i#itb cKbH^ 
they abewhitito be^ asri banrk'^abread^^Baidl'iK^bei^'thb 
YoiFk^'Daor Hereford^ norf Sadfumvi rhulhbly'le(»t^6<bei]l>'to 
thepoiusikleratioiii»of men 'better leamediiiiin th^'^Ubj^ck 
thani my^el^ trusting tbM 'th^ Inmy at lasust lead^td^sdfme 
in(]pury intottbeHmatteri •- There »are»v€*y'pr<]ib»blyuii- 
coUated aiid * neglected t'maniEBca*^>t&inf out' "^^ Uhr^ 
ries, which may some day decide without doubt what 
the BanMr Use was. 'JThe wljole question of the ancient 
English iJses is one upon which very. Jiktlevlabour has 
yet been ,bestowed<^^ • n . 

il » rr ' 

r ^t 

^ Nor is to be forgotten that the 
Ordinary JEmd Canon of the Bangor 
pontifical (that is, so much of ^etn 
as that MS. contains) have na va^ 
riations which militate against the 
claim of my missal to be of Baagor 
Use,. whilst there are seyeral re- 
murkable points of agreement .which 
very considerably streng^en it Of 

these the reader- will himself be 
able to judge, by aBcamining. them 
as they are pointed ont^iii the- notes 

below. 'io„ ;«.JL -l. ■ ^'.:j -jflif'.- 

^ There are unquestionably 
many imperfect MSSL andpiinted 
ectitionA-of missials of Taribus Uses, 
imdur public libraries, which ludPe 
beeo-amnged (and' therefore n^ 

» 4r ( 


Kt^B0te'i|i^ih6>'faandtviritiiig of ^ «ge, at ilie end of 
^ie//calendap, *£aDesr*.t}ie book to have belonged to ar 
dhfcurbb imiai part o£ithe conntry where the Use of Ban-^ 
gor was probaUj 4&bserved« ^ It is as follows : ^^ This 
Boc^cnwai^gouBik tathe hye Alter of the Faryshe Churche 
of'Oiwestry^ bgn S'.^ Morys Griffith Frist, To pray for 
tftiChrisken Soule%' the yere of oure Lorde god a thow- 
sande iywe hundred -fyfty and foure." I suppose that it 
had been removed fromHthe^^chiuxh during the troubles 
oflking Edward's/ tflfmej.beel^cadrefully preserved, and as 
8(M^n oa possible restoi^^alfter -queen Mary's accession, 
lih^re was anciently at • Oswestry a monastery, the 
^iirch i€£ which - was made the parish church, and is 
dsfiorihed/ iiy Xeiand in his Itinerary.^ 

oll^i iii[»tibe{fi]:»t-edition of this arrangement of the 
Ancient Liturgies, I trusted that it would not be an unac-> 
eeptaii^l& 'book) I may now congratulate myself on the ful- 
filment of that hopes and still more -earnestly than then; 
dflsire -41101 the fadditions which have been made, in noted 
andi otherwise, will in their degree also be found lisefiil: 
Tho' circumstances of the times in which we live seem 
tO"Call fqr..a«i9Lore general /knowledge, especially among 
the clergy,-! of .these subjects; which must not be looked 
upon as merely antiquarian, or even historical, but as of 

leCted) under the very convenient 
title' til^Homan THissaL Ah au- 
thentic reprint of the York or Here- 
ford missal, for example, would very 
prohably lead to the discovery of 
other copies ; and so we might hope 
also by inquiry, to discover even 
the lost Lincoln Use, or assure 
ourselves of the Bangor. 

^ Sir^ was a common title given 
in those days to men of .certain re- 
ligious xxrderBi'from the Latin Do- 
miiiiu^. which ali» being oontraictod 

into Domnus, became Dom or Dan. 
And hence Dan Chaucer^ as he is 
styled by Spenser. This title after 
its serious use was lost, became 
ludicrous : as for example, ^^ Dan 

^ Leland says that the church 
of S. Oswald at Oswestiy was 
sometime a monastery ^' caullid the 
White Minster. After turned to 
a Paroche Chirch, and the Person- 
age impropriate to the Abbay of 
Shreusbyri." Itmerary. yd. v. 87. 
EdU.\744. :■:. ^ 

chriii IMEtoS^ 

the highest importance in their. MliatiofQL^tOj({t^efiti 
Tolving doctrine* • That* temper, of. xaki4-w<€^joM}(ftm9tf 
rapidly pasauig away, ia whi«h, w^. ha;ire. fee4:ed(t<;i 0otm 
in contact j as. with unholy things, with th6^ail0i€|Bt>li(wr- 
gies and. offices, (i¥hich are indeed' the^monoaaepti^ of 
the Englifi^ chwch* - ,M$» rhwe? h^ 
speak slightingly,! ajdd wii)h har^MWQi)d^f jq^lso^ of hply 
^aiyers which/ for aithous^d yearp.roset^thrpugh/tbe 
aisles of our village, equally with our cajthedral^'ahWPJteS) 
and of solemn^ rites hy whidb^ deyptipn' .wfMI n)9^ Amly 
quickened, hub directed to its proper .,en4* . ; .p >,; . .r 

Very much of this mugat,' not .in charity. sii^y,}>^t pf 
necessity, he attributed to ignors^ce: jp£^i^^.,J^y..of 
course the fewfwhom no argument wi}l'r.eai)hf ;u]i4^Vidth 
whom Genevani prejudice is infallible^ It . m$^. he '$9f d 
that the original editions of these books are of that ex- 
treme Tarity^ as. to be completely beyojoid the reach pf .^1 
who have suot access to the public libraries^ Wh^ 
therefore men,; sweeping cimd^mn^tioTTi cont^^^h 
taoufily passed judgment uponttbe old^sfr^^x^ an4^,^Qr- 
4dup oi the church of England^ they,, spc^e of niatt^s 
about' which they. knew absolutely northing, . and ^witheiUt 
the slightest diacriminaltion amended wiithinipnas^tiSQf^e 
both good taild bad, essentials and 'BOn-e^uaentuils,' injoifil 
or superstitious rites I and holy oeremoniee. 'Nor did 
thiey know thai the Common Prayer Book now, use^ in 
their Church, is founded upou and drA^ite orig^ from 
the very sources about which they, did not hesitate .to 
utter these opinions. , Such a judgment m^y {^erhaps^'be 
popular, may be widely received, but ifi worth nothing* ' 

Let then the authentic documents be produced, and 
let men have the myeans of examining, for themselves.; it 
may not be, nor is it to be desired, that an approbation 
as ill-judging and as ill-founded as disapproval has been, 
should follow ; but this I cannot but believe, this at least 
we may justly and with all moderation hope for : that 
that extreme and &lse^ because indiscriminating, dislike 

-^cif t^ofldni^^obilkrv&flees Will beeom^ ^empeitite : and ihat 
With a*f>e^H;iM^ ino^^Iti^; wo' shall geek wheit fit oppcnfta- 
iMea!^ sttall' bSety tb I'^aizif WhsCtev^l'^ciaki t)e proved to be 
yefally go6d*aBd*}!i61;^;' and speak plaiiil]r, and claim un- 
doibtingly, tAdt iiiftist #idi 6& ^arnestnebs upiob tHe pri- 
jtift^'of^tiU: pbaseilsiBg- idftby raetos, as weH of oon- 
!feyiri^*atf*bf'T^ceiiring j^fltob; wlrichi» we' cannot help 
aduiksfvifledgiiigi' W^ might baye lo0ti : " ' > ' 
. ' ASAj whtethfer *well^advided w not, whether it may 
now be as loud^'sts a* few years back; there has been a 
deimainl foi^ a 'c61ivocatioQ of the chm'ch of England; a 
convocation, I mean; in fact, and not in mock^y; a 
convocation" livhich shall shew, by being permitted to 
delibbr^Lte and enforce its canons,' that the State, to which 
flie; Ghurch of Engbnd is bound, can protect her. It 
inay be years before such a convocation may assemble ; 
it may not how be desirable that it should do so ; nay 
more, before it does meet it is possible that the alHance 
between Church and State, as it exists, will be somewhat 
!ao<£fied» But when we have a convocation, the Book 
of Common Prayer cannot foil to come before its notice ; 
and' upon the one side there will be members who, fol- 
lowing the steps of their predecessors one hundred years 
•)ftgo, wdl attetupt' to bring in latitudiiiarian opinions, and 
infefct with liie hetesie^ of Calvin fend Zuingle and Lu- 
sher, our estiablished Forms J upon the other side there 
wHl be men advocating the restoration of serious errors 
of the church of Rome, from which we have so long 
been free. Surely, then, considering this there is cause 
' for making every effort, which shall smooth the path to 
that great fountain of Catholic Truth, Catholic Anti- 

* I would add that the book to which the above remarks 
have been prefixed is intended for the clergy, and from 
its title will be hardly one which will either attract the 
notice or faU into the hands of the laity. Hence I have 

die; P^J^eMfi 

said, Kir taibei^'tiuni'^ifpektM^^^^^ t»^ 

by^ otiie]^ in ev«ry a^'giiiti^ dhrifitiiAHy *#tts "ptibls^df 
wfai^b,^ eU'-important ' m (^^ io*^ ' ift ^ thM^ thti^ ( m^r^ 
caution or the fear of beii^ WfeitiidyhtiMki 
peserved in genieral diticati^ei^or^in^So^^aiX^ 

With regard to the fevf NtWes^ Which* wt^t^aAd^i^M 
the<endt)f the fii^ editibttt)f'thl^n^ri^IlSMft^ea^ 
they could not eVen )fretetlft'l6 bMu^ttHfhftdiAlvv^biPk W^rt^ 
mentaiy on the^ett. In* »ftfep«iriii*1;he ^te^feiitf edifidrij 
I purposed to* be ntaiftb iiidre fuU m^'ihy^i^eiflW^ks^tti^^ 
baye now* been : buthdv^ 6(miii^tiGdd^il^iif^y^*^^^ 
tended plan^ chtakgi^^lay iiitdilti6ite^\Bdft^^^nie j[»^gf4s§ 
hbd befell* ttiadb.' It irfntft rdtjtllSita *)lf^e'tt?%titibi^ Wt^ 
the reasons by which I wdfi iriflrieti*ydJ '^I ^aH'^B^^fciy^ 
fi^ if the additions «fe^6l ih^nl^t'fob^btti^iWilspkEi^ 
ytrt enough' both tb^^upply lti'fe(^tf«fegi*e^^t?''w^ili*<;*<)^ 
the many VcflttttidswMfctf be«^tfpoir^the-*dul5^l!i'aiitfW 
excite a desire to promote the ittt&j^tfP'it^iit'Acls^^jAfl 
have time and opportunities to do so. 

And, knowing the deep mysteiy<#hdeli svrrtkindib the 
doctrine of the Blessed Eucharist, t&b^ulgeot^which has 
been before us ; and the inestimable blessings which are 
€tttached to a proper understa.nding and belief of it ; I 
sincerely pray, that He, in Whom all our words and 
works should both begin and end, to the benefit of Whose 
Church all his ministers should humbly dedicate their 
labours, will prosper so far only as He sees good, this 
which I have done : may He so overrule the consequences 
which it may have, (and our most careless sayings, our 
lightest actions are followed often by we know not what, 
in the workings of His Providence) that all erroneous 
statements, all incorrect conclusions, all wrong sugges-^ 
tions, may be Ife though they never had been written : 
may He, of His great goodness, grant that every judg- 
ment or opinion may be duly weighed before it is either 
rejected or admitted: and that all may be received at 

)M9ti»,tfifli8pj^,m^,ffhi«b«I>kveMiii^ writer de. 
#iiiftldibf|t^lb# fmmi^iiWrutheiom may be adv^ooedy 
^^iBmfisSf tlik^^hifrckiii Ea^laod, abranicb of thei Oae 

Chnfiftiiwbieb^fc-JBMjs^fldiUiHfTeBsaJ,; .t ...i ,; ,, 

•?BlAf^ T|?^SSt.,i!e|i#a<|ipg,j^, mj5 iB(»ti€iarq€6t!|«a,y.eifj 
I would extend it to anotber work, wbicb will be finisbed 
tHigM^tfBrnwi|^/,tbiil4ri Jt-maf beisiad that^tbese are/.too 
tlM^]]g[gQai|tetip)U|)0Oj«whUQb,,9ucbt solemn- waabes sbould 
sft.p<^U^J»Mfi)M?>^e8^4 trifling' «knd.o£ little value they 
py,ij«dftf4<,^^:,,ibu|ip^i^,.Mo^er view .*boae Iftbww 
fe«l»pJ^iW»r'*e/»*ri|ing.,|n ..Hjp ^ight, wbicb .wl^etheir 
vpJM^V)^ 4%'ti?#i?tf??W»»tt%-W. noit,,ha,ve occupied sq .large 
»>99C||MHi .^cJ^99fi(}i|^j^ ,pf. tbe sfeqart Jjfla? aUotted 
lil?RfV^>5«f^e.i?9rBegftir4ipg,tlwia».aa I wbp am respour 
^^^pt^fjjf^fb bfstt«iif.iwtti$, to be ej^poped, if it is to bei 
W»il^4l»ft'y^SffigP<<9fjj»?4% ?fipommendii»gv:tbei». to the 
^iiaijc(,jaif^i^r^u,tp. tbe Q9?j|^ou8nQ5a.tb?it. liwrough 
^[OTiei*fe9Vflao»f.if?%.(fbaW^( iipaye i^ilsd. to do tba<k 

f)ll. xhfov/' '{\ut 11/; niuH /'' (n ,.J1 n>rei ,/ittq /J.if: i*-^ 
■r'»Mt -)if3')d)'>b vlOillJJjl j ^ ?•♦'-. ii . ' li) liK jti w;? i 

^ < < > ■ ' I ^ . M ■ • J ' » . - J * > I ' ^ M I ) " » t : f » V . - ■ ' 

. ^ 

^ -. \ . 

. firttnarmm jfKliffae. 



Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

Ad missam dicendam^ Admissamdi' Quando presbyter la- 
dum sacerdos induit se cendam exe- vat manus suas^ ante 

' (dicendam. Sar.) The Church of Christ has always insisted upon a dili- 
gent preparation to be made by all her members before the reception of the 
Holy Communion : much more therefore should he who is about to Celebrate 
offer up earnest petitions to the Almighty, for His especial grace ; confess his 
sins, and ask for pardon, and acknowledge his. unworthiness. Anciently, 
(independent of the exact confession which was to be made,) the following 
prayer was appointed to be said : and, as it is not to be supposed that the 
Priests of the Church of England in our own times ever think of entering 
upon this, the most mysterious and awful of their sacred duties, without 
some such prayer and preparation as I have just spoken of, and, as they are 
left to their own choice as to what prayers they should use, I would venture 
to call their attention to this : because, although some expressions in it must 
not be taken in the exact sense, in which for some time previous to the Re- 
formation they certainly were, yet they will still bear an orthodox inter- 
pretation, and the whole prayer has th^ impress of antiquity > and is in its 
spirit and intention excellent. 

'' IF Oratio dicenda ante missam. Deus qui de indignis dignos, de pecca- . 
toribus justos, de immundis mundos facis : munda cor et corpus meuin ab 
omni contagione et sorde peccati, et fac me dignum altaribus tnis ministrum, 
et concede propitius : ut in hoc altari ad quod indignus accedo, hostias ac- 
ceptabiles offeram pietati tuae pro peccatis et offensionibns meis, et innu- 
meris quotidianisque excessibus ; et pro omnibus hie circmnstantibus, uni- 
versisque mihi familiaritate et affinitate conjunctis, atque me odio aliquo 
insectantibus et adversantibus, cunctisque fidelibus Christianis vivis et mor- 
tuis : et per eum sit tibi meum votum atque sacrificium acceptabile : qui se 
tibi Deo Patri obtulit in sacrificium, Jesus Christus, Filiiis tuns, Dominus 
noster. Qui tecum vivit et regnat." Missale Sarum, Edit, 1492. Some edi- 
tions add, (as all doubtless understand,) '' in unitate Spiritus Sancti, Deus.'^ 

It will be observed that the York Use makes no mention of any vestments, 
and the Hereford sipesks only of the Amice and the Alb. We must remem- 
ber that though now they are lost, there were formerly numerous other vo- 
lumes in which complete instructions were to be found for the due vesting 
of both the Celebrant and his Assistants : in the Missal, sometimes they 
were but alluded to, at other times omitted altogether. There cannot be a 
shadow of doubt, that the full number of vestments was required by the order 
of the Church of Hereford as well as by the Church of Salisbury : and if 
one would argue from this rubric " postquam sacerdos induerit se amictum 

iS>vhimxinm #iCrae> 

Herford. Bom. 

jdd introitum missa postquam Sacerdos paratiis^ cum ingredu 
sacerdos induerit se afnicium et tur ad altare, facia illi debita 

et albam/' that the Chasuble (for example) was not also necessary, he 
might as well attempt to prove from the York rubric, that in that Church 
the Celebrant was not vested at all, and was simply to wash his hands. The 
following is a Canon of an early Council* '' Nullus Presbyter sine amictu, 
alba, et stola, et fanone, et casula ullatenus Missam celebrare praesumat* 
Bt hsec sacra vestimenta mundissima sint, et in nitido loco intra Ecclesiam 
collocentur. Nee Presbyter, cum his induitur, extra Ecclesiam exeat : quia 
hoc lex divina prohibet/^ Regino Pi^umiensis, De Ecc. Discip, Lib. i. p. 57. 

* (Lavat tnaniu suas, Ebor.) I cannot decide whether the rite of washing 
the hands was peculiar to the Church of York, as the other English Uses 
omit all mention of it : nor, whether in that and in the Church of Hereford 
the Hymn Verii Creator, and prayers were said at the putting on of the 
Vestments. It is not probable that the washing would be omitted : an ob- 
servance so universal and one which, although a mere ceremony, almost the 
light of nature would suggest. Euclio says (as cited by Cardinal Bona) 
** Nunc lavabo ut rem divinam faciam.'' Apud Plautum, in Aululana, iv. 
2. The Christian Church has observed it from the earliest ages. S. Paul 
alludes to it in his Epistle to Timothy : '' I will therefore that men pray 
every where, lifting up holy hands.'' Ep. I.e. ii. ' This, we must remember, 
just after he has been speaking of the Blessed Eucharist. Tertidlian asks : 
'' Quae ratio est, manibus quidem ablutis, spiritu vero sordente orationem 
obire?" de orat. cap. xi. S, Atigustin also: ^'Si erubescimus, ac timemus 
Eucbaristiam manibus sordibus tatigere, plus timere debemus ipsam Eucha- 
ristiam intus in anima poUuta suscipere." Ser, 244. 

' {Sacerdos paratus, Rom.) *' Sacerdos celebraturus Missam, prsevia con- 
fessione sacramentali, quando opus est, et saltern Matutino cum Laudibus 
absolutoy orationi aliquantulum vacet, et orationes pro temporis opportuni- 
tate dicat. Deinde accedit ad locum in sacristia, vel alibi praeparatum, ubi 
paramenta, aliaque ad celebrationem necessariahabentur : accipit Missale, 
perquirit Missam, perlegit^ et signacula ordinat ad ea quae dicta rus est. 
Postea lavat manus, dicens orationem. ' Da, Domine, virtutem manibus 
meis ad abstergendam omnem maculam : ut sine poUutione mentis et cor- 
poris valeam tibi servire.' " 

The Roman Missal can be procured by any one : I shall therefore refer 
he reader to it, and recommend him to read carefully, if he wishes to un- 
derstand the subject, the '' Ritns servandus in Celebratione Missae/' at the 
beginning of the book, from which the above is extracted. 

HDtHinanum ^iffae. 


sacris vestibus dicat 
hymnum : 


cutor officii 
cum suis mi" 
ant.* Dumih-^ 
duit se sace?'- 
dos vestibus 
dicat hunc 
hymnum : 

VENI Creator spiritus : mentes tuo- 
rum visita : imple supema gratia, 
quaB tu creasti pectora. etc. 
V. Emitte spiritum tuum et creabuntur. 
Ij^. Et renovabis faciem terrse. 

DEUS cui omne cor patet et omnis 
voluntas loquitur, et quein nullum 
latet seeretum : purifica per infusionem 
sancti Spiritus cogitationes cordis nos- 
tri: ut perfecte te diligere et digne 


missam dicat hanc ora- 
tionem : 

LARGIRE sensi- 
bus nostris omni- 
potens Pater : ut sicut 
hie abluuntur inquina- 
menta manuum, ita a 

* ** Et si episcopus celebraverit tres habeat diaconos et tres subdiaconos ad 
minus in omni festo ix. lee. et in otnnibus dominicis quando ipse exequitur 
officium divinum. In die vero Pentecostes et in die coenas, yij. diaconos 
habeat, et vij. subdiaconos et tres acolytos. In aliis yero duplicibus festis 
per annum quinque habeat diaconos tantum, et quinque subdiaconos, et tres 
acolytos. In die vero parasceves unum solum habeat diaconum/^ Ruhr. 
Miss. Bangor. 

^ {Signat se signo Crucis. Rom.) Ante omnem actum manas pingat Cm- 
cem. S. Hierati. Epist. 22. ad Eust. c. 16. et manu dextera, ex Justino 
Martyre ad Orthod. resp. ad qumst. 118. et manu plena, lioc est, quinque 
digitis ad quinque vulnera Cbristi significanda: Durand. lib. it. cap. 46. 
sed tribus digitis signum Crucis exprimendum esse, quia sub invocatione 
Trinitatis imprimitur, aiebat Innoc. III. lib. ii, edtp. 45. et memorat Leo IV, 
Epist. ad Episcopos: ita ut manus a superiori descendat in inferius, et a 
dextera transeat ad sinistram : quia Christus de Ccelo descendit in Terram, 
et a Judaeis transivit ad Gentiles. Quid am tamen, subdit iUe, a sinistra 
producunt in dexteram, quia de miseria transire debemus ad gloriam, sicut 
et Christus de morte transivit ad vitam. Gavanti Thes. Sac. Ritvum, torn, 
i. p. 170. And so S. Ambrose has said ; that we make the sign of the Cross 
upon our forehead, that we may always be bold ^o confess: upon our breast, 
that we may remember to love : upon our arm, that we may be ready at all 
times to work. 

iDtOinanum ^iflHe. 5 

Hebfobd. Rom. 

aldani : stans ante aitare incipiat reoerentia signat se signo Cru- 
Antiphonam : cis'^ a f route ad pectus^ et clara 

voce dicit : 


N nomine Patris, et Filii, et 
Spiritus sancti. Amen. 

Venerable Bede insists strongly upon the necessity of teaching the people 
to oae this Sign : he is writing to Archbishop Egbert. '' Eorum quoque, 
qui in populari adhuc vita continentur, solicitam te necesse est curam ge- 
rere, lit — snfficientes eis doctores yitse salutaris adhibere memineris, et hoc 
eos inter alia discere facias, quibns operibus maxime Deo placere, a quibus 
se debeant, qui Deo placere desiderant, abstinere peccatis, — qua divinam 
dementiam supplicantes debeant devotione precari, qnam frequenti dili- 
gentia signaculo se dominicse cruci^, suaque omnia adversum continuas im- 
mundorum spirituum insidias, necesse habeant mnnire, &c.*' Beda. Op, 
Higt, Mitioray p. 221. We must not forget that Bede lived in an age which 
had not experienced the abuse, and knew only the proper use of this Holy 
Sign. As we go on, the reader will observe too many evidences of its su- 
perstitious repetition. It is now removed altogether from the Liturgy of 
the Church of England, and far better is it that it should be so, than that it 
should be a means by which people might iguorantly be led to stumble and 
to take offence. The proper use of the sign of the Cross may well be de- 
fended upon many grounds, but not an improper excess. . 

Speaking in another place, upon this sign of the Cross, Merati says in his 
additions to Gavantw, torn. ii. p. 108. '' Aliqui illud tribus digitis dextras 
manus efformant sub invocatione Sanctissimae Trinitatis, alii vero duobus, 
ad duas Christi naturas et Voluniates contra Monophysitas et Monothelitas 

laudare mereamur. 
Per Christum. 

iDtHinadum ^iflfae. 


Deinde sequatur An- 

TNTROIBO« ad al- 

Per Domi- 
num. In uni- 
tate ejusdem. 

te mundentur poUutio- 
nes mentium,^ et cres- 
cat in nobis augmen- 
tum sanctarum virtu- 
tum. Per. 



NTROIBO ad al- 


Ps. Judica me^ Deus^ 
et discerne. 
Totus psalmus dicafur 
cum Gloria patri. 
Deinde dicitur ant. 

I NTROIBO ad al- 
tare Dei, ad Deum 
qui Isetificat juventu- 
tem meam. 

Deinde seq. 
Ps. Judica. 

Gloria patri 
sicut erat. 


Ps. Judica me Deus. 
et discerne. 
Cum Gloria patri. 

" {Mentium, Ebor.) My edition has» by a plain typographical error, 

. ^ (Junetis manibus. Rom.) ** Tn>Missa semper ita persistit, nisi qnidpiam 
agendum impediat.'' Le Brun. Explicatio Missse. tom. i. p.5l. 

• {Ivtroiho. Sarum.) This very ancient commencement of the Service was 
most appropriate. Some writers have said that S. Ambrose alludes to it, 
as being used in his time in the Church of Milan : but, as others, Bona and 
Gavantns, &c. have pointed out, that Father in the place cited, is not treat- 
ing of the Communion, but of the Newly-baptized, of Baptism, and Con- 
firmation. '' His abluta plebs" are his words, '^ dives insignibus ad Christi 
contendit Altaria dicens, Introibo, &c." There is no doubt however that it 
was very anciently used in this place, for Microhgus speaks of it, cap. 23. 
'^ Paratus, sacerdos venit ad Altare dicens Antiphonam.'' It is remarkable 
that it is not appointed to be said in the Bangor Use. 

' (Judica me. Sar.) Up to the earliest ages of which any record remains, 
we find examples of commencing the Liturgy with a Psalm : but it was not 
universal ; and for the four first Centuries at least there was a variety of 
practice. It is not possible to decide what Psalms in particular were ap- 
pointed, or even whether in the first ages the later practice of a fixed Psalm 

lO)tmnarium ^tflfae. 

Herfobd. Rom. 


NTROIBO ad altare. 

Ps. Judica me. 

Deinde junctis manibus'^ ante 
pectus^ incipit Aniiph. 

I NTROIBO ad altare Dei. 
Minutri 1^, Ad Deum qui 
laetificat juventutem meam. 
Postea alternatim cum ministris 
dicit sequentem Psabnum 42. 

Judica me Deus. 

Totuspsalmus dicatur cum Glo- 
ria Patri. 
Sequitur Antiphona. 

I NTROIBO ad aUare Dei, 
ad Deum qui tetificat ju- 
ventutem meam. 

Cujn Gloria Patri. 

*y, repetit antiphonam. 

I NTROIBO ad altare Dei. 
J^J. Ad Deum qui laetificat 
juventutem meam. 
Signat se dicens v. 

was observed. Durand says, lib. iv. cap. 7. that Pope Coelestin I. origin- 
ally appointed this particular psalm. This would have been about the year 
430. But it would seem, from an old Ordo RomanitSf that this Pope 
merely ratified the custom of saying a Psalm. A French Ritualist of little 
or no authority, Claude de Vert, (of some considerable learning, but exces- 
sive prejudice towards many peculiar conceits of his own,) has laid it down 
that the custom of saying this psalm Judica is not older than the XIV th 
Century. In which he is confuted by innumerable examples to the contrary : 
and we may conclude that, (though we cannot fix it either to the time of 
Pope Coelestine or of S. Ambrose, to whom also the institution of it has 
been attributed, yet) for more than 500 years, it had been so used in this 
part of the Liturgy. The Mozarabic Liturgy appoints the Antiphon, but 
omits the Psalm. This the Church of Rome now follows, in Masses for the 
dead, and during the days between Passion Sunday and Easter Eve : at 
which season the question would be inappropriate, " Quare tristis es, anima 
mea : 6t quare conturbas me ?" But the Antiphon is not omitted : which is 
said to be, because though the signs of joy are not allowed at such times, 
yet the reason, and the motive may neveirtheless be spoken of; and theref- 
fore the Priest may still say : '' Introibo ad altare Dei^ ad Deum qui laeti- 
ficat juventutem meam.'' 


flDtHtnattum aj^tifae. 


KYRIE eleison. 
Christe eleison. 
Kyrie eleison. 


ATERnoster, Ave 



Christe elei- 
son. Kyrie e- 



KYRIE eleison. 
Christe eleison. 
Kyrie eleison. 

PATER noster. Et 
ne nos. Ostende 
nobis domine. Sacer- 
dotes tui induantur. 
Domine exaudi. Et 
clamor. Dominus vo- 

Hisjinitis et officio missie inchoato aim 
post officium Gloria patri incipitur : ac- 
cedat sacerdos cum suis ministris adgra- 
dum aliaris, et dicat ipse confessionem 


tras queesumus 
Domine aspirando 
prseveni, et adjuvando 
prosequere : ut cuneta 
nostra operatio et a te 
semper incipiat et per 
te coepta finiatur. Per 
Dominum nostrum. 

AURES tuae pieta- 
tis, mitissime 
Deus^ inclina precibus 
meis et gratia sancti 
Spiritus illumina cor 
meum: uttuismysteriis 
digne ministrare, teque 
etema caritate diligere, 
et sempitema gaudia 
perciperemerear. Per 

Sacerdos introiens nd 
altare et procedentibtis 
in ordine ministris di- 

iDtHinarium ^iffae. 9 

Uebfomd. Rom. 

KYRIE eleison. Christe Adjutorium nostrum in nomine 
eleison. Kyrie eleison. Domini. 

Jji. Qui fecit coelum et terram. 

PATER noster. £t ne nos. 
Sed libera, Ostende no- 
bis Domine misericordiam tu- 
am. Et salutare tuum da no- 
bis. Domine Deus virtutum 
converte nos. Et ostende fa- 
ciem tuam et salvi erimus. Do- 
mine exaudi orationem meam. 
Et clamor mens ad te veniat. 
Dominus vobiscum. Et cum 
spiritu tuo. Oremus. 

ACTIONES nostras quae- 
sumus Domine aspirando 
prseyeni; et adjuvando prose- 
quere, ut cuncta nostra operatio 
et a te semper incipiat et per te 
coepta finiatur. Per. 

Tutic sacerdos sians ante gra- tkinde junctis wanibus^ pr(h 
dum altar is dicat : funde inclinatus facU confession 

nem : 


jDtntnartum ^illiie* 

Sarum. Bangor. 

(capite inclinato. Bangor.) diacono as- 
sistente a dextm^ et subdiacono a sinistris 
hoc modo incipiendo: 

ET ne nos. Sed libera. Confitemioi 
Domino quoniam bonus. Quoni- 
am in saeculum misericordia ejus. 


Sacerdos dicat: 

CONFITEORi^ Deo, beate marifie, 
omnibus Sanctis, et vobis : (quia 
Sar.) peccavi nimis cogitatione, locu- 
tione, et opere mea culpa : precor sanc- 
tam mariam, omnes sanctos Dei,^^ et 
vos orare pro me. 


Domino quoniam 
bonus. Quoniam in 
seeculum misericordia 

et beatsQ mariae, 
et omnibus Sanctis et 
vobis fratres : quia ego 
peccator peccavi nimis, 
corde^ ore, opere, omis- 
sione, mea culpa. Ideo 
precor gloriosam Dei 
genetricem mariam, et 
omnes sanctos Dei, et 
vos orare pro me. 


'° ** There or he tho messe bigynne, 

Wil he meke him for his synne : 

Till alle yo folk he shryues him thare, 

Of alle her symies lesse and mare : 

So dos tho clerk a gayn to him, 

Shryuen hom there of al hor syn. 

And askes god forgyuenes, 

Or then bigynnen to here tho mes.' 
The above is taken from a very curious MS. in the Museum Library, Ms. 
Bihl. Reg. 17. B, xvi. xvij. consisting of long rubrics, and prayers relating 
to the Liturgy, all in English verse. I shall make several extracts from it 
as we proceed. I shall in future refer to it as Mu$eum MS. 

*^ {Precor omnes sanctos Dei. Sar.) It is one thing to assert that the 
Saints can hear our prayers, if we address them ; it is another to believe 
that they offer up for us, and for the Church of which they are members, 
prayers and intercession. That the Almighty does listen graciously to the 
prayers of His Saints we know from the Sacred Scriptures. In Genesis, 
Abimelech, we read, was told that if he restored to Abraham his wife, the 

HHtiinartum ^iffae. 

1 1 



quoniam bonus. Quoniam 
in saeculum misericordia ejus. 
Tiinc ihclinet se ad aliarejunc- 
iis manibus et dicat : 

/^ONFITEOR etc. 

CONFITEOR Deo omni- 
potenti^ beatse MariaB 
semper virgini, beato Michaeli 
Archangelo, beato Joanni Bap- 
tistee^ Sanctis Apostolis Petro 
et Paulo, omnibus Sanctis, et 
vobis fratres : quia peccavi ni- 
mis cogitatione, verbo, et opere, 
Percutit sibi pectus ter^ dicens ; ^^ 
mea culpa, mea culpa, mea 
maxima culpa. Ideo precor 
beatam Mariam semper virgi- 
nem, beatum Michaelum Arch- 
angelum, beatum Joannem 

Patriarch should pray for him, and he should live. '* Now, therefore, re- 
store the man his wife ; for he is a prophet : and he shall pray for thee, and 
thou shalt live." ch. xx. ver. 7. And again, in the 42nd ch. of Job, ver. 7, 
Eliphaz and his two friends, against whom the wrath of the Lord was 
kindled, are directed to " go to My servant Job, — and My servant Job shall 
pray for you : for him will I accept." 

In the most ancient offices we find forms of confession and absolution be- 
fore the more solemn part of the Liturgy : they are in the Liturgy of S. 
James, which next to the Clementine, is without doubt, the oldest extant. 
The Gallican Liturgy contains them, under another name. Apologia: and 
several forms are in the Saoramentary of S. Gregory. The present form in 
the Roman Missal, it will be observed varies very materially from the 
Sarum and other English Uses. It has been ascribed, that is, in its present 
state to Pope Damasus : but without any authority, as the best commenta- 
tors allow. Archbishop Egbert alludes to the English form of confession, 
in his Penitential. 

" {Percuiit sibi. Rom.) " Tunsio pectoris obtritio cordis." S, Augtutin, 
Enar. 2. In Psal. 31. 


2)tliinartum ^iime; 

Sarum. Banoor. Ebor. 

Ministri respondeant. 

MISEREATUR vestri omnipotens 
Deus^ et dimittat vobis omnia 
peccata vestra, liberet vos ab omni ma- 
l6, conserve! et confirmet in bono^ et ad 
vitam perducat aeternam. 
Sacerdos. Amen. Ij^. Amen. 

vestri omnipo- 
tens Deus : et dimittat 
vobis omnia peccata^ 
vestra: liberet vos .ab 
omni malo, servet et 
confirmet in omni 
opere bono et perducat 
vos ad vitam aeternam. 

Et postea dicant : 

Et postea : 


ad sacerdo- 

teni : 
2uo diciOy dicat sacerdos, Misereatur, ut 


tunc ministri 

respondeant : 

Dtinde dicat sacerdos: Deinde erec- 

tus signet se 

in facie dicen^ 

do absolution 


ABSOLUTIONEM et remissionem omnium peccatorum 
vestrorum, spatium verse penitentiae, (et, Sdr.) emenda- 
tionem vitae, gratiam et consolationem saneti Spiritus, tribuat 
vobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus. 

Ministri respondeant, Amen. Aofen. 

*^ (^TiH pater, Rom.) This, even though a Bishop, or the Pope himself, 
be present. *' Cum minister, et qui iotersunt (etiam si ibi fuerit Summus 






Baptistam^ sanctos Apostolos 
Petrum et Paulum, omnes 
SanctoSy et vos fratres,.orare 
pro me ad Dominum Deum 
Ministri Ijir. 

nipotens Deus, et di- 
missis peccatis tuis, perducat te 
ad vitam aetemam. 
Sacerdos dicity Amen, et erigit 

Deinde ministri repetunt Con- 
fessionem: et ubi a Sacerdote 
dicebatur, vobis fratres, et, vos 
fratres, a ministris dicitur tibi 
pater,'^ et, te pater. 

Postea Sacerdos junctis mani" 
busfacit absoluiionem, dicens : 

A/f ISEREATUR vestri. c/r. 


Slgnat se signo Crucisj dicens : 

tionem, et remissionem pec- 
catorum nostrorum, tribuat no- 
bis omnipotens et miserieors 
Dominus. ^, Amen. 

ondfex) respondent CothfiteWy dicunt tibi pater y et, te pater y aliquantulum 
^DTersi ad celebrantem.'' Ritus Celehr, Miss. Tit. iii. 9. 


SDtHtnarium ^tffiie. 

Sarum. Bangor. 

Deinde (statim. Bangor,) dicat 
sacerdos v." 

ADJUTORIUM nostrum in nomine 
Domini. Qui fecit coelum et ter- 
ram. Sit nomen Domini benedictum. 
Ex hoc^ nunc^ et usque in seeculum. 


Factaque ante gradus 
altaris confessione as- 
cendatad altar e dicens: 

DEUS tu conver- 
sus vivificabis 
nos* Et plebs tua Ise- 
tabitur in te. Ostende 
nobis Domine. etc. Sa- 
cerdotes tui. Domine 
Deus virtutum. Do- 
mine exaudi orationem 
meam. ^t clamor 
mens ad te veniat. Do- 
minus vobiscum. 

Deinde jinitis precibusy Deinde sfatim 
sacerdos deosculetur^^ , sacerdos deos- 
diaconum et subdiaco- culeiur diaco- 
num ita dicens: num et postea 

dicens : 

HABETE osculum pacis et dilec- 
tionis : ut apti sitig sacrosancto 
altari ad perficieiidum altaris Domini 
officia divina. ministerio. 

£!t hoc semper observetur per totum 
annum : nisi tantum in missis pro de- 
functis et in tribus proximis feriis ante 
pascha. His itaque peractis : cerofe- 

^* ^^ JEt sciendum est quod quicunque sacerdos officium exequatur: semper 
episcopus si prcBsens fuerit ad gradum chori dicat : Confiteor, Misereatur, et 

Absolutionem/' Rubr. Miss, Sar, 

*^ This ceremony is peculiar in this place to the Sarum and Bangor 
Churches : nor is it easy to say from whence it was introduced. Certainly, 

JlDtiiinartum OfiifOit, 

' Hjbrford. Rom. 

His dictis ascendat gradum di- Et inclinatus prosequitur : 




DEUS tu conversus vivificabis nos. Ijk. Et plebs tualseta- 
bitur in te. v. Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam 

tuam. ^. Et salutare tuum da nobis. 
Sacerdotes tui induantur jus- 
titia. Et sancti tui exultent. 
Ab occultis meis hiunda me 
Domine. Et ab alienis parce 
servo tuo. Sancta Dei geni- 
trix virgo semper Maria. In- 
tercede pro nobis. Domine 
Deus virtutum converte nos. 
Et ostende faciem. Domine 
exaudi orationem meam. Et 
clamor mens ad te veniat. Do- 
minus vobiscum. Et cum spi- 

V, Domine exaudi orationem 
meam. Iji:. Et clamor mens ad 
te veniat. v. Dominus vobis- 
cum. Iji:. Et cum spiritu tuo» 


there was not an exact agreement as to the giving of the Kiss in the ancient 
Missals : having sprang from Apostolic usage, it varied totally at last from 
its original design, and was appointed to be given sometimes at one time, 
sometimes at another. The Apostolical Constitutions, lib. ii. cap. 61, and 
S* Justin, Apolog,2, attach it to the Oblation, which immediately succeeded : 
80 also the 19th Canon of the Council of Laodicea. A. D. 366. 


flytninarium Q^tflfae. 

Sarum. Banqor. 

rarii candelabra cum cereis ad gradum 
altaris dimittant : deinde accedat sacer- 
dos ad altare, et dicat in medio altaris 
iacita voce inclinatoque corpore etjunctis 
manibus : 


Inclinatus ad altare di^ 
cat devote et subrnisse : 


AUFER a nobis ^^ (qusesumus. Ban- 
gar) Domine cunctas iniquitates 
nostras : ut ad sancta sanctorum puris 
mentibus mereamur (mereamur puris 
mentibuSy Bangor) introire. Per Chris- 
tum Dominum nostrum. (Amen. Ban- 

Tunc erigat se sacerdos et osculetur al- 
tare^ et hoc in medio, et signet se in sua 
facie ita dicens : 

IN nomine Patris et XN nomine 
Filii et Spiritus A Patris et 
sancti. Amen. Filii. 

AUFER a nobis 
Domine omnes 
iniquitates nostras, ut 
ad sancta sanctorum 
mereamur puris men- 
tibus introire. Per 
Christum Dominum 
Erectus signet se : 

*^ (a nohis. Sar.) There seems to be some doubt, say the ritualists, whe- 
ther this prayer includes the people, as well as the Priest, or whether the 
assistant Deacon only is intended, who alone with the Priest goes to the 
Altar. The next prayer, in the Roman Use, concludes in the singular 
number, *' ut indulgere digneris omnia peccata mea.'^ 

Le Brun says : ''Si sedulo res perpendatur eum pro se tantum orare 
perspicitur : et multitudinis quidem numero tantum utitur, quod una cum 
ipso Diaconus quoque ad Altare ascendere debet.'' Torn, i. p, 68. 

'^ It was a common practice, as every reader of Ecclesiastical History 
must know, for the primitive Christians to meet for the Offering and Ser- 
yice of the Communion, not only in any secret place, but especially in those 
places where martyrs had suffered, or where their remains were buried. 
Hence, after the persecutions ceased, and leave was given that Churches 
might openly be frequented, not unnatnraUy the first Churches were built, 
in places which they had already been thus accustomed to assemble in oi* 
near. And thus, probably arose that superstitious and general custom, that 
no Church should be consecrated without relics of the Martyrs. Cardinal 
Bona labours to prove that it is as early as before the Council of Nice, and 

■Hbrford. Rom. 


Tunc inclinet se ad dtarejunC' 
tis nianibus et dicat : 

Ut e±tendens ac jangeris ma-- 
7iuSy clara voce dicitj Oremus^ 
et ascendens ad altare^ dicit 
secreto : 

AUFER a nobis Domine 
cunctas iniquitates nos- 
tras^ ut ad sancta sanctorum 
puns mentibus servire merea- 
mur et introire. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

AUFER a nobis, qusesu- 
mus Domine^ iniquitates 
nostras : ut ad Sancta sancto* 
rum puris mereamur mentibus 
introire. Per Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. Amen* 

Hie se en'gendo osculetur aU 

Deinde ynanibus junctis super 
altarCj mclinatus dicii ; 

O RAMUS te, Domine, 
per merita Sanctorum 
tuorum, Osculalitr alt are in 
medio y quorum reliqui®^^ hie 

there can be no doubt that it is very ancient, and soon passed into a law» 
For not to insist upon passages from S. Ambrose ^ (Epist. 54 :) from S. Je-^ 
vmM^ and S. Augustin, (which are appealed to by most writers upon the^ 
subject, and which - unquestionably prove how widely the practice was 
spreading in their respective times,) it was ordered by the 7th Canon of the 
Second Council of Nice, that no Bishop should consecrate any Church or 
Altar, on pain of deposition. Unless Relics were placed under it : *' ut qui 
Ecdesiasticas traditiones transgressus est.'' 

The Roman Pontifical orders : '* Sero ante diem dedicationis, Pontifex 
parat reliquias, ponens eas in decent! et mundo vasculo, cum tribus granis 
thuris i sigillans ipsum vasculum diligenter, &c/^ 

In the year 816, the second Canon of the Council of Chalcuith, is ** De 
modo consecrandi ecclesias :" and orders : *' Postea eucharistia, qu» ab 
epiicopo per idem ministerium consecratur, cum aliis reliquiis condatur in 
eapsulfi, ac senretnr in eadem basilica. Et si alias reliquias intimare non 
potest, tamen hoc maxime proficere potest, quia corpus et sanguis est Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi/^ WiUiins* Concilia, torn. i. p. 169» There is a refer- 
ence in one of the Canon^ of a Council at Oxford, a*d. 1222, to a custom 





Deinde poTtat dtacorius thus in ihuribth 
lum et dkatprius sacerdoii: 
Benedicite. Benedicite. 

et sacerdos dicat : Sace}*dos re- 

DOMINUS. Ab ipso benedicatur: 
in cujus honore cremabitur. In 
nomine Patris. etc. 

Tunc diaconus ei thuribuluvi tradens 
deosctdetur manum ejus. Et ipse sa- 
cerdos ikurificet^ medium altarisj ei 
utrumque comu altaris. Deinde ab ipso 
diacono ipse sacerdos thurijicetur : etpos- 
tea textum minister io subdiaconi sacerdos 
deosculetur. His itaque gestis in dextro 
cornu^^ altaris cum diacono et subdia- 

Et in dextro comu al- 

which aba pserailed: tik of placing the Corporals under Altars : " Vetera 
yero corporalia, quae non faerint idonea in altaribus, quando consecrantur, 
loco reliquiarum reponantnr, rel in pramentia arehidiaconi comburantur/^ 
WiUdTis, torn. i. p. 587. Upon this statute Lyndwood says, **Loco reli- 
quiarnm. Sine quibasAltiariacoiiaecratf non debent'' LiU.iii.TiC.26i. B«t 
he goes on to say that they are not of the substance of the Gomtecnrtiod. 
'^ Uikfe licet fteliqaiae non sint do substontia ConseBrationis Aitaxisy ubt 
tamen non habentur fteliqui», solent aliqoi apponeivCorpus Ghristi.*^ Thitf 
is according to the old d^ecree abore, of the Council of Chaicditil. But Lynd- 
wood cil^ several authorities why such a pfactice wss not to be allowed* 
'' Non d'ecere corpus Domini recondi in altari.*^ (Lyndwood does notsay tiiis, 
but refers to Hostiensis, in summa, and I suppose it to be the place intlMided. 
See also Durante De rit. lib. i. cap. xxV.) " Alia rails' ^st, quia Corpus 
Ch^sli'est cibus aninia&r item^ quia non debet servarr, nisi ad opus ii^r- 
morum : et non debet poniad alinm umm quam ad eum pro quo institutuai 
est, ham debet comedi. — Quod tamen Corporale vci ejuiff pats detor in Con- 
secratiorne altaris loco reliquiarum, non yidetur essa absurdum.^ Froni 
this glossr of Lyndwood', if such was required in Uie case, we might Iram 
how unfounded is the remark which Johnson (JSccles. Laws, toL i. 816,) 
makes upon the Canon of Chalcuith ; that in it, ** the Eucharatic symbols 
are set on a level with the relics of the Saints, and scarce that neither." He 

®fliinatium qpitTae; 




sunt, et omnium Sanctorum : 
ut indulgere digneris omnia 
peccata mea. Amen. 
In Missa solemnly Ctlebrans 
anttquam legat introituvi^ be- 
nedicil iiiccnsum^ dicens : 

Et tunc accedat ad dcxtnnn 
comu altaris et dicat: 

AB iTlo bene + dicaris, in 
cujushonore cremaheris. 

Et accepto thuribulo a DiaconOj 
incensat altare, nihil dicens. 
Posted Diaconus recepto thiin^ 
bulo a CelcbrantCy incenset ilium 

utterly mistook the object of the Canon : which is to be wondered at in a 
witter of so great a reputation. 

. ^ (l^hmriJUei, dar.) The use of incense, in the public services of the 
Cbarch, is of the moist remote antiquity : and it was among the few offer- 
ii^ which* were allowed to be nlade at the Altar, to he there consumed^ as 
appears from the *2nd of the Apostolical Canons. The object of burning 
ineense seems to be well expressed in the prayer which is found in the Li-^ 
tmrgy of S. John Chrysostom, according to the translation in Goar's Collect 
tidta; *^ Incensum tibi oiFeriiilu:s Christe Deus iik odorem suavitatis spiri- 
tualis, queiii suscipe Domine in sanctuiol et superccsleste ac intellectuaTe 
twtai altluiB, et repende nobis abtmdantes tuas miseratibnes, et illas largire 
fiobiB ser^ tuis.'' Goai^. Ritnale Grssc. p. 62. 

^ In examinii^ thfe old Uses, the student will find much confii^ion, if her 
takes ibr a guide the modem Roman books, respecting the H^ht and the 
left comer of the Altar. In the rubric above and in other places of the 
Englilih liturgies, this' right, means' the £y>Mf2« side, and the l^ft,ihe Gospel 
^de« In all the old Rotban Orders, such was the ctistom, up'to the end of 
the XVth Century : taking it to be the right hand and the left of the offi^ 
dating Priest ; as well ds of those who were standing bjf. But in tiie year 
1486 the Roman Pontifical, published at Venice, laid down as a rule, that 
the rig^t hafid and' the left were to be taken from the Crucifix upon the 

20 fl>tliinarium ^^ae. 

Saritm. Bangor. Ebor. 

Officium missiP ^ usque ad orationem pro- dicat qffkium . *^ Et 

sequatur : yd usque ad Gloria in excel- postea inctnset altare. 

sis : quando dicitur. Et post officium et Repetatur officium et 

psalmum repetatur officium : et postea di" postea dicitur Gloria 

citur Gloria patri et siciit erat. Tertio Patri. Sicut erat. 

repetatur officium : sequatur Kyrie,^ Deinde repetatur offki^ 

Altar : by which new arrangement of course the old was entirely reversed. 
See on this subject especially, Sola's notes to Bona, torn. iii. p. 49, and Le 
Brun^ torn. i. p. 77. Note, Thus, the general rubric of the present Roman 
Missal, makes an explanation, which since the adoption of the new rule has 
been indispensable. '* Accedit ad comu ejus sinistrum, id est, Epistobe : 
ubi stans, incipit Intraitum^ &c.'' Rittu Celebr, Tit, It. 2. 
* " When thou thus has done. 

Upon thi fete thou stande up sone : 

For hi this tyme als I gesse. 

The prist begynnes office of messe : 

Or ellis he standes turuande his boke, 

At tho south auter noke.*' Museum MS. 
'* (Officium. Ebor.) More commonly called in later jrears, the Introitf 
** Introitus:'' as in the Roman Use. In the Milan or Ambrosian Missal, 
it is called Ingressa. For an account of its first Institution and other par-* 
ticulars, the student should consult Bona^ torn. ii. p. 48, and Gerberi. de 
Musica, tom. i p. 100. These Introits, as is well known, were retained in 
the first revised Liturgy of K. Edw. YI. They kept: their old name of /«•* 
trait, long after the real reason why they were so called, had ceased : viz* 
because they were sung at the entrance or approach of the Priest to the 
Altar. Upon which point all the old writers agree. See Micrologus cap.i« 
Rupert, de dimnis Off. cap. 28, Raban. cap. 23. It was to tiie Introit that 
the Tropes were added, when they were introduced* ** Tropus proprie est 
quidam versiculus, qui in pnedpuis festivitatibus cantatur immediate ante 
introitum, quasi quoddam prseambulum, et continuatio ipsius introitus.*' 
Durand. lib. iv. cap. 6. . 

^ (Sequatur Kyrie. Sar.) " Post repetitionem officii principalis rector 
chori officium misssB a cantore qu®rere debet: deinde illud socio sno inti- 
mare : et postea simul incipere, et similiter Kyrie : Sequentia : Offerto^ 
rium : Sanctus : Agnus : et Conmiunio quaerantur, intimentur et indpian- 
tur.'* Ruhr. Mies. Sar. 

. In this rubric we have two Officers of the Choir mentioned : the CmUoTf 
and the lUctor Chori. Thete seems to have been two of the last-named : 


. Hmmford. Rom* - 

in nomine Domini. Qui 
fecit coelum et terram» Sit no- 
men Domini benedictum. Ex 
hoc nunc et usque in saeculum. 

Deinde incipiatur officium rmS" Deinde Celebrans signans se 
Sie : signo Crucis incipit introitum : 

Jtepetatur officium et Gloria Quo JinitOj junctis nianibus aL 
patri. Sicut erat, ternatim cum ministris dicii : 

KYRIE eleison. Kyrie e- 
^ leison. Kyrie eleison. 

who probably answer to the precentor and succentor of S. Isidore : " Can- 
tor vocatur, quia vocem modulatur in cantu* Huj us duo genera dicuntur 
in arte musica ; praecentor et succentor : prsecentor scilicet, qui ¥Ocem prse- 
inittit in cantu, succentor autem qui subsequenter canendo respondet/' 
Apud Gratian. Dist. xxi. c. 1 . If there were then two of these, they pro- 
bably stood each at the end of his own side of the choir, and having received 
the necessary information from the Cantor, who as we shall see, stood in 
the centre, passed it on to his companions. Amalarius speaks of One Prae* 
centor as opposed to the Succerttores. ** Praecentor in primo ordine fiuit 
responsorium. Succentores vero eodem modo respondent. Dein praecentor 
canit versum, &c/' De &rd, Antiph, cap. 18. BibL Patrum Auct» tom. i. 
p. 627. 

The name "Reetor Chori" appears to have been, if not peculiar to Eng- 
land, yet chiefly adopted in her Churches. Du Cange cites but one authority 
for it, from a Sarum Breviary : and explains it to be the same as '^ Can* 
tor X** in which I cannot but believe him to be in error, though I speak with 
hesitation against so great a writer. But the Rubric at the head of this 
note, seems to put the matter beyond a doubt : and to it I shall add the fol- 
lowing account of the duties of the Cantor, First, from the Statutes of 
Archbishop Lanfranc : cap. v. wi^ which agrees almost in word a statute 
of Evesham Monastery: DugdaJe, Monast. vol. ii. p. 39. '* De Cantore, 
Qnicunque lecturus aut cantaturus est aliquid, si necesse habet ab eo 
prinsquam incipiat debet auscultare. — Si quis obliviosus non incoeperit, cum 
incipere debet responsorium, aut antiphonam, aut aliud hnjusmodi, ipse 
debet esse provisus, atque paratus, ut sine mora, quod incipiendum erat, 
incipiat, vel eum, qui fallendo deviaverat, in viam reducat : ad ipsius arbi- 
trium cantus incipitur, elevatur, remittitur ; nulli licet cantum levare, nisi 
ipse prius incipiat. — Cantor vero, in medio eorum debet esse in Choro : — et 
in dextro choro semper sit/' Lanfrand Opera, p. 279. Agieiin, from the 
Consuetudinary of the Church of Lichfield, A. d. 1294. '* £!antoris officium 
est chorum in cantuiun elevatione et depressione regere, et in omni duplici 
festo lectionis legendas canonicis praesentibus injungere, chronica paschalia 
singulis annis mutare, cantores, lectores, et ministros altaris, in tabula or- 

22 2)tlilnadunt ^ifliie. 

Saruu. Bangor, Ebor. 

um : Kyrie eleyson tffP 
Ghriste eleyson iij, 
Kyrie eleyson tif. 

Hisjinitis tt officio mis- 
Sie inchoatOy cum post 
officiuniy Gloria Pain\ 
incipitur: tunc acce- 

dinare. — Prseterea in majoribus daplicibus festis teneter interesse regimini 
chori ad missam cum caeteris rectoribns choii Item Id omnibus duplicibus 
festis rectores cbori de cantibus ii^ungendis et incipiendis tenetur instruere/' 
Wilkitu, Concilia, torn. i. p. 498. 

Tbe Cantor was in this sense tbe same as the Pracentor, properly so 
called ; and not (as I have suggested abore) as* Isidore uses the word, for a 
Rector chori: in which sense there might be more than one Precentor, as 
we fiQd in an Epistle of Hincmar, cited by Du Cange^ verb. PrttcpUor. 
^* Prsecentores, qui chorum utrinque regunt, sunt duces, &c.'' But tiie 
Prsecentor strictly was *^ Primus Cantorum in Ecclesia ; qui Cantoribus 
prceest." The Bishop of Salisbury is Precentor of the College of Bishops : 
according to Lyndwood, ^'Habet namque Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis 
in CoUegio Episcoporum Episcopos, Londinensem Decanumr — Saruburi' 
«i*em Praecentorem/' lib. v. tit. 15. JEtenue.Y, tanguam. Compare also, 
lib. ii. tit. 3. verb, usum Sarum. It has been supposed that this distinction 
arose from the fame of the Salisbury Use, and Bp. Osmund. Thomas 
Archbishop of York, a.d. 1100, is said to have first appointed a Pjra9- 
centor in that Cathedral. Collier, Eec. Hist vol. i. p. 281* 

A curious collection of signals by whidi the Cantor made known his will 
to the Choir, are given by Gerherty from some foreign Monastic Statutes. 
These are all to be made by various movements of the hand and fingers. 
De Musica sacra, tom. i. p. 310, note a. 

^ {Kfrie eleison, iij, Ebor.) From the 6th ch. of the 8th book of the 
Apostolical Constitutions, (quoted by Le Bran, vol. i. p. 80) it l^>pear8 that 
the prayer, " Kyrie eleison," was used by the faithful in behalf of the Cate- 
chumens, ''that God would be pleased to illumine them with the light of 
His Gospel, and fill them with the grace of His HolySpirif This prayer 
of course occurred before the dismissal of the CatechimienSy and the begin- 
ning of the solemn part, the Canon. 

In the Ritualists, (vide especially Durant) may be found many reasons, 
some sufficiently fanciful, why these Kpie were retained in the Greek, and 
not translated into Latin. I shall give the observation of Cardinal Bona 
upon the point. *' Dicunt Latini in M issa Kyrie eleison Greece, dicnnt etiam 
Hebraice Ameti, Allelujah, Sahaoth, et Osanna : quia fortassis sic. ab initio 
Ecclesiasticarum precum Institutores voces istas usurparunt, ut ostenderent 
unam esse Ecclesiam, quae ex Hebrais, et Graecis primum, deinde ex TAtfnifi 

. . JSemfomd. . Rom. 

officio segmtur, Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleison. Christe elei- 
Christe eleyson. Kyrie eleyson. son. Christe eleison. Kyrie 
vj\ eleison. Kyrie eleison. Kyrie 



coadunata est : vel quia inysteria nostras fidei tribiis hisce Unguis ab Apos- 
tolls et Evangelistis, eorumque immediatis successoribus conscripta fuernut : 
qu» quidem linguae in titulo crucis quodammodo consecratae sunt. Sed 
quaecumque fuerit causa hujus institutionis, certissimum est earn autiquissi- 
mam esse.'' Tom. iii./?. 73. 

Upon certain Festivals these Kyrie were appointed in the English Church 
fo be suBg wkk several verses added to the original words. As, for exam- 
ple, upon the double feasts were to be sung either '^ Kyrie rex genitor :" 
or, " Kyrie fons bonitatis :" or, " Kyrie omnipotens pater," with two or 
three others, at the choice of the Precentor. Upon the Feast of the Epi- 
phany was appointed always, *' Kyrie fons bonitatis." Upon S. MichaePs 
day, ** Kyrie rex splendens,'' which also was appointed for S. Dunstan's 
day, who is said to have heard it sung by Angels in a dream. Below are 
two of these Kyrie. 

Kyrie, rex genitor ingenite vera essentia, eleyson. 
Kyrie, lominis fons, rerumque conditor, eleyson. 
Kyrie, qui nos toss imaginis signasti specie, eleyson. 
Christe, Dei forma humana particeps, eleyson. 
Cbriste, lux oriens, per quern sunt omnia, eleyson. 
Christe, quia perfecta esr sapientia, eleyson. 
Kyrie, i^tus vivifice, vitse vis, eleyson. 
Kyxie,* utriusque vapor,., i^ quo cuncta, eleyson. 

Kyrie expnrgator scelerum, et largitor gratiae, quaesumus propter nostras 
offensas noli uos relinquere, O consolator dolentis animaa, el^son. 


Kyrie, omnipotens pater ingenite nobis miseris, eleyson. 
Kyrie, qui proprio plasma tuum filio redemisti, eleyson. 
Kyrie, adonai nostra dele crimina plebique tuo, eleyson. 
Christe, splendor gloriae, patrisque figura substantias, eleyson. 
Christe, patris qui mundum praecepto salvasti nobis, eleyson. 
Christe, salus hominum vitaque aetema angelorum, eleyson. 
Kyrie, spiritus paraclite largitor veniae nobis, eleyson. 
Kyrie fons misericordiae septiformis gratiae, eleyson. 
Kyrie, indultor piissime procedens ab utroque, charismatum dator largis- 
sime, doctor vivifice, clemens, eleyson. 


S)tliiiiattum qWie. 

dant ministri ad altare 
ordinatim: primo ce- 
roferarii duo pariier 
incedentes; deindethu- 
rUrularii: post^subdia^ 
conus : exinde diaconusy 
post eum sacerdos: dia- 
cono et subdiacono casu- 
lis tndutis.^ Quo f ado 
sacerdos el sui ininislri 
in sedibus par alls se rc^ 
cipiantj et expectent us- 
que ad GloviB, in excel- 
sis : quod incipiatur 
semper in medio al- 
taris quandocunque di* 



In medio altaris erec- 
tis manibus indpiat 
Gloria in excelsis Deo. 

^ The rubric goes on into the following particulars. '^ Scilicet qnotidie 
per adventum : et a septuagesima usque ad coenam Domini quando de tern- 
porali dicitur missa : nisi in vigiliis et qnatuor temporibus : manus tameu 
ad modum sacerdotis non habentibus : cseteris vero ministris, scilicet cero- 
ferariis, thuribulario et acolyto in albis cum amictibus existentibus. In 
aliis vero temporibus anni quando de temporali dicitur missa, et in festis 
sanctorum totius anni, utantur diaconus et subdiaconus dalmaticis et tu- 
nicis: nisi in vigiliis et quatuor temporibus: et nisi in vigiliis paschsB et 
penthecostes : et nativitatis Domini si in dominica contingent, et excepto 
jejunio quatuor tempornm quod celebraturin ebdomada penthecostes : tunc 
dalmaticis et tunicis indui debent. In die parasceves et in rogationibus ad 
missam jejunii et processionibus et in missis dominicalibus et sanctorum 
quse in eappis dicuntur, tunc enim albis cum amictibus utantur, ita tamen 
quod in tempore pasch. de quocunque dicitur missa, nisi in inventione 
sanctsB crucis utantur ministri vestimentis albis a4 missam. Similiter fiat 
in festo annuntiationis beatse Marice: et in conceptione ejusdem: et in 
utroque festo sancti Mlchaelis : et in festo sancti Johannis Apostoli in eb- 
domada nativitatis Pomini : et per oct. et in oct. assumptionis et nativitatis 
beatsB Mariae: et in commemorationibus ejusdem per totum annum : et per 
oct. et in oct. dedicationis ecclesiae. Rubeis vero utantur vestimentis onmi- 
bus dominicis per annum extra tempus paschae quando de dominica agitur : 
et in quarta feria in bapite jejunii : et in coena Domini, et in utroque festo 
sanctae crucis, in quolibet festo martyrum, apostolorum, et evangelistaruni 

liDtlitttatiiim ^tiTae. 




Quo dido eat sacerdos ad me- 
dium altaris : et eleoando ma- 
nus suas dicaL Gloria in ex- 
celsis Deo. 

Postea in medio altaris exieru 
dens et jungens mantis caput-' 
que aliquantulum inclinans, di^ 
cit^ si dicendum est,^ Gloria in 
excelsis Deo. £t prosequitur 
junctis manibus. Cum dicit 
Adoramus te, Gratias agimus 
tibi et Jesu Christe, et Suscipe 
deprecationem, inclinat caput: 
et in fine dicensy Cum sancto 
Spiritu, signat se a fronte ad 

extra tempus paschae. In omnibus autem festis unius confessoris vel plu- 
Hmomm confessomm utantur restimentis crocei colons." 

** *' Gloria in excelsis dicitur quandocunque in Matutino dictus est 
Hynmus Tt Dettm, prseterquam in Missa feriae quintae in csena Domini, et 
Sabbati sancti, in quibus Gloria in excelsis dicitur, quamvis in Officio non 
sit dictam Te Deum. In Missis votivis non dicitur, etiam tempore pascbali, 
vel infra Octavas, nisi in Missa beatse Mariae in Sabbato, et Angelorum : et 
nisi Missa votiva solemniter dicenda sit pro re grayi,yel pro publica Eccle- 
sias causa, dommodo non dicatur Missa cum paramentis violaceis. Neque 
dicitur in Missis Defunctorum.'' Ruhr. Generates, Miss, tit. viij. 3,4. 

Very anciently, and, indeed it Las been supposed, up to the year 1000, 
only Bisbops were permitted to say this Hymn, except on Easter-day, 
when Priests also were allowed. Walafrid Strabo, cap. 22, says, '' Sta- 
tutnm est, ut ipse Hymnus in summis festivitatibus a solis Episcopis usur- 
paretar, quod etiam in capite libri Sacramentorum designatum videtur.'^ 
Cardinal Bona, tom. iii. p. 85, cites a very early Missal, now in the Vati- 
can, with this regulation, which Strabo appears to mean, at the beginning. 
*' Dicitur Gloria in excelsis Deo si episcopus fuerit, tantummodo die Domi- 
nico, siye diebus festis. A Presbyteris autem minime dicitur, nisi in solo 
Pascha.'^ An old anonymous writer, in a book called Speculum EcclesiiB^ 
Bays that this hymn was sung only once in the year, on the day of the Na- 
trrity : and further, that in the firsts Service it was sung in Latin, in the 
second in Greek. Benedict XIV. Opera, tom. ix. p. 81. 

26 2)ttiit)|itium S0ittiBLt. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

GLORIA in excelsis T>eo.^ Et in terra pax hominibus bonae 
voluntatis. Laudamus te^ Benedicimus te, Adoramus te, 
Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam 
tuam.*'^ Domine Deus, Rex ccelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. 
Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe. Domine Deus^ agnus Dei, 
Filius Patris. Qui tollis pecoata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui 
tollis peccata mundi^ suscipe depreeationem nostram. Qui sedes 
ad dexteram Patris^ mi&ierere iK>bis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus, 
Til solus DominuSy Tu solus altissimus, Jesu Christe^ Cum sancto 
SpiritUy in gloria Dei Patris, Amen.^ 
His if ague peractis^ /actoque signaculo Postea conversus sa^ 

^ This, as is well known, is called the Angelical Hymn, from the first few 
words having been sung by the Angels at the Nativity of onr Redeemer. 
9y wtiom the remainder was added, is involved in the deepeat obscurity. 
Some ascribe it to Telesphot*u9, Bishop of Rome about a.d. 130. Jnnadent, 
De Mysteriis, c. 20. Alcuin, de Dlv. Off. cap. xl. gives it to Hilary of 
Poictiers, and with him agree Hugo, de Div. Off. cap. xj. and the Author 
of the Gemma Anima, lib. i. 87 : but against these (and others who may be 
mentioned) Bona observes that S. Athanasius, a contemporary of Hilary, 
speaks of this hymn, with its additions, as well known in his own tiw^. The 
Fathers of one of the Councils (t«. ToUt. can. 1^,) could not err^when they 
cautiously observed, ^' Reliqua quae sequuntiir post yerh^ Aog^orum, 
^cclesiasticos Doctores composuisse/' By the Greeks this Hymn is called 
the Great Doxology: and is said by them at tbeir morning; prayei^. In 
many MSS. of the Xiatin Church, especially in the piost andeij^t,^ it is added 
to the end of the Psalter with the Apostles' and the Athapasian Creeds, 
with the title *' hymnns matutinus.'' 

The Salisbury, Bangor and Hereford Mis9M& add several interpolations, 
which were appointed to be said at pertain Festivals of the Blessed Virgin^ 
or Services in her Chapel. They commence after ^' Domine fili unigenite 
Jesu Christe,'' and continue thus : '^ Spiritus et alme orphflnorum Pisraclyte^ 

1 — ^Filius Patris. PrimogenUue Marue virginU matris. Qui tollis 

depreeationem nostram. Ad maria gloriam. ^tu solus sanctus. Mariam 

tanctificans. Tu solus Dominus. Mariam guhemttne. Tu solus altissimus. 
Mariam coronaru, &c.'* The rubric is, (after sundry direction& for other 

times) *' nisi quando, &c. tunc ^nim dicitur sequens cantus cij^ni sua for-* 

sura, videlicet in choro. Et etiam dicitur cum sua prosa in quotidianis 

missis in capella beatse Marias omni sabbatp. In omnibus i^iis niissis 

quando dicendum est: dicitqr sine prosa.'' Ruhr. Sar, ^Independent of 
the great objections to these in particular, no one can regret tjiat all such 
additions have been removed from our present Liturgy : for although CUch' 
ioveus in his Elucidation^ (p. 137) says that they were appointed /'secun-; 

Hmrford. Rom. 

GLORIA in excelsis Deo. Et in terra pasf hominibus bonad 
voluntatis. La\idamiis te, Benedicimus te^ Adoramus te, 
Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam 
tuam. Domine Deus^ Rex cGelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. 
Domine FiK unigenite Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, agnus Dei, 
Filius Patris. Qui Mollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. Qui 
toUis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes 
ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus sanctus, 
Tu solus Dominus, Tu solus altissimus, Jesu Christe, Cum 
sancto Spiritu, in gloria Dei Patris, Amen. 
His itaqueperactisyfactoque sig-- Deinde osculafur altare inine^ 

dum ecdesiae catholicse ritum/' there can be no doubt, that they were mere 
private interpolations, which by degrees crept into very general observance. 
Two examples are given by Pamelius of other similar additions marde tp 
this most glorious hymn. Liturg, torn. xi. 

^* Gloria in excelsis" says the old author of the Gemma AnimtB '* solus 
sacerdos incipit, et chorus simul concinit : quia et solus angelus hoc incepit, 
et militia coelestis exercitus simul concinit/' Cap, 93. 
" ^ {^Propter magnam gloriam tvam,) '' Gratias agimus tibi propter mag- 
nam gloriam tuam.'^ Magnae Dei glorise, potius quam gratiarum actio, 
procul dubio Honor, obsequium, reverentia, ac prostratio debetur : dicen- 
dum igitur, quod ibi Gloriam, usurpetur pro eo attributo, in quo Deus ipse 
summe gloriatur, scilicet pro ejus misericordia, quae erga nos exercita, 
semper in ipsius Dei miserentis vertitur gloriam ; saepenumero etiam in 
Sacris Scriptoris gloria pro misericordia accipitur, sicut ex verbis Apostoli, 
ad Ronaanos, c. 3. Omneg enim peccaverunt, et egent Gloria Dei, id est, Dei 
misericordia.'' Cavalieri Opera, tom. v. p. 20. 

98 (« ^ Post inceptionem Gloria in excelsis divertat se sacerdos ad dexte> 
mm comu altaris, et ministri cum eo prosequentes : diaconus a dexteris et 
subdiaconus a sinistris submissa voce dicant idem. 

'' V. Notanduni est quod omnes cleric! stare tenentur ad missam nisi 
dum lectio epistolae legitur, et Graduale, et Alleluya, vel Traotus cantatur. 
In duplicibus tamen festis stare tenentur omnes dum a choro Alleluya cani- 

tur. Pueri vero semper sunt stantes ad missam choro canente. ^Et 

notandum est quod omnes clerici conversi ad altare stare tenentur dum ad 
missam Gloria in excelsis inchoatur : quousque chorus cantet. Et in eodem 
hymno ad haec verba Adoramus te et ad haec verba Suscipe deprecationem 
nostram et in fine ejusdem cum dicitur, Jesu Christe cum sancto Spiritu in 
gloria Deif usqfie ad epistolam. In fine vero grad. vel tr. vel Allel. vel 
seqnentiae, chorus ad altare se inclinet antequam ad lectorem evangelii se 
vertat : et ad Gloria tibi Domine, semper ad altare se vertat lector evangelii, 
et etiam omnes clerici signo crucis se siguent.'' RvJbr. Miss. Sar^ 


^rtitnattum 90me. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

cruiis in facie sua, vertat se sacerdos ad cerdos ad poptUum di- 
poptdum, elevatisque aliquanttdum bra- cat: . 
chiis junctisque munibus dicat: 


OMINUS vobis- 
cum. . 

Et chorus respondeat: 
T cum spiritu tuQ. 


Et iterum revertat sa- 
cerdos ad altare et di' 
cat : 

Deinde dicitur oratioy 
sic determinando. 
Per omnia ssecula sae* 

Et si aliqua memoria 
hahenda est, iterum di- 
cat sacerdosy Oremus. 
ut supra. Et quando 
sunt plures collects di- 
cenda ;^ tunc omnes o- 
rationes qua sequuntur 
sub uno Per Dominum 
et uno 
Oremus dicantur: ita 







Tunc onmes 
orationes qiue 


OMINUS vobis- 

tamen quod sep- 

Cum coUecta, Nota 
quod una dicitur prop- 
ter unitatis sacramen- 
tum: et tres exemplo 
Domini qui ter ante 
passionetn orasse legi* 
tur: quinque propter 
quinque partitam Do- 
mini passionem: sep^ 
tern, ad impetrandum 
septem dona sancti 
Spiritus: quein nume- 
rum nemo excedere ul- 
la ratione permitti" 

^ Vel, si sit Episcopus Pax vobis. Ritus Celebr, Miss* tit. y. 1. 

^ (Plures collects dicenda, Sar.) '* Sacrse synodi approbatione salubriter 
duximus statuendum, ut per dioecesim nostram in celebratione mlssarom, 
prseterquam in festis duplicibus, dicantur quinque collects : una de pace 
ecclesiae, scilicet ' Ecclesiae tuse, quas (sic. quaesumus ?) Domiue preces * 
&c. alia pro domino nostro rege, et regina et eorum filiis, scilicet, ' Deus, iii 
cujus manu corda sunt regum/'' Concil. Provinc. Scoticanum. WiUuns. 
Concilia, torn. i. p. 617. 

Dt^tnatitttn a^iflfae. 




naculo crucis in/acie sua vertat dwy et verms ad populuniy di^ 
se sacerdos ad populum elevaiis- ctt, v. 
que aliqtmntulum brachiisjunC" 
tis et manibus diyungens eas 
dicai : 

,OMINUS vobiscum. 



OMINUS vobi8cum.«9 


T cum spiritu tuo. 

Tunc jungat vianus ut prius et 
revertat se ad altare et ittrum 
dis^ungendo eas dicat : 


Tunc omnes orationes qute se- 
qvuntur sub uno Per Dominum 
et sub uno Oremus, dicantur. 

Postea dkity 



Et Orationcsy unam aut plures, 
ut ordo Officii post ulat. 

Ita iamen qtwd septenarum nu- 

*' (OremuB,) *' Numquid ubi audieritis sacerdotem Dei ad ejus altard 
populum hortantem ad orandum, non respondebitis, Amen?'' S. August . 
epist. 106. ad Yitalem. " In iis horrendissimis mystetiis communia sunt 
omnia : omnes eandem dicimus, et non sicut in yeteri lege partem sacerdos, 
«t partem populus, sed omnibus unum corpus proponitur, et unum pocu- 
Inm/' 8. ChrysMtam. Homil. 10. in 2 Epist. &d Corinthios. Vide Durani* 
de ritibus Ecclesiie. lib. ii* cap. 16. 

30 flHfMtnitium dfiUBit 

SARU.Ui Bangor. Ebor, 

tenariuinnumerumexcederefwndehent.^ tur^* 
Et semper dum stat sacerdos ad offidum 
missa : post eum stet diaconus directe in 
proximo gradUy et subdiaconus simili 
7nodo directe in secundo gradu post dia- 
conum : iid ut quoties sacerdoi ad popur 
lum se converiity diaconus similiter se 
convertat. Subdiaconus vero interim ge^ 
nufiectendo de capsula sacerdoiis aptanda 
subniinistret.^^ Sciendum estaiitem quod 
quidquid a sacerdote dicitur ante episto^ 

^ {non dehent. Sar.) '' Notandum qaod in omnibas dominicis et in festis 
cum regimime chori, per totum annum, hoc genenditer obserretor, ut ad 
missam tot dicuntur collects, quot dicebantur ad matutinas : nisi in die na- 
tivitatis Domini. Ita tamen qu6d ad missam impar numerus ipsamm cblled- 
tarum semper custodiatur. Nam. si duse vel quatuor orationes habentuir : 
tunc erit tertia vel quintaoratio de omnibus Sanctis : scilicet : Concede, qua- 
sumus omnipotens Deus : ut intercesno, per totum annum tarn per adventum 
quam in paschali tempore." Ruhr, MUs. Sar. 

The number three, five, or seven, to one of which the number of Collects 
was limited, was symbolical of the earnest desire of the Church for unity, 
which is expressed by an uneven number. Anciently only one Collect was 
said, whence probably the name of it : that in one prayer many were col- 
lected together : but afterwards happened an excess in the other direction, 
and it was strictly enjoined that they should not be more than seven. See 
Martene : de ant. Ecc. Ritibus. lib. i. cap. 4, who quotes Belethus and Du- 
rand. The author of the Gemma Anima says : '* Qui hunc numerum super- 
gressus fuerit, ut caecus errabit.^' Cap. 116. 

^ {Subministret. Sar.) '' £t si episcopus celebraverit, omnes diaconi in 
gradu diaconorum consistant, principali diacono medium locum inter eos 
obtinente. Simili modo in gradu subdiaconi se habeant: ceteris omnibus 
diaconis et subdiaconis gestum principalis diaconi et principalis subdiaconi 
imitantibus: excepto quod principalis. subdiaconus sacerdoti ad populu& 
convertenti solus subministret." Ruhr. Sar. 

^ ** Ut evidens habeatur et plena cognitio quaUter orationes quas col-» 
lectas vocamus terminands sunt : Prius notandum est quod in eis quando- 
que dirigitur sermo ad Patrem : quandoque ad Filium : quandoque ad 
Spiritum sanctum : quandoque ad totam Trinitatem. Sed quando ad Pa- 
trem, iterum considerandum est utrum ita dirigatur ^ermo ad Patrem quod 
fiat mentio de Filio et Spiritu sancto yel non. ^ Et sr in oratione quae ad 
Patrem dirigitur, fiat mentio de Filio, refert an fiat ante finalem partem an 
in ipso fine: et secundum has diversitates narrabitur finis. Si vero dirigitur 
sermo ad Patrem absque mentione Fijii et Spiritus sancti sic finietur : 
'' Per Daminum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium tuum : Qui tecum vivU et 

i3E>fitnattttm f0i^m 3 1 

Hbbford. Rqm. 

merum excedere non debet. 
Et semper dum stat sacerdos ad 
officium missie: post eum stet 
diaconus directe in primo gradu: 
et subdiaconus similiter in se^ 
cundo gradu. Ita ut quoties* 
cumque sacerdos ad populum 
convertit se^ diaconus similiter 
convertat se^ subdiaconus vero 
interim genuflectendo de casula 
aptanda subministret. 

regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Devu, Per omnia sac. saculorum." Si 
vero de Spirito sancto fiat mentio dicetur : '' In unitate ejusdem Spiritus 
sancti Deus!\ Si vero de Filio fiat mentio ante finalem partem dicetur : 
^' JPcr eund^n Dondnam nostmm Jesum Christum FiliumJ' Si vero in 
fine fit mentio de Filio, dicefar : *' Qui tecum vivvt et regnatJ' Si- atttem 
ad Filium dirigitur oratio sine mentione Spiritus sancti, dicetuf : *' Qui 
vivis et regnas cum Deo Patre, in unitate Spiritus sancti Deits.'* Si fiat 
mentio de Spiritu sancto dicetur: '' Qui cum Patre et eodem Spiritu sancto 
vivis et regnas/' Item orationes ad Patrem in quibus mentiottem de Trini- 
tate facimos, sic concludimus. '^ In qua vivis et regnas/' lUad autetii quad 
ad ipsam Trinitatem dirlgimus, sic finimus. *' Qui vivis et regmU Deus/* 
% Secundum autem Romanam Ecclesiam nullaUi orationem ctim, ^^ Per 
eum qui venturus est judicare,'* concludimus, nisi quando fit exorcismus, in 
quo diabolum per divinum judicium ut a creatura Dei recedat exorcizamiisi. 
I^am in aliis orationibus quas cum Per Dominum concludimus, Patrem ut 
per amorem Filii nobis subveniat imploraUius. In exorcismis autem dia- 
bolum per Dei judicium ut aufugiat increpamus : in quo jiidicio scit se dia- 
bolus potentissime damnandum : cujus timore judicii concutitur/' RuBr. 
Miss, Ebor. 

It, is remarkable tbat this long and important note occUrd in the York 
Use, which is distinguished rather by the fewness and shortness of its 
i^brics. It gives also examples from various Collects of e^ch conclusion, 
according to the ruleiEf laid down. The Rubrica Miss. Rom, tit. 
ix. 17. have a short notice on the subject which should be consulted. The 
points involved are of no small consequence, and concern the highest doc- 
trines of the Faith. In the first four Centuries it has been asserted that all 
the prayers of the service of the Communion, were addressed solely to God 
the Father : " Ut in Altari semper ad Patrem dirigatur Oratio," are cer- 
tainly the words of the 3rd Council of Carthage. Canon. 23.^ Florus Lug- 
ekmensii sayis, this was because the Christians feared lest the Doctrine of 
tiie Undivided Trinity might be misunderstood, and give countenance to the 
dreadful error of more gods than One God. 

I shall make one short extract from Cardinal Bona : *' Ad solum Patrem 

3 ^ jI>ttitnatUtm 9$^^t 

Sarum, Bangor. Ebor. 

lam in dextro comu altaris expUatur: 
prater inceptionein Gloria in excelsis. 
Similiter fiat post perceptionem sacra- 
menti. Catera omnia in medio altaris 
expleantur : nisi forte diaconus defuerit. 
Post introitum vero missie uniis cerofe- 
variorum panem^ vinum et aqtuim^ 
qua ad Eucharistia ministrationem dis-^ 

omnes fere Collects directs^ siint, paacse ad Filium, nulla ad Spiritum 
Sanctum : non quia is donum est, et a dono donum non petitur, ut nonnulli 
cum Durando in suo Rationali philosophantur; sed quia Missa repraesen- 
tatio est ejus oblationis, qua Christus se Patri obtulit, ac propterea ad 
ipsum Patrem Liturgies precationes diriguntur/' Tom, i^.p. 105* The 
place in Durand is lib, iv. cap, 15. 

^ Vide ^* De defectibus in celebr. Missarum occurrentibus," in tbe Roman 
Missal. Tit, iij. iv. The English Church from the earliest ages has reite- 
rated her injunctions, as to tiie care which is necessary to be observed in 
providing proper Elements for the Holy Eucharist. Take, for example ; 
** Sacerdotes Dei diligenter semper procurent, ut panis et vinum et aqua, 
sine quibus nequaquam misssB celebrantur, pura et munda fiant ; quia si 
aliter agatur, cum his qui acetum cum felle mixtum Domino optulerunt, 
nisi vera pcenitentia subvenerit, punientur.'^ This from Archbishop Eg- 
bert's Excerptions, (100th) A. D. 750. Thorpe, Anglo-Saxon Laws. ii. Ill* 
About thirty years later, the 10th Canon of the Council of Chalcuith is 
headed '' ut in Missa — — crusta panis non admittatur : "directing ; ** Ob- 
lationes quoque fidelium tales fiant, ut panis sit, non crusta.^' Wilkint* 
Concilia, tom. i. p. 147. Our present Rubric commands that we should 
procure *' the best and purest Wheat Bread, that conveniently may be 
gotten/' I shall only add further, a rule among those which Archbishop 
Lanfranc drew up for the Order of S. Benedict, which shews the excess of 
care which anciently was taken in this matter. '' Ea autem die, qua hostise 
fieri debent, secretarius et fratres, qui eum juvare debent, antequam inci* 
piant, manus et facies lavent, albis induantur, capita amictibus velent, 
praeter eum, qui ferra tenturus, et inde serviturus est. Horum unus super 
tabulam mundissimam ipsam farinam aqua conspergat, et manibus fortiter 
compingat, et maceret, frater, qui ferra, in quibus coquuntur, tenet, manus 
chirothecis habeat involutas. Interim dum ipsae Hostie fiunt et coquuntur, 
d leant iidem Fratres Psalmos familiares Horarum, et Horas-Canonicas, et 
de Psalterio ex ordine quod tantumdem valeat, si ita potius voluerint.'' 
Opera, p. 280. 

^ About these there was no less care taken, than with the breads One 
quotation must now suffice. From the constitutions of a Synod of the Dio-> 
cese of Sodor and Man. A. D. 1350. **Summopere prascaventes ne vinum 
cum quo celebratur, sit corruptum, vel in acetum commutatum, et quod 

^toinarium ^tffae; 33 

Hebford. Bom. 

potius sit rubrum, quam album. In albo tamen bene conficitur sacrum, et 
non de aceto, cam ia aceto mutantur omnes substantiales vires,^ et viiMim 
vim amisit. Et aqua in tam modica quantitate apponatur, ut non vinum ab 
aqua, sed aqua a vino absorbeatur/' I cite this, remembering the practice 
of the modem Church of Rome, to use white wine, whereas we adhere to 
the old and much more suitable custom of consecrating red wine : besides, 
the same canon goes on to speak of the host: '^ Hostia de frumento sit 
rotunda ef Integra, et sine macula: quia agnus extitit sine macula, et os 
non fait eomminutum ex eo. Unde versus : 

CSaadida, triticea, tenuis, non magna, rotunda, 
Expers fermenti, non mista sit hostia Christi, 
Inscribatur aqaa, non cocta sed igne sit assa/' 

Wilkins, Concilia, tom. ii|. p. It. 

It 18 of the highest consequence, affecting (some say) the integrity of the 
Sacrament, that the bread should be of wheat, and not of almonds, or the 
such-like. But whether it be leavened or not, has always been held to be 
indifferent, and a matter, either to be left open and to individual discretion ; 
or dedded, as in the above verses, by a legitimate authority either in one 
way or another. 

But when so^ decided, the best Canonists agree, that every Priest must 
follow the order of his own Church : otherwise it will be sufficient, provided 
only that the bread be of wheat, and the wine of the juice of the grape. 
'* QusB sit species vini parum refert ; modo revera sit vinum de viteJ* Van 
Eipem Pan II. sect. i. tit. 4. Let US' add to all this the opinion of one of 
our own Archbishops. ^* Quohiam multae sunt diversitates, quas non in 
substantia Sacramenti, neque in virtute ejus, aut fide discordant, neque 
omnes in unam consuetudinem coUigi possunt : sestimo eas potius in pace 
coneorditer tolerandas, quam discorditer cum scandalo damnandas. Habe-< 
mus enim a Sanctis Patribfis, quia si unitas servatur charitatis in fide Ca- 
thofiea, mbA officit consuetudo diversa.'' These* are memorable words : 
\mt nojt less .so are those by which they are preceded. '' Utique si per 
nniversam Ecclesiam uno modo et coneorditer celebrarentur : (i. e. sacra-^ 
menta E^esis^) bqnum esset et laudabile." S, Anselm, Opera, p. 139. 
ComfNUfe also, p. 196. '* Et azymum et fermant^tum sacrificans, sacrificat. 
Et cum legitur de Domino, quando Corpus suum de pane fecit ; quia acce* 
pit jp9fiaem et benedixit ; non additur, azimum^ vel fermentatum.'^ 


34 fl^tnitmtittm a9ifl]ie« 

Sarum. Bangob. Ebqr. 

ponuntuTy deferat : reliquus vero pelvivi 
cum aqua et manutergio portet. Cho- 
rum licet ingredi usque ad completorium 
primie coUectie. 

Incepta vero ultima oratione ante episto- Dum legitur^ Episto- 
lam : subdiacomis per medium chori ad la,^ 
legendum Epistolam in pulpitum^ ac* 
cedat. Et legatur epistola in pulpito 
omnidie dominicay et quandocumque cho- 

^ (Dum Ugitur Epistola. Herf.) ** Lectio dicitar, quia non cantatar ut 
psalmiu Tel hymDas, sed legitur tantum. Illic enim modulatio, hie sola 
pronuntiatio quaBritur/' Anudmius. lib. iii. cap. 11. This is most impor- 
tant, as shewing that whatever later practice in a few places might have 
been, it was not then the custom to sing the Epistle, which was even in 
some Churches forbidden. 

Compare also Rdbantu Maurus, '* Tunc lector legit lectionem canoni- 
cam.'' De Insiitut. Cleric, lib. i. cap. 33. 

^ Very anciently, this was called Apostolus. The following is from the 
valuable publication of the Rites of the Church ef Durham. ** When the 
Monkes went to say or sing the High Mass, they put on their Vestments 
in the Vestrye, both the Epistoler and the Gospeller. They were always 
revest in the same place, and when the office of the masse began to be sung 
the Epistoler came out of the revestrie and the other two monkes following 
him, all three arow, and there did stand untill the Gloria Patri of the 
office of the masse began to be sunge, and then, with great reverence and 
devotion, they went all up to the High Altar. — ^The epistoler, when he had 
sung the Epistle, did lay by the booke againe on the Altar, and, after, whea 
the gospell was sunge,. the Gospeller did lay it downe on the Altar untill 
the masse was done." p. 7. 

^ *' Dictis orationibus, celebrans positis super librom, vel super altare 
manibus, ita ut palmae librum tangant, vel, (ut placuerit) lil^rum tenens, 
legit Epistolam^ intelligibili voce et similiter stani eodem mode, prose- 
quitur Graduate, Alleluya, et Tractum, ac Sequentiamf si dicenda sint" 
Ritus Celehr. Missam. tit. yj. 1. 

^ '* Solebant autem antiquitus tam Epistola, quam Evangelium legi in 
ambone seu pulpito." Bona. tom. iii. 127. Still it appears that a differ- 
ence was observed in (he reading of the two. Thus the one was read upon 
a lower step : as we see in the next note was the Order of the Church of 
Hereford, and according to the old ** Expodtio Missse.'^ BM. Pair. Auet* 
torn. t. p, 1171. ^* Subdiaconus qui lecturus est, mox ut viderit post Ponti- 
ficem presbyteros residmtes, ascendit in Ambonem ut legat. Non tamenin 
superiorem gradum, quem solus solet ascendere, qui Evangelium lecturus 

There was certainly also a g^eat distinction in many Churches between 


Delude legatur Epistola : super sequitur Epistola,^ 
lectrinum^^ a subdiacono ad 
gradum chori.^^ 


the place for saying the Epistle and Gospel at the Communion, and the 
Lessons of the other Offices. For example ; at Durham. ** At the north 
end of the High Altar there was a goodly fine Letteron of hrasse, where 
they sung the epistle and the gospell, with a gilt pellican on the height 
of it, finely gilded, pullinge hir bloud out hir breast to hir young ones, 
and winges spread abroade, whereon did lye the book that they did sing 
the Epistle and the Gosple.-»-~Also ther was lowe downe in the Quere 
another Lettom of brasse, not so curiously wroughte, standing in the midst 
against the Stalls, a marveilous faire one, with an Eagle on the height of it, 
and hir winges spread a broad, whereon the Monkes did lay theire bookes 
when they sung theire legends at mattins or at other times of service." 
Rites of the Church of Durham, p. 11. 

In some Churches there were two flights of steps, the one used by the 
reader of the Epistle, the other by the reader of the Gospel. The 33rd 
Canon of the Council of Trullo, cited by Bona, and by Gerhei^, tom.i. 321, 
&c. condemns a custom which at one time was again prevailing of laymen 
taking upon them the office of reader and ascending the pulpit. The Ethio- 
pic Missal, directs the Epistle to be read with a loud voice. ^^ Postea 
mn^na voce dicit epistolam" Edit. 1550. Sign. G. 3. 

^^ (JLectrinum, Herf.) *' Epistola inscribitur Lectio, quia initio quidem 
tantummodo elata voce sine cantu legebatur, locusque in quo legebatur, 
lectrinum, lectricium, lectorium, legeolum, dictum fuit a verbo Ugere/* Le 
Brum. torn. i. p. 9D. This is the same as that of which Ingulphus speaks 
when relating his dream : '^ Erat enim sancti Andreas ApostoU vigilia ; et 
in suo cursu medium iter tune fere peregerat, cum post multa precum dic^ 
tamina tandem dicti sancti Apostoli lecta passione victoriosa, somno subito 
obrepente, super lectrinnm, quod ante stabat, in latus alterum reclinabar.'^ 
^-—HUt, Croylandetuis, p. 75. 

^ *' Et evangelium a diacono super stiperiorem gradum converso ad par- 
tem borealem. Et. Gr. et Alleluya cum suis versibns super lectrinum in 
medio chori* Quod in omnibus dominicis et festis ix lee. et iij. lee., com* 
inemorationibus, et feriis obsenretur per totum annum. Exceptis festis 
principaHbus dnpl. et semidup. Et exceptis dominica in ramis palmarum, 
T%ilia paschsB et pentecostes : quia in illis diebus omnia ista In pulpito le-' 
gantur." Ruhr. Miss. Herf. The ** lectrinum in medio chori" was pro- 
baUy used also for the lections at the Canonical Hours. 

3^ fl)ttiinartum S0mt. 

Sahum. . Bangor. Ebor. 

rus regiturper totum annum : et in die 
ccena et in vigilia pascha et penthe. et in 
com. animarum. In onmibtis vero aliis 
festis etferiiSj et in vigiliisyct in quatuor 
temporibtis extra ebd, penthe. ad gradum 
chori legatur tarn in quadragesima quam 
extra quadragesimanK 

Iterum vero . 

veniant duo ce^ 

rqferarii cum 

ceteris obviam 

(acolyto ad os-- 

Hum presbyte^ 

riiy ad locum 


nis pnedicia 

deferente offer ^ 

torio et corpo* 

ralibus^ ipsi 

calici superpo- 

sitis: estautefn 

acolytus in aU 

ba et mentello 

serico ad hoc 

paratOy calice 


^ {Et ccrporalihus, Bangor.) ** Corporale, super quo sacia oblatio im- 
molatur, ex mnndissimo et purissimo linteo sit ; nee in eo alterius generis 
materia pretiosior aut vilior misceatur : quia dominicum corpus in sepulcro, 
non in holosericis, sed tantum in sindone munda fuit inrolutum. Corporate 
nunqaam super altare remaneat : sed, aut in Sacramentorum libro ponatur, 
aut cum calice et patena in mundissimo loco recondatur. £t quando abluir 
tur a Sacerdote, Diacono, vel Subdiacono, primo in loco et rase ad hoc 
prseparato abluatur, eo quod ex dominico corpore et sanguine infectnm sit* 
Post hsec a lavandario in nitido loco paretur/' Regino Prumiensis. lib. u 
p. 51. Ex Concilio Rememi, With this agrees Lyndwood. '* Corporalia 
non debent fieri ex Serico, sed solum ex panno lineo puro terreno ab Epis- 
copo consecrato. Nee debet confici neque benedici Corporate de Panno 
roisso in confectione Farinse, vel alterius rei ad hoc, quod stet rigidum super 
Calicem. Et erit candidum atque mundum, quia significat sindonem in 

3)nitnarium s^mt. 37 

Hbbfobd. Rom. 

qua Corpus Christi fait inyolatum/' Lib. iii. tit. 23. LirUeaminia. Imme-r 
diately after the Corporals, follow Palke, which Lyndwood explains to be, 
'* Yestimenta Altaris, sc. Sindones et Corporalia, quae quia quadrangulao 
sunt, ideo dicuntur PMe: a quodam maliebri Pallio quadrangulo/' See 
also Dui Can$e^ verb. Corporale : and the authorities which he cites, 
• Among the Cburchwardens' Actoun ts of the Parish of S. Michael, York, 
ill the. year 1531, is an item, <' P' for a pair of mos^ts for to wase the Cor* 
poraiise*^' : Nichols, p. 300. The Editor of these in a note supposes these 
ma^s to be wottichij which are said in the dictionaries to be the steady* 
iiqi^ rods used by painters : and that such sticks or rods were used in the 
old fasluoii of washing by what was called bticking, and in the bucking tub. 
As the charge occurs amongst parish accounts we may conclude that what* 
erer the mosfifs mean, at that time special attention was paid to the wash-^ 
ing of the Corporals. 


2)tliitiattum s^UOit. 



bito deposito 
corporalia ipse 
acoh/lus super 
altare solemni- 
ter deponat : 
itaqtie altare 
in recessu de- 
osculetuTj quo 
facto cerofera* 
rii candelabra 
cum cereis ad 
gradum alto- 
vis dimittant. 

Quando epistola legitur^ duo pueri in 
super peUiciis facta inclinatione ad altare 
ante gradum chart in puipitum per me- 
dium chori ad Gradale^ incipiendum se 
pnepareiU, et suum versum cantandum. 
Dum versus gradalis canitur duo de su^ 
periorigradu ad Alleluya^ cantandum 
cappas sericas se induant. Et ad puipi- 
tum per medium chori accedant. Se- 
quatur AUeluya, Finito Alleluya, se- 
quatur Sequentia.*^ 


et canitur Gradale, 

et AUeluya vel Trac- 
tus^ vel Tropus^ se- 
deat cum ministris 

<* ** Episcopns tribiis horis Missas sedet, scilicet dum Epistola legitur, 
dum Graduale, et AUeluya canitur : quia Cbristus tribus diebus inter doe- 
tores sedisse legitur in tempto/' Gemma Anima, cap. idj. 

^ {Gradale. Sar. &c.) This was a verse or response which raried with 
the day, and was so called, not as some have supposed, from the steps of the 
Altar, but of the Pulpit or Ambo upon which it was sung. Coisander, ttom 
an old exposition of an Ordo Romanus, has put this beyond a doubt; '* Re* 
sponsorium, quod ad Missam dicitur, pro distinctione aliorum Graduale Toca- 
tur, quia hoc psallitur in Gradibus, caetera vero ubicunque yoluerit Glerus.'' 
Opera, p. 44. Durand says : '* Dicitur graduale, vel gradale, a gradibus 
scilicet humilitatis. Significans ascensus nostros a yirtute in virtutem.— • 
pertinet ad opera activae vitse, ut notetur nos operibus respondere eis quae 
in lectione audivimus : scilicet prasdicationem.'' Lib. iv. cap. 19. Some 
authors suppose (see Cavalierus^ torn. t. cap. x. 13., and Bellarmine, Con* 
trov. lib. yj. 70.). that the Gradual, whose first author is said to have been 
Pope Celestine, was appointed, *' ne illud tempus, quo Diaconus ab altari 

fl>tDf nattum 90Wm, 3 9 

Hebfobd. Rom. 

Deo Gratias. 

Finita epistola dicatur Oradale Graduale, 
cum suo versu : 

et AUeluya vel Tractus secun- Tractus vel Alleluia cum Versu 
dmn quod tanpus exigiL aut Sequentia ut tempus postU" 


recedens, et in suggestum ascendens in silentio elaberetur.'' This seems a 
Tery likely origin, and senres also to account for its name. 

^ {AUeluya. Sar. &c.) I need scarcely say, that this as well as the Tract, 
Sequence, &c. not only varied, but was sometimes omitted. There is an 
order in the Penitential of Archbbhop Theodore, which is important, as 
regards this. '' Laicus in ecclesia juxta altare non debet lectionem recitare 
ad missam, nee in pulpito Alleluia cantare, sed psalmos tantum aut respon- 
soria, sine Alleluia.'^ Thorpe, Ancient Laws and Institutes, vol. ii. p. 58. 
In the 8th Century, the second Council of Cloveshro in its Canon, gave 
some allowance to the same effect. Vide^WiUdm, Concilia, tom. i. p. 99. 
Gerbert de Musica, should be especially consulted : tom. i. p. 56. 

*'' (JSequefitia. Sar.) Du Cange. says, *' Canticum exultationis, quae et 
Prosa dicitur :" and there seems to be no doubt, that, at least anciently, 
these terms were applied to the same thing. Compare Bona. tom. iii. p. 141, 
and GeoTffius. Lit. Rom. Pontif. tom. 2. ccvij. They, ^ the Tropes, wqre 
introduced about the 10th Century, and in many Churches yast.numbers 

40 fl)t0inamtm %9iflrae« 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

In fine alleluiaj vel sequentiie^ vel trac- 
tus diaconus^ Untequam accedat ad evan- usque ad e- 

were used, so that in some eyen every day had its proper Sequence. The 
Church of Rome never admitted them to so great an extent into her Liturgy, 
nor does it appear that they were in such excess at any time in the Church 
of £ng]and. The most common opinion as to their author, or rather first 
introducer of them, (for as time went on, they had many authors) is, that 
the earliest was composed by Notker, abbot of S. Gall, in the diocese of 
Constance, about a.d. 900. There have not been wanting writers who have 
not hesitated, though without a shadow of authority, to attribute to them so 
high an antiquity as the age of Gelasius, and S. Gregory. At the revision 
of the Roman Liturgy, in the 16th Century, all the sequences were removed, 
except four : these are : VictinuB Pasehaliy at Easter : Veni Sancte Spiritus, 
at Whitsuntide : and' Lauda Sion Salvatarem, upon Corpus Christi day. 
The fourth which was retained, is the very famous Dies ira, dies ilia, in the 
Missa defunctorum. Strictly speaking this last is improperly called, a se- 
quence : because in that service in which it occurs, there ought not to be, 
neither is there, any hymii peculiarly of joy. It may very rightly be called, 
a Proftf, a name given as I have said to the sequences, because though written 
in a species of rythm, they are not limited by any of the common rules of 
metre. I may add, these sequences are said to have been so called, because 
they followed the Epistle. I must again refer the reader to the Dissertation 
on Service Books, Monumenta Rit, vol. i. and if he wishes to examine the 
subject fully, he will find an admirable treatise upon it in Georgitu, tom. 2. 
ccv. &c. 

^ {Tractui. Ebor.) " Cantus Ecclesiastici species." Du Cange, Durand 
says, '' Dicitur Tractus a trahendo : quia tractim et cum asperitate vocum, 
et prolixitate verborum canitur.'^ Lib. iv. cap. 21. It was opposed to the 
Alleluia : the one being for the seasons of joy and triumph, the other of sor- 
row and abasement. Almost all the Ritualists agree with Durand and the 
earlier writers from whom he derived his authorities, as to the origin of the 
name: Merati adds in his note to Gamntus: ^'Vere dicitnr a trahendo: 
quia revera continuata serie modulationis unius Cantoris non interrupta re- 
sponsionibus aliorum intercinentium peragebatur. Hoc autem est discri- 
men inter Responsorium et Tractum, quod primo Chorus respondet, Tractui 
vero nemo. Tractus totus dicebatur ab uno solo Cantore, qui erat diversus 
ab illo, qui cantabat Graduale, sive Responsorium." Tom. i. p. 93* 

The custom -of saying some response, either gradual, or tract, or sequence, 
after the Epistle, seems to be as old at least as the time of S. Augustine. 
He says, " Apostolum audivimus, psalmum audivimus, evangelium audi- 
vimus.'' Serm. 8. But it would appear that then an entire psalm was 
sung, a remnant of which ancient practice was preserved in the Salisbury, 
York, Hereford, and Bangor Missals, upon the first Sunday in Lent, and 
on Passion Sunday. Probably the new mode of a verse or two only, be- 
came general about the end of the dth Century: because Leo the iGreat 

Dtninarium a^tiTae* 4^ 

Hebford. Rom. 

His jinitis diaconus antequam Hisfinitis Diaconus deponU li- 
procedat ad pronuntiandum brum Evangeliorum super ^me^ 

speaks of the whole psalm, (a.d. 450), but in the Sacramentary of S. Gre- 
gory (a. d. 600) the shorter gradual or response is found. See, Ronnie. 
Opera, torn. iv. p. 121. 

^ {Tropus, Ebor.) Est quidam versiculus, qui prascipuis festivitatibus 
cuitator ; et continet tria, videlicet Antiphonam, Y ersum, et Gloriam. Ita 
Durandiis. Ration, lib. iv. c. 5. qui hsec subdit lib. vi. c. 114. ** Hi autem 
rersus Tropi vocantur, quasi laudes ad antiphonas convertibiles : Tpoiroc 
enim Grasce, conversio dicitnr Latine.'' Du Catige, Gloss. It is not easy to 
say what is meant by the use of the term Trope in this place ; possibly the 
sequence is intended, for the true Tropi were attached to the Introit* Even 
so used they were of late introduction, and did not obtain universal accept* 
ance. No example of one has occurred before the sgth. Century. > Cer* 
tainly the Monastic Uses were more full of them, than the Diocesan : and 
we find prayers with . such interpolations in some of their Missals : in one 
sense the addition to the Gloria in exceUis of which I have already spoken, 
may be called a Trope. In such a way, the Trope here spoken of may be 
an addition to the Tract, or Sequence. See more upon this, in the Dis« 
sertation upon the Service Books : verb, Troparium. Monumenta JRittui'- 
lia, vol. i. 

^ {Diaeonas, Sar.) ^' Antiquitus etiam evangelium legebatur a Lectore, 
ut colligitur ex Epistola sancti Cypriani 33. et ex Concilio Toletano 1. cap. 
2. Hoc postea munus majoris erga Evangelium honoris gratia Diaconis 
demandatum fuit, ut habetur ex Epistola S. Hieronymi ad Sabinianum. 
Evangelium Christi quasi Diaconus lectitahas. Et ex Epistola sancti Boni- 
facii Episcopi Moguntini ad Zachariam Pontificem, ubi conqueritur quos- 
dam Diaconos, quamvis plures concubinas haberent, adhuc Evangelium 
legere. Apud Graecos etiamnum mos viget, ut Evangelium a Lectoribus 
pablice legatur, uti refert Smithius in Epistola de praesenti Ecclesia? 
Graecae statu, pag. 155.'' Cavalieri. Opera, tom. v. p. 30. This opens an 
important and interesting enquiry, which this is not the place to pursue, nor 
can I afford space. One thing seems certain : that the Gospel was read 
only by Deacons, long before the reading of the Epistle was in like manner 
removed from the office of the Lector: of which latter duty as attached to 
the Sub-deacon, we find no trace earlier than about the 7th Century. 

It was to meet this that an alteration was made in the sixteenth Century 
in the Form of Ordination of Sub-deacons : ** Accipe librum Epistolarum, 
et habe potestatem legendi eas in Ecclesia sancta Dei :" this wa^ added. 
AmalaHus in the 9th Century expresses his wonder at the new practice 
which was then gaining ground ; ** ut Subdiaconns frequentissime legat Lee- 
tionem ad Missam, cum hoc non reperiatur ex ministerio sibi dato in con- 
secratione commissum, neque ex nomine suo.'' Lib. 2. cap, xj. Micrologus 
speaks much in the same way. And even Durand in the I3th Cent, en- 
quires, '* Quare subdiaconns legit Lectionem ad Missam, cum non reperia- 

42 iDcoinftrium aeiffae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

gdium pronuniiandum ihurifieei medium vangelium legtndum. 
aliaris tanium, Nunquam enim ihurt" 
jicctur lectnnum ante pronuntiaiionem 

tur hoc sibi competere, vel ex eo nomine, vel ex ministerio sibi concesso V* 
Lib, ii. cap, 8. 

The Canons and the Pastoral Epistle of Archbishop iElfric, supply suffi- 
cient information as to the practice in his time, of the Anglo-Saxon Church. 
In the first of these, Can. 10, he lays down that, '^ Seren degrees are esta- 
blished in the Church : one is ostiarius, the second is lector, the third exor- 
cista, the fourth acoluthus, the fifth subdiaconus, the sixth diaconus, the 
Seventh presbyter/' In the succeeding Canons he explains the offices proper 
to each. *' 12. Lector is the reader, who reads in God's Church, and is 
ordained for the purpose of preaching of God's word. — 15. Subdiaconus is 
truly underdeacon, who bears forth the vessels to the deacon, and humbly 
ministers under the deacon at the holy altar, with the housel vessels. 16. 
Diaconus is the minister who ministers to the mass-priest, and sets the 
offerings upon the altar, and also reads the Gospels at God's ministries." 
Thorpe, Ancient Laws and Institutes, vol. ii. p. 349. The Pastoral Epistle 
is to the same purpose, p. 379, and clearly attaches the reading to the lector, 
and not to the sub-deacon. 

And not only the Canons and Epistle of ^Ifiric, but other very ancient 
writers attribute the Gospel-lection solely to the Deacon. Isidore in his 
lind Book of Divine Offices, '' inter o^a Diaconi," includes '' evangeli- 
zare.'' Cap, 8. But, in short, as in another place I have spoken, Manur 
menta Rit. vol. i. upon the great reverence with which our fathers treated 
the book of the Gospels, whether the entire Gospels, or the selections to be 
read in the Liturgy, the Evangelisterium, lavishing upon it all kinds of 
outward ornament, and inside decorations of the pencil — so also, began 
the practice from the same feelings of pious gratitude and devotion, that 
the reading of the Gospel should be committed to none of less degree 
und order in the Church, than Deacons : '* Diaconis tantum, qui ad sacer- 
dotalem dignitatem proxime accedunt.'' During the reading of it, the laity 
showed also greater signs of reverence : staffii were laid aside : Amalaritis. 
lib. iii. 18. Gemma Aninia, lib. i. 24. Dwrand, lib. iv. 24. &c. All rose, 
Constit, ApostoLUh, ii. cap. 57 : and in some Churches listened to it, half- 
kneeling in a stooping posture. 

How high was the estimation in which the Gospels were held in the 
middle ages, is proved most clearly by the fact that some writers in the 8th 
"Century did not hesitate to say, that in a remote sense the Gospel is the 
Body of Christ. ** Et corpus Christi quod manducatur non solum panis et 
vini, quod super Altare offertur, sed et ipsum Evangelium Christi est; et 
<;um Evangelium legimus et intelligimus, filii in circuitu mensae in una 

HsMFORD. Rom. 

evangelium thurificet medium dium altaris et Celebrans be-- 
altaris tantum : nunquam thu- nedicit incensum, ut supra : 
rificetur lectrinum ante pro- Deinde Diaconus genuflexus 
nuntiationem cvangelii. ante altare^ manibus junctis di- 


conlatione sedemus, et panem nostrum mandicamus/' Etherius, lib. i. de 

The laying aside of staffs alluded to just above, was not a very early prac- 
tice : but was introduced about the 8th Century, for Anudaritis speaks of 
it, and lasted through the next three or four. It was then the custom for 
the people to stand during the whole Service, and, being long, they rested 
themselves on their staffs. Their use ceased altogether in the Western 
Church, when seats and settles were introduced. See Sala's note to Bona, 
torn. iii. p. 153. We learn from S, Chrysogtom, Hom. 63, that in the 
Greek Church, during the Gospel, the Emperor laid aside his crown. 

I must add to this jiote an extract from a very rare book, written by one 
as it was then called *' of the new learning,'' about the year 1529 : the full 
title is, '' A worke entytled of the olde god and the newe, of the olde fa3rthe 
and the newe, of the olde doctryne and the newe, or orygynall begynnynge 
of Idolatrye.'^ The author is describing some of the ceremonies of the 
Mass* *^ But what shall I saye of the gospell, when it is song ? Oh, how 
goodly ceremonies are then done. — There is borne a banner of sylke and 
gamyshed with a goodly crosse, in token of the victorious and blessed try- 
uinphe whiche Jesu Chryste made of subduing the worlde vnto hym selfe 
by the doctryne of the gospell. — Then afterwardes a preest beareth a sencer 
of silner makyng a fumigation and sauour of ensence, as long as the gos- 
pell is inreadynge to sygnyfy our inwarde affection towarde christ. — There 
is also home aboute the gospell boke rychely couered with golde and siluer, 
gamyshyd with precyous stones. — Afterwardes there thundreth a great 
bell, by which we do sygnyfy our chrysten preestly and apostolycall 
ofiyce : — ^last of all the gospell is borne about to euery person in the quyer, 
and offered forth to be kyssed : — and we do go aboute to gette glorie in the 
syght of the lay people, to whome the gospell is not in lyke manner offered 
to be kyssed." Sitfn, M. 4. This is an important volume in such respects, 
as regards facts : and is written in a lively satirical style, but with very 
much of that indecent and almost blasphemous ribaldry, which characterizes 
so many of the books of the Reformers at that time. Its author was, it seems 
from his own account, a chaplain or minor-canon of some Cathedral, and 
disaf^inted at not having obtained better preferment : which accounts for 
much of his virulence against others of higher dignity. The '^ Old god and 
the newe'' was strictly prohibited by a Royal Proclamation, in the year 
1530: see Wilkini, Concilia, vol. iii. p. 737. I have quoted the above from 
a copy in my possession. 

44 )i>ttfinatiam ^Itme; 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

Deinde accipiat textum^ scilicet lihrtim 
£vangetiorum, ct humilians se adsacer^ 
dotem stanievi coram altari: versa facie 
ad meridiem ita dicat : 

Dam petit diaconus be- 
nedictionem : 

TUBE domne benedicere/' 

Sacerdos respondeat : 

DOM IN US sit in corde tuo et ore 
tuo ad pronuntiandum sanctum 
evangelium Dei. In nomine Patris et 
Filii et Spiritus sancti. Ameu.^ 

respondeat sacerdos di- 
cens : 

tibi OS ad legen- 
dum et nobis aures ad 
intelligendum sanctum 
evangelium Dei pacis. 
In nomine Patris etc. 

^' (Jube domne henedieereJ) This, says Le Brun, was a manner of address 
formerly much in use, as heing a mark of humiliation and respect. So, an-> 
ciently among the Greeks, the Deacon, when he warned the Faithful who 
were assembled in their solemn service, either to rise or sit, did not say 
Mise or Sity but merely '* Jubete," as if it were, command yourselves to do so 
and so. 

The word Domne is a contraction from Dominus. The latter was appro* 
priated in its strict use to the Deity alone : and Domnus or Domna, in the 
middle ages, was a title of great respect, and applied only to eminent dead 
saints, or living people who occupied important offices in the Church: as 
for example, the officiating Priest during the celebration of the Eucharist 
See also Du Cange upon the word. 

Upon this request and the reply, Peter Damian has well observed: 
*^ Lecturus magnie humilitatis gratia, non a Sacerdote, sed ab eo, cui Sa- 
cerdos jusserit, se postulat benedici dicens: Jube Domne benedicere. 
Sacerdos autem, ut tantse huinilitate yicem reddat, non subjecto cuiquam 
benedicendi delegat officium, nee per semetipsum benedictionem dare prse* 
sumit: sed potius, ut a Deo, qui est super omnia benedictus, prterogetur. 

DrUtnattum e^ifOit. 



Deinde accipiat iextum scilicet 
librum eoangeliorum : humili-- 
arts se ad sacerdoiem stantem 
ante altare versa facie j ita di- 
cms : 
TUBE domne benedicere* 

Sacerdos respondeat : 

DOMIN US sit in corde tuo 
et in labiis tuis ad pro- 
nuntiandum evangelium pacis. 


MUNDA cor meum, ac 
labia mea^ omnipotens 
Deus, qui labia Isaiee Prophetae 
calculo mundasti ignito : ita me 
tua grata miseratione. dignare 
mundare^ ut sanctum Evange^ 
Hum tuum digne valeam nun* 
tiare. Per Christum Domi- 
num nostrum. Amen-, 
Postea accipit librum de altan\ 
et rursus genujltxtis petit bene-' 
dictidnem a SacerdotCy dicens : 

TUBE domne benedicere. 

Sacerdos respondet : 

DOMINUS sit in corde tuo 
et in labiis tuis : ut digne 
etcompetenterannunties Evan- 
gelium suum : in nomine Patris 
et Filii 4* ^t Spiritus sancti. 

exposcit.'^ De Dominus vMscum, cap. ii. 

When the Pope officiates at Matins on the day of the Nativity, before 
the niuth Lection which he then reads, he does not say Domne , but Jube 
Domine henedicere : for he is supposed to be addressing not man, but God 
Himself: and no response is made: for the greater cannot be blessed by 
the inferior. The Choir answers simply ** Amen/\ Some bishops, (and I 
confess I do not see the object of this rule) in their own Churches at Matins 
are addressed by an inferior, ** Jube Domne henedicere," to which they 
make the usual reply and benediction, and themselves read the appointed 
Lection. The Carimoniale Epise, now orders the same rite to be obi^erved 
by all Bishops, as by the Bishop of Rome ; unless an Archbishop or one of 
higher rank be present ** Si vero adesset aliquis Prselatus major se." Lib. 
ii.^ cap. 5. 

^ '* Si autem sacerdos per semetipsum eelehret, dicat privaiitn : Jube dom* 
ne henedicere. Et postea dicat ipsemet. Dominus sit in corde meo et io 
ore meo ad pronuntiandum sanctum evangelium Pei. In nomine Patris. 
&c/' Ruhr. Sar. 


fl)tQiitatium BfiiSsit 

Saritm. Bangor. 

Ei sic procedat diaconus per medium 
chori, ipsum textum super sinistram ma- 
num solenniter gestando ad pulpitum^ 
accedatj thuribuiario et ceroferario prece- 
dentibus. Quandocumque enim kgiiur 
epistola in pulpito^ ibidem legatur et 
evangelium. Et cum ad locum kgendi 
pervenerint: textum ipsum subdiaconus 
accipiat ; et a sinistrts ipsius ddaconi quasi 
pppositus ipsum textum dum evangelium 
legitur teneat: ceroferariis diacono as* 
sistentibus: uno a dexteris et reliquo a 
sinistris ad earn conversis. Thuribula^ 
rius vero stet post diaconum ad eum con- 
versus. Et semper legatur eoangelium 
versus aquilonemJ^ Cum autefn ince- 
peril evangelium : post Bominus vobis- 


Et diaconus dicat : 

DA mihi Domine 
sermonem rec- 
tum et bene sonantem 
in OS meum, ut place- 
ant tibi verba mea et 
omnibus audientibus 
propter nomen tuum 
in vitam eeternam. 

^^ This place was in some countries from ffae benediction which always 
immediately preceded the advance to it, vulgarly called " the Jube." Vide 
Le Brun, torn. i. p. 110^ and Micrologus, cap. ix. It was always a high 
place. ** Evangelium in altp loco legitur, quia in monte praedicasse perhi- 
betur, ideo etiam in sublimi legitur, quia sublimia sunt Evangelica praecep- 
ta." Gemma Anima. cap, xvi. ^*De Pulpito." Compare also Alcuin: 
'* Defertur Evangelium ad analogium, praededentibus cereis." De div, 
Offidis. Bibl. Patrunu ^uc^. tom. i. p. 280. And Amalariusy lib. iij. 
cap. 17. ''^ Lector et cantor in gradum ascendnnt, in more antiquorum :" 
and, cap. 18. '* Tribunal vocat Cyprianus gradum, super quern ascendit 
diaconus ad legendum.'^ 

^ There is no little difference in the old books, as to the place where, and 
the quarter towards which the Gospel should be read. When as was very 
anciently the custom, the men and the women were divided, the Gospel it 
would seem, was always read towards the south side, where the men sat. 
Amtdarius. De Off. lib. iii. c. 2. distinctly speaks of this arrangement : and 
an old Ordo Romanus takes it for g^nted that on entering a Church one 
would have the men upon the right hand, or south side, and the women 
on the north. See also Amalarius, Echga, cap. xiij. Printed in Georgitu: 
Appendix, tom. iii. p. 350. '^ Diaconus vero stat versus ad meridiem, ad 
quam partem viri solent confluere." 

* The original reason why the men were addressed especially, appears 
natural enough: viz. that they are the chief objects of the Church's teach- 
ing in her public Offices, and from them the women are to learn at home : 
as S. Paul admonishes. Other customs gradually crept iti, and a mystical 

i^iliiiattttm fli9i01i^ 


ignet diaconum dicendo: 
omine Patris etc. 
ic procedat diaconus ipsum 
m super sinistram manum 
miter gestando^ ad pulpi* 
vel ad kctrinum accedat et 

linus Yobiscum. 

c/aciendo cruceni super It-- 
1 cum dextro pollice dicat : 
LQUENTIA^* sancti evan- 
gelii vel Initium sancti 

signet seipsum in fronte 
eodem pollice dicens secun- 
. N. 


Et accepta benedictione^ oscula^ 
fur nianum Celebrantis : et cum 
aliis ministrisy incenso et Imni- 
naribusy accedens ad locum evan- 
gelii stans junctis manibus di- 
cit ¥• 

Dominus vobiscum. 
^. Et cum spiritu tuo. 
Et pronuntians : 

SEQUENTIA sancti evan- 
gelii secundum N sive Ini- 

pollice dextra manus signal li- 
brum in principio Evangelii, 
quod est lecturus, deinde seip* 

*n was ^yen why the Gospel should he read towards the uorth ; as we 

seen (Note 42) was the custom of the Church of Hereford : " ut per 

'erhum Aquilonis, hoc est, dsemonis, pravi noxiique halitus disjician- 

Le BruD. i. 111. And the Gemma Anima. cap. xrj. *' Nunc autem 
idum inoliium morem se (Diaconus) ad Aquilonem yertit, uhi feminss 
^ quae camales significant, quia Evangelium carnales a spiritualihus 
» Per Aquilonem quoque Diaholus designatur, qui per Evangelium 
gnatur. Per Aquilonem etiam infidelis populus denotatur, cui Kvan- 
m praedicatur, ut ad Christum convertatur.'' This last reason is taken 
a very old Sacramentary, which says : '* Diaconus dum legit, sistat 
18 ad Aquilonem, quia frigidis in fide prsedicatur Evangelium.'^ Sala. 
8 to Bona, tom^ iii. p. 153. But he does not say what Book. *' Ex 
am lihro Sacramentorum :'' quoting Martene. Anecdot. torn. v. 1587. 
hall only further make an extract from the will of Maud, Lady Man- 
dated in 1438. " My hody to be buried in the Church— -on the 
I side of the Altar, where the Gospels are usually read.'' Testamenta 
9ta. p. 235. 

Sequentia was said when the Gospel was taken from the middle of one 
3 four Gospels : Initium, when it happened to be the begiofiing of 
r of the four. On the four days of the Great Week, neither Sequentia 
^nitium were said, but '* Passio Domini Nostri Jesu Cbristi." Thus, 
? Rites of the Church rf Durham : " Within the Abbye Church uppon 
I Friday, there was marvelous solemne service, in tiie which service 

after the Passion was sung, two of the eldest Menkes did take a 
ly large Crucifix. &c.'* p. 9. 

4B fl)tDinatiam ^liGie; 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

cum^ faciat signum crucis super li- 
brum : deinde in suafronie^ eipostea in 
peciore cum pollice. 

Evangelium secundum N.^ ^ 

Lecto evangelio osculetur Ubrum : et ac^ 

cedens subdiaconus statim porrigat ei 

textum quern ipse diaconus ex directo Post tectum evangclir 

pectore deferat. um dicat sacerdos se- 

Finito evangelio.^ crete : 

^ {Dominu vohiscum,) It is strange that the York Use takes no notice 
of this salutation : nor is it easy to suppose why it was omitted, being a 
custom so general throughout the Church. Alctdn speaks of it : *' Salutat 
et populum, dicens : Dominus vobiscum : quatenus corda illorum a mnnda- 
nis cogitationibus Dominus emundet, et ad suscipienda verba salutifera 
aperire dignetur." De Div, Off. BihL Pair. Auct. i. p. 380. Innocent tke 
Third also: *^ Diaconus in ambone consistens salutat populum, dicens: 
Dominus Tobiscum, illud observans, quod Dominus jusserat : * In quam- 
cunque domum intraveritis, &c.' *' 

*f *< If thai singe messe or if thai seie, 

The pater noster reherce al weie : * 

Til deken or prist tho gospel rede, 

Stonde up then and take gode hede : 

For then tho prist flyttes his boke, 

North to that other auter noke : 

And makes a cross upon the letter, 

With his thoume he spedes tho better : 

And sithen an other open his face, 

For he has mikel nede of grace : 

For then an erthly mon shal neven 

Tho wordes of Ihu crist, gods, son of heuen." 

— " "Whils hit is red speke thou noght, ^ 

Bot thenk on him that dere the boght : 

Sayande thus in thi mynde, 

Als thou shalt after wryten fynde/' Museum MS, 
^ ** In fine Evangelii a minigtris respandetur, Laus tibi Christe/' Rubr, 
gen. Miss. tit. x. 6. Anciently was said Amen : which is still retained in 
the Mozarabic Missal. 

^ (Finito evangelio. Sar.) At this period of the service, or, in mmm - 
churches, after the Creed, the sermon was preached, if there was to be any. 
Very anciently, more than one sermon was delivered : the Priests firsts 
each in order, gave a short exhortation, and, if he were present, the Bishop, 
Jast, Apost. Const, lib. ii. c. 58. In the next chapter of the same book» 
particular directions are given, that Priests coiping from another parish 

iSDrtitnatinm attflfae; 49 

Hbxford. Rou. 

sum infrontCyOre^ et pectore : 
et dum ministri respondent : 
r^ LORIA tibi Domine. 

deinde Tegatur evangeliiim, incensat ter librum^ posieapro- 

sequitur evangelium junctis 
Lecto evangelic deosculetur li- Quo Jinito^ Subdiaconus defer i 
brum : librum Sacerdoti^ qui osculatur 

evangelium dicens : 

should he pressed to preachy "for a stranger*s words are always acceptable 
and very Usefiil, according to that in S. Matt, no prophet is without honour 
save in his own country, '^ 

** Delude episcopus sermonem ad Populum facit/' Gemma anima. cap. 
25. This custom of preaching during the Liturgy has been established, 
and never omitted during the whole existence of the Christian Church. 
From the time of Justin Martyr we can trace a multitude of authorities, 
down to our own day. And it has always moreover been held to be one of 
the peculiar duties of the Bishops of the Church : as S. Paul exhorted 
Timothy, that he should '* Preach the word ; instant in season and out of 


We find in the earliest records which remain of the English Church, evi- 
dence of the anxiety which was always felt to enforce this great duty of 
preaching. The vi th of the excerpts of Egbert orders every Priest dili- 
gently to instruct his people : the iij rd explains the time when this is to be 
done. " Ut omnibus festis et diebus Dominicis unusquisque sacerdos Evan- 
gelium Christi prsedicet populo." Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 98. Passing over 
some hundred years, we have the following among the Canons of iElfric. 
'* The mass-priest shall on Sundays and mass-days, tell to the people the 
sense of the gospel in English, and concerning the pater-noster and the 
creed also, the oftenest that he can.-^Let the teacher warn against that 
which the prophet says: Canes muti non possunt latrare, We ought to 
bark and preach to the laymen, lest, for want of teaching they should 
perish." Thorpe, p. 362. Once more, for there would be no end of accu- 
mulating directions of this sort during succeeding ages. " The mass-priest 
shall rightly preach the true faith to men, and recite sermons to them ; 
and visit sick men, &c." iElfric's Pastoral Epistle, p. 386. I am sorry 
to add, upon this subject, that speaking of the frequency of preaching in the 
Church of England before the Reformation, Bishop Stillingfleet has made 
the strangest statements, and drawn (against the direct evidence of his own 
authorities) the most outrageous conclusions. Orig. Brit, p. 236. Cf. Van 
Espen. Pars. ii. sect. i. tit v. cap. 2. and Synod. Trtnt. Sess. 22. cap. 8. 

In Masses for the Dead, when, as was frequently the custom, sermons re- 
lating to the character of the deceased were to be preached, or in short any 


so is>mxm\im ;%9lffae. 

Sarum* Bangor. Ebor. 

Benedictus qui venit in 
nomine Domini. 
Posted oscuktur tex- 
incipiat sacerdos in medio aUari^ : turn. 

Statim sacerdos in vie-- 
dio altaris symbolum 
fidei incipiat excelsa 
voce : 

CREDO in unum Deum,®^ Patrem omnipotentem. Factorem 
cceH et terrae: visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in 
unum Dominum Jesum* Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et 
ex Patre natum ante omnia ssecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de 
lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum non factum, con- 
substantialem Patri : per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter 
nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. Et 
incamatus est de Spirita sancto ex Maria virgine : et homo fac- 
tus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato : passus 

sermon at all, it was not until the Service was over entirely, and the 
preacher (if also the Celebrant) laid aside the Chasuble and Maniple, and 
put on a Cope. See upou this : Gavdntus, torn. i. p. 301. Bauldry, cap. 
20. Castaldus. lib. ii. 9. and the der, JSpiscop. lib. ii. cap. 11. 

After the Gospel also, were Indulgences proclaimed, and Excommuni- 
cations, aud Banns of Marriage. In some Churches other solemnities, such 
as the reconciling and readmitting of Penitents. Vide Martene. de Ant. 
Ritibus Ecc. lib. i. cap. 4. With tbe conclusion of the Sermon ended also 
the Missa Catechumenorum : and they, with tbe unreconciled, and unbe- 
lievers, were dismissed, and the doors shut, and persons stationed there, to 
prevent any from coming in. S. Augustin says, Serm. 49. ** Ecce post 
Sermonem fit Missa Catechumenis, manebunt fideles.^' Much information 
upon all this portion of the Liturgy, in the earliest ages, may be found in 
BingJiam's Christian Antiquities : on later practice, in Bauldryus. Manualia 
Sacr. Ceerim. cap. x. 

** *'Dum dicit, Deum, caput Cruci inclinat: quod similiter facit cum 
didt, Jesum Christum^ et simul adortOur. Ad ilia autem verba, Et tncar" 
natus est, genuflectit usque dum dieatur, Et homo foetus est. In fine ad Et 
vitam venturi stBcvli, signat se signo Crucis a fronte ad pectus.'' Rubr. 
Miss. Rom. 

** '' Incipit Missa Fidelium.'' Bona. '' Missa Sacramentorum.'^ ./w 
Camotensis. Epist. 219. 

The first words only, according to the Sarum rubric, were to be said by the 

iSDrtilnattum ^ilTae. 51 

Herford. Bom. 

Per Evangelia dicta deleantur 

nostra delicta. 

Deinde Sacerdos incensatur a 

Ei sacerdos stando in medio al- Deinde ad medium altaris ex- 
taris manibus junctis aliquan- tendens, elevans, et jungens 
iulum levatis dicat vel cantet: manusy dicit, sidicendum esiy et 
etjungat mantis pro^equendo : prosequitur junctis manibus : ^ 

CREDO in unum Deum. Patrem omnipotentem. Factorem 
coeli et terrse : visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in 
unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et 
ex Patre natum ante omnia ssecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de 
lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum non factum, con- 
substantialem Patri : per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter 
nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. (Et 
fiet genuflexio dum dicitur, Herf. Hie genuflectitur. Rom.) Et 
incamatus est de Spiritu sancto ex Maria virgine : et homo fac- 

Ceiebrant: it 'continues, '* Deinde cantetur a choro, non alterhatim sed a 
toto chore." 

^'Hsec sunt festa quibus dicendum est Credo secundum usum Sarum. 
Omnibus dominicis diebus per totum annum, ad magnam missam sive de 
dominica agitur, sive non. In missis tamen vigiliarum et sanctorum trium 
lectionum, et in missis defunctorum quae in capitulo in dominicis dicuntury 
non dicitur. Sed si missa dominicalis in capitulo dicitur, tunc dicitur Credo 
in unum. Dicetur etiam per octo dies natiyitatis Domini, paschae, et penthe- 
coatea : et in omni duplici festo per annum : et in omnibus festis apostolorum 
et evangelistarum : et in utroque festo sanctae crucis : et in festo sanctae 
Mariae Magdalenae : et in utroque festo sancti M ichaelis : et in missa spon- 
salium. Dicetur etiam ad missam de sancta Maria, quando ad missam de 
die dicendum est per totum annum : et in festo alicujus sancti, in cujus 
bonore dedicatum est altare vel ecclesia, ad altare ejusdem sancti tantum.'^ 
Ruhr, Miss. Sar, With this agrees the Bangor Rubric : the York adds ; 
'*in festo sancti Petri ad yincula, et in die octayanim. Et in cathedra 
ejusdem. Et in utroque festo sancti Johannis Baptistae. In festo Corporis 
.Christi. Et in festo omnium sanctorum. Et in festo reliquiarum. Et in 
festo sancti Willelmi in matrici ecclesia tantum. Et in festis quatuor doc- 
tomm, scilicet Gregoriiy Ambrasiiy Augustiniy et Hieronimi." The Here- 
ford adds : ** in festo sancti Ethelberti : in festo scti Thomae Herfordensis : 
et in festo sancti Augustini Angliae Apostoli.'' For the Roman Order, vide 
Rubrics genertdes Miss. tit. xi. 1. 

^ On bowing at the name of Jesus, and at the Gloria Patri, see among 
others, two Constitatioiis in WiUdnSf Concilia, torn. iii. p. 20., 


DtQtnartum S0mt. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die secundum scripturas. 
£t ascendit in coelum: sedet ad dexteram Patris. Et iterum 
venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos : cujus regni 
non erit finis. Et in Spiritum sanctum, Dominum et vivifican- 
tem: Qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre et Filio 
simul adoratur et conglorificatur : Qui locutus est per Prophetas. 
Et unam sanctam Catholicam et Apostolicam Ecclesiam. Con- 
fiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et expecto 
resurrectionem mortuoram. Et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.«* 

Sequatur : 

Post ci^edo di» 
cat . sacerdos 
comer tendo ad 
populum : 



OMINUS vobis- 





Deinde dtcitur Offei^o- Offertorium^ 

Iterum ad al- 
tare conversus 
dicat : 




Bum canitur Credo 
suhdiaconus cum textu : 
et acob/tus cum thuri- 
bulo chorum circum- 
eant. Post conversus 
sacerdos ad populum 
dicat : 

D OMINUS vobis- • 

Reoersus dicat : 



Et canat cum suis mi'- 
nistris Offertorium. 

^ ** Men oen to sale tho crede som tyme, 

When thei sale hore, loke thou sale thyne : 
This that folouse in englishe letter, 
I wold thou sayde hit for tho better : 

Here to loke thou take good hede. 

For here is wryten thin englyshe crede.'^ M%ueum MS. 

^ (Vobiscum.) '* Non enim hie digne numerus personarum, sed Eccle- 
siastical potins unitatis attenditur Sacramentum : ubi scilicet, nee unitas 
excludit wnltitudinem, nee mnltitudo violat unitatem : quia et unum cor- 
pus per multa membra dividitur, et ex diversis membris, unum corpus im- 
pletur. Nee in unittite corporis, membrorum mnltitudo confunditur ; nee in 
pluralitate membrorum unius corporis integ^taa violatur.'^ Petr. Damimu 
cap, xiij. 



Herford. Rom. 

tus est. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis {Et tuncfet levatio. Herf.) 
sub Pontio Pilato : passus et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia 
die secundum scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum : sedet ad dex- 
teram Patris. Et iterum ventunis est cum gloria judicare vivos 
et mortuos : Cujus regni iion erit finis. Et in Spiritum sanctum, 
Dominum et vivificantem : Qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui 
cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: Qui Icicu- 
tus est per Prophetas. Et unam sanctam Catholicam et Apos* 
tolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem 
peccatorum. Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam 
venturi saeculi. Amen. 

Quojinito vertat se sacerdos ad Deinde osciUatur altare^ et ver^ 
populum et dicat : sus adpopulum dicit v. 


OMINUS vobiscum. 


OMINUS vobiscum. 

]jt:. Et cum spiritu tuo. 
Postea dicit : 



Deinde dicat Offertorium. 



Et Offertorium. 

^ Some writers seem to make this the beginning of the *' M issa Fide- 
lium." See Le Brun, tom. i. p. 136. and Gerbert, De Musica. torn. i. p. 
431. with others. But this is not really opposed to the opinion of the great 
Ritualists cited above : and depends upon whether the Creed be said or not, 
either at certain seasons as in the m^ority of Churches, or as in others, not 
at all. 

^ *' After that, fast at hande, 

Comes tho tyme of offrande : 

Offer or leeue whether ye lyst, 

How thou shulde praye I wold thou wyst.'' Musettm MS, 

^ (Offertorium.) The verse is so called, which was sung just before the 
oblation of the elements by the Priest And it was at thiff time that anciently 

54 HDtDinatittin ^urae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Eboh. 

Post qfferiorium vera porrigat diaconus Postta lavei manus et 
sacerdoti calicem cum^ patena et sacri- componat hostiam^ 5ti- 
Jicio : et osculefur manum ejus utraque per corporales pannos 
vice. Ipse vero accipiens ab eo calicem : et dicat : 
diligenter ponat in loco suo debito super 
medium altare : et inclinato parumper 
elevet calicem utraque manu offerens 
sacrificium Domino^ dicendo hanc ora- 

tLe people made their offerings. A custom which is even now observed 
upon certain occasions in some Churches abroad, though fallen into other- 
wise total disuse in the Roman Communion. Another name, but not a 
common one, was " Sacrificium." Very much information, I need scarcely 
remind the reader, is to be found respecting the ancient oblations of the 
people, the manner of offering, the quality, the restrictions, &c. in the 
writers both ancient and modem who have treated OA the subject. Indeed 
so much, that in the compass of a note I am scarcely warranted in entering 
at all upon it : but I must extract a sliort passage from Walafrid Strabo, 
** Offertorium, quod inter offerendum cantatur, quamvis a prions populi 
cousuetudine in usum Christianorum venisse dicatur : tamen quis specialiter 
addiderit officiis nostris, aperte non legimus ; cum vere credamus priscis 
temporibus Patres sanctos silentio obtulisse, vel communicasse, quod etiam 
hactenus in sabbato sancto paschs& observamus. Sed sicut supradictum est, 
diversis modis, et partibus per tempore decus processit ecclesise, et usque 
in finem augeri non desinet.'^ - De reh. Eccles, c. 22. A remark to the 
same effect occurs in JRadulp, Tvngr, De Canon, observ. Prop, xxiij. ^d I 
shall add that the custom of singing at this time is as old as the age of S. 
Augustine, who speaks of it in his Retract, lib. 2. c xj. 

It is not easy to say, whether the most ancient practice was for the people 
to approach the Altar : probably not : certainly in the Greek Church : and 
there are various Canons of the Western which forbid women, after per- 
mission was given to men. Theodutph Aurelian, Capitular, cap. 6. And 
the vith of the Saxon Ecclesiastical Institutes, is directed to this point. 
*' We also command, that, at those hours, in which the priest sings the 
mass, no woman approach near the Altar, but let them stand in their places, 
and the mass-priest wiU there receive from them the offering which they 
desire to offer to God. Women should bear in mind their infirmities, and 
the tenderness of their sex, and therefore they shall dread to touch any of 
the holy things, belonging to the services of the church/' Thorpe. Antient 
Laws and Institutes, vol. ii. 407. 

The rule was, in the primitive ages, that nothing should be offered but 
was proper also to be consumed at the Altar, or at least in the service of 
'6tf Church : and to this the famous \pos\o\vc«l Cauon is directed. Can. 3. 

flhrtiinariam e^mt. ss 

Herforb. Mom. 

Sua dicto mifdstret ea qua ne^ 2mo dicto^ Diaconiis porrigii 
cessaria sunt sacramento : scU Celebranti patenam cum Hos^ 
licet panem, vinum et aquam t7i tia : quam offerens^ sacerdos di» 
calicem infundens : benediciione cit : 
aqua prius a sacerdote petita 



Sacerdote sic dicente : 

DOMINUS. Ab ipso sis 
benedicta, de cujus la- 

Afterwards this was further limited to bread and wine, and water, only, by 
the people ; and all else, when offered was looked upon not as for the Sa- 
crifice, but in a lower respect : as first fruits and pious gifts for the use of 
the Church and her Ministers. 

An old Ordo Romarius cited by Bona, lib. 2. cap. ix. § I. thus describes the 
manner of offering. ** Can tores cantant offertorium cum yersibus, et popu- 
los dat oblationes suas, id est panem et vinum, et offerunt cum Fanonibus 
candidis, primo masculi, deinde foeminse. Novissime rero Sacerdotes, et 
Diaconi offerunt, sed solum panem/' These /aiume^ as Cassander explains 
were napkins. The offertorium cum versibus relates to a period when the 
custom of the people really offering was not neglected : and then not only 
yerses, but even whole Psalms were added to the Offertory proper ; and 
sometimes, for the collecting took much time, these were sung and repeated 
again and again. Certainly the Church of England, when she restored the 
excellent practice of the people's offering before the Communion, had the 
highest authority of antiquity both for that, and for the many verses 
(though not of Psalms) which she has directed to be said by the Priest. 

It is not known when the old custom ceased : the author of thie Gemma 
Anima is a witness that money was given instead in his day, the xith Cen- 
tury : and he states a reason for the change ^* Quia populo non communi- 
cante, non erat necesse, panem tam m^num fieri, statutum est, eum in 
modum denarii formari ; et ut populus pro oblatione farinas denarios offer- 
ret.'' Cap, 58. And he adds : ** Qui tamen denarii in usum pauperum qui 
membra sunt Christi cederent, vel in aliquid quod ad hoc sacrificium per- 


This part of the liiturgy is sometimes called, the ** Missa omnium Offer- 
entium." Vide Pinius, De Lit. Ant. Hisp. p. 91. 

^ This is the same as that which is caUed '* Sacrificium" in the Sarum 
and Bangor rubrics, and in its own succeeding prayer, ** Acceptum sit :" 
doubtless, as being that which is about to be consecrated, and offered to the 
Almighty Father as the Body of his Son. Speaking of this Oblation, Ama- 
iofiug says : ^' facit eam transire per suam secretam orationem ad nomen 
hostiss, sive mnneris, donive, vel sacrificii, sen oblationis." Pntf, 2. de 
Eccles, Off, 

56 j9)tittffartum $0mt 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 


SUSCIPEy sancta Trinitas, hanc oblationem quam ego (miser 
ety Ebor.) indignus peccator ofiero in honore tuo et beatse 
Mariee^ et omnium sanctorum tuorum^ pro peccatis et offensioni- 
bus meis : pro salute vivorum et reqiiie (omnium, Sarum. ) fidelium 
defunctorum. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus sancti. 

Item calicem cum vuio 
et aqua'^^ et dicat : 

omnipotent Deo, 
sacrificium istud: in 
nomine Patris et Filii 
et Spiritus Sanctis 

Dicta oratione Qua dicta 

reponat calicem^ et cooperiat cum corpo- 

ralibus: ponatque panem super corpora^ 

lia decenter, ante calicem vinum ct aquam 

continentenij et osculetur patenam et re- 

ponat cam . a dextris super altare sub 

corporalibus, parum cooperiendo. 

^ (Immaeulatain.) A word found only in the Roman Use : and can be 
used solely with reference to the All-pure Body, which it is about to be. 

'• Upon the mixing of water with the wine, I have spoken at some length 
in the Prefoce. During the Mixture, in the Ambrosian Missal, there was 

2>(iiinattum ai^iflrae; 


. Hebford. 

tere exivit sanguis et aqua. In 
nomine Patris. etc^. Amen. 
Et postea sumai patenam cum 
hostia et panat super calicem, et 
tenens calicern in manibus suis, 
dicat devote : 

SUSCIPE, sancta Trinitas, 
banc oblationem quam ti- 
bi offero in memoriam passio- 
nis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 
et prsesta, ut in conspectu tuo 
tibi placens ascendat, et meam 
et omnium fidelium salutem 
operetur seternam, per Chris- 


SUSCIPE sancte Pater, om- 
nipotens seterne Deus, 
banc immaculatam^ Hostiam, 
quam ego indignus famulus 
tuus offero tibi Deo meo vivo 
et vero, pro innumerabilibus 
peccatis et offensionibus et neg- 
ligentiis meis, et pro omnibus 
circumstantibus, sed et pro om* 
nibus fidelibus Christianis vivis 
atque defunctis : ut mihi et illis 
proficiat ad salutem in vitam 
seternam. Amen. 

2ua dicta reponat calicern, et 
coopenat eum cum corporalibus : 
ponatque panem super corpora- 
lia decenter, ante calicern vinum 
et aquam continentem, et oscu- 
letur patenam : et reponat earn 
a dextris super altare sub cor" 
poralibus, pamm cooperiendo. 

Deindefaciens Crucem cum ea- 
dem patena, deponit Hostiam 
super corporale. Diaconus mi- 
nistrat vinum^ subdiaconus a- 
quam in Calice : et aquam mis- 
cendam in Calice sacerdos bene* 
die if, + dicens ;^^ 

DEUS, qui humansB sub- 
stantias dignitatem mira- 
biliter condidisti, et mirabiliuB 
reformasti : da nobis per hujus 
aquse et vini mysterium^ ejus 
Divinitatis esse consortes, qui 


appointed to be said : '' Be latere Christi exivit sangnis et aqua pariter.' 

^^ This and the foUowing prayers before the Secret were added to the 
Roman Use about the year 1050, and are still omitted in many of the Mo- 
nastic Missals. 

5^ HDtnittactom illume. 

Sabum. Banoor. Emob. 

^ The use of Offerimus and not Offtroy as before in the oblation of the 
Bread, is very remarkable ; nor is Bona^s note less important. *' Reg^redior 
ad Sficerdotem, qui Calicem aqua mixtum Deo offert dicens, Offerimus^ &c. 
cumque in panis oblatione singulariter dixerit Offero, hie pluraliter ait 
Offerimus, quia nimirum Romano Ritu eandem Orationem simul cum Sa- 
cerdote in Missa solemni recitat Diaconus, qui antea yinum Calici infudit, 
et olim Sangttinem populo ministrabat. Neque obstat, quod privatSB Miaan 
sine Diacono oelebrantur, et nihilominus Sacerdos dicit Offerimutf qma, 
formulas pro solemni Missa' institute in privata non mutantut/' Tom. iii. 
p. 217. Compare Sola's Note upon this passage* 

iDtOtnattum ^tffiie. 59 

H^jRFORD. Rom. 

humanitatis nostrae fieri digna- 
tus est particepSy Jesus Chris- 
tus Filius tuus Dominus noster: 
Qui tecum vivit et regnat in 
unitate Spiritus sancti Deus^ 
per omnia ssecula saeculorum. 

Postea accipit Calicem, et offertj 
dicens : 

OFFERIMUS 72 tibi, Do- 
mine^ calicem salutaris^ 
tuam deprecantes clementiam : 
ut in conspectu divinae Majes- 
tatis tuae, pro nostra et totius 
mundi salute cum odore suavi- 
tatis ascendat. Amen J* 
Deindefacit signum Crucis cum 
Calice, et ilium ponit super cor^ 
porakj et palla cooperit; turn 
junctis manihus super altare, 
aliquantulum inclinatus dicit : 
N spiritu humilitatis, et in 
animo contrito suscipiamur 
a te Domine ; et sic fiat sacri- 
ficium nostrum in conspectu 
tuo hodicy ut placeat tibi, Do- 
mine Deus. 

Erect us expandit manuSj eas- 
que in altum porrectasjungens^ 


^ After this prayer, the Subdeacon (at High M&JSls) is ordered by the 
RUu9 cdebr, Minam. tit T\j. 9. to receive the Paten from the Deacon, and 
hold it covered with the veil, standing behind the Priest, until the Pater 
potter. I mention this, as it seems to be a relic of a very i^ncient custom ; 
and now observed, merely through a tradition, without any particular ob- 
ject. When the people were in the habit of making large oblations, and 
these were to be offered upon the Paten, this latter was of course propor- 
tionaHy large : and haviiig thus answered it? purppse, was for a time re- 
IQpyed, in ord^er that it might not incommode or interfere with the ^dest in 
the discharge of his Office.. 

6o Dttiinartnm e^iSEu^. 

Sarxtm. Bangor. Ebor. 

Hoc peracio accipiat thuribuluvi a dut- 
cono et thurificet sacrificiuni : videlicet 
ultra ter signum cnicis/aciens, et in civ- 
cuitu et ex utraque parte calicis et sacri- 
ficii: deinde locum inter se et aUare, Et 
dum thurijicat dicat : 

DIRI6ATUR Domine ad te oratio 
mea, sicut mcensum in conspectu 

''* **Quamvi8 ergo in hac inyocatioiie nee Spiritus Sanctus expressis 
verbis nominetur, et nonnnlle voces inshit, que Deum Pafrem dengnare 
videntur : unum tamen verbum, Venij palam iacit Ecdesiam ad Deum iPa- 
trem se non convertere, quippe quae ex sacne Scripturae loquendi iDore, Hon 
nisi Persouarum duamm alterutrum qnao missae fuerunt, ant Filinm sdli- 
cet, aut Spiritum Sanctum invocare consuevit. Quinimmocum ad Patrem 
refertur oratio, dici solet : mitte Spiritum sanctum ; seu quoad Filium, mitte 
Kedemptorem, Agnum mitte, qui mundi peocata delet. Cum autem hoc 
loco intellig^ nequeat preoem ad Filium spectare, necessaria oonsecutioDe 
fit Spiritum Sanctum designari.'' Le Brun. tom# i* 100» 


fl)r)iinati«in gittTae. 6 1 

Bedford. Rom. 

elevatis ad ccelum oculisy et sfa- 
tim dimismy dicit : 

VENP* sanctificator, omni- 
potens oeterne Deus : 
benedicit oblata^ prosequtndoy 
et bene 4' ^ic hoc sacrificium 
tuo sancto nomini prseparatum. 
Postea^^ benedicit incensum di- 
cens : 

|ER intercessionem beati 
Michaelis Archangeli stan- 
tis a dextris altaris incensi, et 
omnium electorum suorum^ in- 
censum istad dignetur Domi- 
nus bene 4- dicere, et in odo-f 
rem suavitatis accipere. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. 

Et accepto thuribulo a Diacono^ 
incensat oblata^ dicens : 

NCENSUM istud a te be- 
nedictum^ ascendat ad te 
Domine, et descendat super 
nos misericordia tua. 
Deinde incensat altare dicens: 
Fs. 140. 

^IRIGATUR, Domine, o- 

ratio mea sicut incensum 

in conspecto tuo : elevatio ma- 



^' The Deacon is here directed to say, '^ ministrante naviculam, Benedi- 
die Paier reverendeJ' Ritus celebr, tit vig. 10. The plural is used, ac- 
cording to a custom which became general from ahout the vi th Century, of 
thus addressing persons of dignity, or to whom from their peculiar offices, 
reverence was due. This was certainly later than the age of S. Jerome, or 
of S. Augustine, who writing to the Bishops of Rome, say : *^ tua Beati-p 
tado/' ^* Sanctitas tua,'* and the like. But on the contrary, '* Beatitudo 
vestra'^ and '' Rererentia vestra'' are common in the Epistles of S. Gregory 
at the end of the 6th Century. The term ** Sanctitas vestra" is to be found, 
as applied to a Council, about a.d. 390. Comil, Carthag. 

62 fl)ttidiariiim s^SSntl 

SARirJi. Bangor. EMaB. 

Posted thurificetur ipse 
sacerdos ab ipso diaco- 
no : et' subdiacomis de- 
ferat ei textum deoscu-- 
landum: deinde acoly^ 
tus tkurificet chorum?^ 

His itaque peraciis : eat sacerdos ad dex^ Interim lavet manus et 
trum comu'^ attains ^ et abluat manus'^^ dicat : 
dicens : 

^^ ** iDcipiens a rectoribus chori. Deinde superiorem gradum ex parte 
cantoris. Eodem ordine secundas, exinde primas formas : ita quod ipse puer 
singulos clericos incensando illis inclinet: subsequente ilium diacono cum 
textn at) omnibus deosculando. ' Si episcopos celebraverit et duplex festum 
fuerit, duo venient cum thuribulis, et duo subdiaconi cum duobus textibus 
vel reliquiis. Si autem episcopus non celebraverit, et duplex festum fuerit : 
textum deferat acolytus ex parte cantoris. Primo autem thurificandus est 
cantor qui stat in medio chori cum cceteris rectoribus chori, scilicet in festis 
majoribus duplicibus tantum : deinde principales rectores chori ex utraque 
parte sunt, exinde duo rectores secundarii, postea chorus more solito eodem 
quoque ordine sequantnr textus. Qaando vero non dicitur Credo, tunc im- 
mediate post Oremus et OJfertorium accedat diaconus et offerat sacerdoti 
calicem cum patena, et ceetera solito more expleantur : et thurificet totum 
sacrificium more solito. Sed chorus non thurificetur. Nunquam enim in- 
censatur chorus post evangelium ad missam, nisi qnando dicitur Credo, sed 
tunc semper.'' Ruhr, Miss, Sar, 

^ The reader will find some remarks above, Note 19. as to which side is 
here meant. In almost all Churches, I believe, we find the Piscina upon 
the Epistle side of the Altar. S. Cyril testifies to the antiquity of this ob- 
servance during the Holy Service, and teaches us its meaning. ** Ye saw 




nuum mearum sacrificium ves- 
pertinum. Pone, Domine, cus- 
todiam ori meo, et ostium cir- 
cumstantiae labiis meis : ut non 
declinet cor meum in verba ma- 
litiae, ad excusandas excusa- 
tiones in peccatis. 
Dum reddit thuribulum Dia- 
conoy dicit : 

ACCENDAT in nobis Do- 
minus ignem sui amoris, 
et flammam aetemae charitatis. 

Postea incensaiur Sacerdos a 
Diaconoy deinde alii per ordi-^ 

Et postea eat ad abluendum ma- 
nus siuLS. Et in eundo dicat 
totum kymnum : 

Interim sacerdos lavat manus 
dicens : Ps. 26. 

then the Deacon give to the Priest water to wash, and to the Presbyters 
who stood round God's altar. He gave it, not at all because of bodily de- 
filement; no; for we did not set out for the Church with defiled bodies. 
But this washing of hands is a symbol that ye ought to be pure from all 
sinful and unlawful deeds : for since the hands are a symbol of action, by 
washing them we represent the purity and blamelessness of our conduct. 
Hast thou not heard the blessed David opening this mystery, and saying, / 
wiU wash my hands in innocent^, and so wiU I compass thine Altar , O Lord? 
The washing therefore of hands is a s3rmbol x>f immunity from sin." Cate- 
chetical Lect. Oxf. Trans, p. 273. 

So also we are told in the Apostolical Const, b. viii. c. 11. The water 
which at this time is poured upon the Priest's hands, *Ms a sign of the 
purity which befits a soul consecrated to God.'' 

^* *' Saye pater noster,^ get up standande, 
Al tho tyme tho prist is wasshande : 
Til after washing tho priste wil loute 
Tho auter, and sithen turne aboute : 
Then he askes with stiile Steven, {in singing: " stave/') 
Ilk monnes prayers to god of heuen.'^ Museum MS* 





AVABO inter in- 
nocentes man us 
meas: et circumdabo 
altare tuum^ Domine. 
Et hymnuvi : 

VENI creator spi- 
ritus^ mentes tu- 

MUNDA me Domine ab omni in- 
quinamento mentis et corporis : 
ut possim mundatus implere opus sanc- 
tum Domini. 

Deinde revertat se, et 
stans ante altare incli- 
natoque capite et cor^ 
pore, junctis manibus 
dicat arationem : 

Diaconus inte- 
rim ipsum al- 
tare in sinistra 
comu thurifn 
canie et reli^ 
quias more sa~ 
lite in circu- 
iter. Jblutis 
manibus sacer- 
dos revertat se 
ad altare ad 
droinum servh- 
tium exequen- 
dum : diaconus 
et subdiaconus 
suis gradibtis 
supradicto mo- 
do se teneant. 
Deinde sacer- 
dos stans ante 
altare inclinato 
capite et cor^ 
pore, junctis 
manibus dicat : 

Postea ante medium 
altaris inclinatus dicat: 

jaDintnattum a^iflUe. 




LAV ABO inter innocentes 
manus meas. etc.: tcsque 
in finem : Cum Gloria Patri et 
Sicut erat. 

VENI creator, excepto ver^ 
su, Dudum sacrata. Cum 
versu, Emitte spiritum tuum^ 
et creabuntur. Et renovabis 
faciem terrse. 

URE igne sancti Spiritus 
renes nostros et cor nos- 
truniy Domine^ ut tibi casto cor- 
pora serviamus et mundo corde 
placeamus. Per Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. 
Postea revertatur in medium 
allariSf stando et inclinando se 
ad altare conjunctis manibus, et 
dicat : 

Deinde aliquantum inclinatus in 
medio altaris/Junctis manibus 
super eoj dicit : 


jDtHinattum ^iflfae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

IN spiritu humilitatis etin animo contrito suscipiamur, Domine, 
a te : et sic fiat sacrificium nostrum (in conspectu tuo : So- 
rum) ut a te suscipiatur hodie, et placeat tibi Domine Deus. 
(mens. Ebor.) 

Et erigens se deosadetur altare a dextris 
sacrificii : et dans benedictioneni ultra 
sacrificium^ postea signet se^ dicens : 

Et inclinando et ingre^ 
diendo osculetur altare , 
et signet sacfifkium di* 

SIT signatum 4« or- 
dinatum vl" ^^ 
sanctificatum vl" ^^ 
sacrificium nostrum. 

IN nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus 
sancti. Amen. 
Deinde vertat se sacerdos ad populum. Post versus ad popu- 
et tacita voce dicat : lum dicat : 

^* Micrologus says, which proves that in his time there was little autho- 
rity for the use of this prayer : " Deinde inclinatus ante altare dicat hanc 
orationem,.non ex aliquo ordine, sed ex ecclesiastica consuetudine/' It 
does not occur in either of the English Uses : and there is no reason to re- 
gret that it never was introduced. Independently of objectionable matter, 
it savours of anything but antiquity, and contains a passage which the 

fl>tlitnatium e^ifftz. 



IN spiritu humilitatis et ani- 
mo contrito suscipiamur a 
te, Domine : et eic fiat sacri* 
ficium nostrum ut a te suscipia- 
tur hodie, et placeat tibi Do- 
mine Deus, 

Tunc erigat se, et osculetur o/- 
tare in dextra parte calicis. 
Deinde teneat mamis suasjunc- 
tas supra calicem et dicat : 

VENI Sanctificator^ omni- 
potens aeterne Deus. 
Tunc signet calicem dicens : 

BENE ^ DIG et sanctifica 
hoc sacrificium^ quod tibi 
est praeparatum. 

Et signet seipsum : 

IN nomine Patris, et Filii, et 
Spirittts sancti. Amen. 
Deinde vertat se ud populum et 
dicat : 


SUSCIPE/^fiancta Trinitan, 
hanc oblationem, quam ti^ 
bi offerimus ob memoriam ps^ 
sionis; resurrectionis, et ascen- 
sionis Jesu Christi Domini nos- 
tri : et in honore beatae Mariee 
semper virginis^et beati Joanni& 
Baptistse, et sanctorum ApoB- 
tolorum Petri et Pauli, et isto- 
rum et omnium Sanctorum: 
ut illis proficiat ad honorem, 
nobis autem ad salutem: et 
illi pro nobis intercedere dig- 
neuter in coelis^ quorum memo* 
riam agimus in terris. Per eum- 
dem Christum Dominum nos- 
trum. Amen. 

Poslea osculatur aUare, et ver^ 
sus ad poptUuniy 

extendens etjungens manuSjXJO' 
ce paululum ekvata, dicit : 

acutest writers of tbe Ckurch of Rome feel to be a dijSadty, and fall satis- 
factorily to explain : viz. '* ut illis proficiat ad bonorem/' like the ^inovs 
prayer in the Offertory of the Missa drfunciorum^ " Libera animas omiduip 

Fidelium defunctoram de poenis Infemi' ne absort»eat eaa Tartarus, Be 

cadant in obs^umin/' no one is allowed to be a Cati^olic who r^ed^ Hf 
or takes it in any o^Hher than an unmitural and twiMOid sense. 


flDtHinattum ej9iirae. 

Sarum. Bangor. 

ORATE*^ fratres®^ et sorores®^ pro 
me : ut meum pariterque vestrum®* 
acceptum (aptum, Bangor.) sit Domino 
Deo (nostro, Bangor.) sacrificium. 

Besponsio cleri priva-- Besponsio cho- 
tim: riprivaiim: 

SPIRITUS sancti gratia illaminet 
cor tuum et labia tua, et accipiat 
Dominus digne hoc sacrificium laudis 
de manibus tuis^ pro peccatis et offen- 
sionibus nostris. 


ORATE fratres et 
sorores pro me 
peccatore : ut meum 
pariterque vestrum 
Domino Deo acceptum 
sit sacrificium. 
Chorus secrete respon- 
deat : 

Dominus in die 
tribulationis : usqu£ 
Memor sit omnis sacri- 
fitcii tui. 

Et reversus ad altare sacerdos ;®* secretas 
-orationes^ dicat juxta numerum ante- 
didarum et ordinem ante episiolam, 

Post versus ad altare 
dicat secretas: et con- 
cludat : 

** '* And thenk then for thi synn, 

Thou art noght worthe to praye for hym : 

Bot when thou prayes God lokes thi wille. 

If hit he gode forgetis thin ille/^ Museum MS* 

'* (Fratres.) Caecilius in the Dialogue of Minucius Felix complains that 
the Christians made use of this term, in addressing one another, taking it in 
the ahominahle sense in which the Pagans ahused it : to which Octavius 
replies: ^* Sic nos quod inridetis Fratres vocamus, ut unius Dei parentis 
homines, ut consortes fidei, ut spei cohseredes/' See this arg^ument well 
treated in a tract hy KorthoUus, ** de Calumniis Paganorum in veteres 
Christianos sparsis/' p. 168. 

"^ (Orate fratres et sorores. Sar.) " Se quidem Sacerdos comparat, ut in 
Sancta Sanctorum pedem inferat, et ut ita dicam, Fidelibus vale dicit, quos 
non ante visurus est, quam Sacrificium consummaverit.'' Le Brun. tom. i. 
p. 182. The custom of saying ^* et sorores,'' is to he found in some very an- 
cient Missals : but does not seem to have been at any time adopted into the 
Roman Use. 

^ (J/t meum pariterqua vestrum.) The 6th Chapter of Part 2, Sect, 1. of 
Van Espen's Jus Fcclesiasticum Universum, concerns the '* Honorarium :" 
a payment in money extra Missam which took the place of the old offerings, 
and these of course could only be made by those who were present, and com- 
municants. After a disquisition upon the benefit (if any) which can be pro- 
cured by purchasing of Masses, he concludes : ^ Et licet Sacerdos etiam 

DtDinanum ^iflTae*. 



ORATE fratres ad Domi- 
nuiDy ut meum pariter et 
vestrum in conspectu Domini 
acceptum sit sacrificium. 


RATE fratres: ut meum 
ac vestrum sacrificium 
acceptabile fiat apud Deum 
Patrem omnipotentem. 


Tunc reversus ad altare secrete 
dicat : Oremus. Deinde dicat 
sub silentio secretas eodem modo 

Minister y seu circumstantes res- 
pondent : 

SUSCIPIAT Dominus sa- 
crificium de inanibus tuis 
ad laudem et gloriam nominis 
sui^ ad utilitatem quoque nos- 
tram, totiusque Ecclesiae suae 

Sacerdos submissa voce dicit, 

Deinde, manibus extensis, ab- 
solute sine Oremus®^ subjungit 
Orationes secretas^ 

pro absentibus orare et Sacrificium offerre queat : nihiloroinus indubitatuni 
est ; et constat ex precibus, quae tempore Sacrificii dicuntur, Missam spe- 
cialiter pro circumstantibus, sive prsesentibus offerri : ipsosque fideles prse- 
sentes una cum Sacerdote offerre; adeo ut ipse Sacerdos conversus ad 
populum dicat : '^ Orate Fratres : ut meum &c/^ Hinc Ecclesia a suis pri- 
mordiis rigide tnandavit JidelihuSf diebus Dominicis festisque Missarum sO' 
lemniis devote assistere: at nidlibi mandavit, tit quU missam pro se celebrari 




'* Then tho prest gos to his boke, 
His preuy prayers for to loke : 
Knele fhou doun and say then this, 
That next in blak wryten is : 
It wil thi prayere mikel amende, 
If thou wil holde up bothe thi hende : 
To god with gode deuocion, 
When thou sayes this oreson." Museum MS. 

•* These Secrets varied with the day, as did the Collects or Gradual, &c. : 
and were sometimes one only, sometimes more. In ancient MSS. we com- 
moidy find these prayers called '^ super oblata,'' and although AmdlariuSf 
lib. 3. cap. 20y witii others of no less authority, decide that the name Seereta 
was given, because they were said ^ecreto, yet it is not improbable that the 
name arose '^ a secretione donorum et oblationum.'^ These prayers are 
entitled in the Sarum, York, and the other English Missals, sometimes 


flXtiinatium ^iflHe. 

ittt ineipiens : 



ita dicens : 


2uibus finitis dicat sa- 
cerdos aperta voce : 

PER omnia^ sacu- 
la 8fl6culorum. 

Et cum per 
venerit ad ul- 
//mt/w Per do- 
minum dicat 
usque ad Per 
onmiti ssecu- 
la Bseculorumy 
quod apef^ta 
gere sive can- 
tare cum pra^ 
Manibus nan levatis donee dicitur Sur- 
8uin corda. Ei tunc accipiat subdiaco^ 
nus offertorium {sudarium. Bangor) et 
patenam, de manu diaconiy ipsam pate* 
nam tenendam quousque Pater nosier di-- 
citur: quam acolyto offertorio cooper tarn 
committat in graduj scilicet post diaco^ 
num interim constitutor 


PER Dominum nos- 
trum Jesum Chris- 
tum filium tuum: qui 
tecum vivit et regnat 
in unitate Spiritus 
sancti Deus. 
Et dicat : 

PER omnia ssecula 
Cum alta voce. 

Et sequatur pnefatio. 

secretum : but the usual way of speaking of them, is the '' secretSB/' i.e. 

^ (Sme Ortmui. Rotn.) This seems a remarkable variation from the 
English rubricir. The reason of it it said to be, because in the Roman 
Church, all the prayers which come between the Offertory and the Secret, 
have been coiittldered (since they were introduced) as a part of that prayer : 
and to be included in ^ OremMS before the Offertory^ 

fl)tiiinattum e0mt. 

Herford. Rom. 

et ordine quo coUecta dkta fue- 
runt ante epistolam. 

■MM ^^wW^ H »?• 


2uibus dictvi. 

2uibus Jinitis^ cum pervenerit 
ad conclusumemj clara voce di* 


ER omnia ssecula sseculo- 

ponat manus super altare et di^ 
cat prafationem: 

Cum Prafatione. Prafatio in- 
cipitur atnbabus manibus positis 
hinc inde super\altare : quas 
aliquanttdum elevat, cum dicit 
Sursum corda. Jungit eas ante 
pectus, et caput inclinaty cum 
dicit J Gratias agamus Domino 
Deo nostro. Deinde dis/ungit 
manus f et disjunctas tenet usque 
adjinem Prafalionis: quajinita, 
iterum jungit eas, et inclinatus 
dicit, Sanctus. Et cum dicit,' 
Benedictus qui venit, signum 
Crucis sibi producit ajronte ad 

^ ** Th^i he beg^nnes per omnia. 
And sithen sursum corda : 
At t&o ende sayes sanctus thryse, 
In excelsis he neuens twyse : 
Als fast as ever yt he has done» 
Loke tho thou be redy sone : 
And say these wordis with stille Steven, 
Priuely to god of heuen/' Museum MS, 

^^ flDtninartum ^tiTae^ 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

Hoc modo incipiantur^ omnes prafu" Pricfatio communis, 
tiones^ ad missam per Mum annum, tarn 
inferiis quam infestis : 

PER omnia ssecula sseculorum. A- T^ER omnia saecula 

men. Dominus vobiscum.^ Et X^ saeculoram, Do- 

cum spiritu tuo. Hie eltvet sacerdos minas vobiscum. Sur- 

manus dicens: Sursum corda.^^ Ha- sum corda. Gratias 

bemus ad Dominum. Gratias agamus agamus Domino Deo 

Domino Deo nostro. Dignutn et jus- nostro. 
turn est. 

^ {Incipiantur,) Properly the ** Per omnia saecula saeculorum " is not 
the beginning of the Preface, but the conclusion of the Secret. But from 
the custom of the Priest's here raising his voice, and the Preface imme- 
diately succeeding, it not unnaturally though incorrectly, would be so 
looked upon. 

^ {Prafationes.) So called, as being an introduction to the Canon or 
c|olemn part of the Service. In the Greek Church only one Preface is used : 
anciently in the West there was a greater number than at present: which 
was about the twelfth century reduced to ten. Pope Pelagius (in a letter 
to the Bishops of Gaul, quoted by almost all the Ritualists) enumerates 
nine Prefaces only, proper to certidn days. These are mentioned in the 
Leofric Missal, preserved in the Bodleian Library, and I shall quote the 
passage, on account of the celebrity of that volume. 

^* Efistola Pelagii Papa, Pelagius sanctae Romanae ecclesias episcopus 
novum praefationes tantum modo mandat esse observandas. Unam in na- 
tale Domini. Quia per incamati verbi. Aliam in quadragesima. Qui 
corporali jejunio. Tertiam in pascha. l^e quidem omni tempore. Quar- 
tarn in ascensione Domini. Quintam in Pentecoste. Sextam de sancta 
Trinitate. Septimam de sancta cruce. Octavam de Apostolicis. Novam 
pro defunctis." 

To these a tenth was afterwards added, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, 
which is mentioned as to be used also in the English Church, by the 14th 
Canon of the Synod of Westminster, a.d. 1175. Wilkins, Concilia, torn. i. 
p. 478. 

As to the Epistle of Pelagius, just cited, I must observe that Cardinal 
Bona doubts its authenticity : hi» observations should be consulted. Lib. ii. 
cap. 10. And the very learned Stephen Baluze agrees with Bona: to 
which we must add that the Epistle is rejected by Lahbe and Cossart, Cone, 
tom. V. p. 931. In some of the most ancient MSS. which are extant, for 
example, the famous one formerly Queen Christina's of Sweden, now in the 
Vatican, the Preface is called Immolatio^ and sometimes, Cantestatio Mista, 
because, says Bona, *' in ea Sacerdos audita voce populi, vel Cleri, sive 

jDrHinarium ^iJOfae. 7S 

Herford. Rom. 

Ad dicendam vel cantandam Sequens Prafatio dicitur per 
pnefationemj erigat se sacerdos annum in omnibus Festis et 
honestef et ponat manus super Feriis qua propriam non ha-- 
aliare ex utraque parte talicis, bent : 
et dicat hoc modo : 

PER omnia ssecula sseculorum. Amen. Dominus vobiscum. 
Et cum spiritu tuo. Sursum corda. Habemus ad Dominum* 
Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. Dignum et justum est. 

Ministri asserentis dignum et justum esse Deo gratias agere, contestatur 
Teram esse hanc populi assertionem : tum solemn! gratiarum actione se et 
fideles disponit ad tremenda mysteria, quibus Christi corpus immolatur.^' 
It is styled in the Mozarabic Missal, Inlatio : of which there appears to be 
no satisfactory interpretation. 

The Preface is of that high antiquity, occurring in the Liturgy of S. 
James, and being spoken of by S. Cyprian, S. Cyril, and other Fathers, as 
of common use in their time, that we cannot attribute its introduction to 
any age later than the Apostolic. 

** There is no direction, here, and probably the custom of the Church of 
England was, at this '* Dominus vobiscum,'' not to turn, as at all other such 
salutations, toward the people, but continue still to face the Altar. I men- 
tion it on account of the reason of this, having by some been referred to the 
very ancient practice of the Greek Churches, of shutting in the Sanctuary at 
this time, and enclosing the Priest within the curtains, and a veil : which, of 
course, would so far account for it, as he and the people could not for a 
time see one another. Vide, Cavalieri. Opera, torn, v. p. 65. and Le Brun. 
torn. i. p. 186. But compare also Amalarius. lib, iii. cap, 9. who gives other 
reasons for the exception in this case. 

'* Sursum corda,) This invitation is to be found in all the Liturgies both 
of the Eastern and Western Churches : and without doubt is of Apostolical 
authority. S. Cyprian especially alludes to it, in his treatise jde Oratione 
Dominica, Opera, p. 213. '^ Sacerdos ante orationem prsefatione praemissa, 
parat fratrum mentes dicendo, Sursum Corda," &c. And S. Augustine : 
'' Tenetis sacramenta ordine suo. Primo post orationem admonemini sur- 
sum habere cor. Ideo enim cum dicitur, Sursum cor, respondetis : Habe- 
mus ad Dominum. Sequitur Episcopus vel Presbyter qui offert, et dicit, 
Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro ; et vos attestamini, Dignum et justum 
est'^ Serm, 217. Edit, Benedict. In some of the old Sacramentaries, the 
Canon begins with the words, ** Sursum Corda." As in the Gelasian. 7%o- 
mas. Codex. Sac. pag. 196. 

74 9)nrtnartum a^lifae* 

Sarum. Banoor. Ebor. 

Hac prafaiio est quo- 

VERE dignum et justum est^ aequum et salutare, nos tibi 
semper^ et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte^ Pater 
omnipotens^ seterne Deus : per Christum Dominum nostrum. 
Per quem Majestatem tuam laudant Angeli, adorant Domina- 
tiones, tremunt Potestates. Coeli, coelcmimque virtutes, ac beata 
serapbin, socia exultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras 
Toces^ ut admitti jubeas deprecamur, supplici confessione di- 
centes : 

Sequitur Sanctus.^ Dum sacerdos dicit 
Sanctus^ sanctus, erigat parumper bra- 
chia sua etjungat manus suasj usque ad 
hac verba In nomine Domini : tunc sem- 
per signet se in facie sua, 

SANCTUS, Sanctus,Sanctus,^ Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni 
sunt cceli et terra gloria tua : osanna in excelsis. Benedic- 
tus qui yenit in nomine Domini : osanna in excelsis.^ 

Deinde confestim nut- 
nibus junciis et oculis 
elevatis indpiat Te igi- 
tur clementissime Pa- 

^ This is the Seraphic Hymn : and called '* Epinicion'^ or triumphal, by 
the Greeks. It is not possible to say at how early a period it was added to 
the Liturgy : most probably from the very first. Some have attributed its 
introduction to Pope Sixtus the 1st, but which proves its yery g^at aati* 
quity, he did not introduce it, biit ordered that it should be begun by the 
Priest, and continued by the people with him. This is stated also by Bm* 
ramus a.d. 142. See Bona: and Cavtdieri, tarn. v. p. 66. This hymn, as 
the *' Gloria in excelsis," was in some churches mutilated and defaced by 
interpolations: it is .to these that Archbishop Lanfranc alludes in his Sta- 
tutes, cap. 5, where he orders all to bow towards the Altar during its reci' 
tation, ** nisi versus interpouantur.'^ Opera, p. 270. Vide also Gerbert, 
tom. i. p. 445. 

Goar, in his notes to the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom, reckons four Litur^ 
gical Hymns. 1. Gloria in Excelsis. 2. The Cherubic: '^ Qiii Cherubin 
mystice &c.'' which is sung before the great Introit : 3. '* Sanctus Deus, 
Sanctus Fortis,'^ daily sung by the Greeks, and once a year upon Good 
Friday ; in the Latin Church : and 4. The Epinicion, *' Sanctus, sanctuiy. 
sanctus.^^ P. 136. 

£DvDinatfum ^tlTae. 75 

HsMFOMD. Rom. 

VERE dignum et justum est^ sBquum et salutare^ nos tibi 
semper^ et ubique gratias agere : Domine sancte^ Pater 
omnipotens, eeterne Deus: per Christum Dominum nostrum. 
Per quem Majestatem tuam laudant Angeli^ adorant Domina- 
tiones, tremunt Potestates. Cceli, coelorumque virtutes, ac beata 
seraphin^ Bocia exultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras 
Yoces, ut admitti jubeas deprecamur^ supplici confessione di- 
centes : 

Tunc sacerdos elevans aliquan^ Sacerdos indinatus dicit : Sanc- 
ttdum hrachia junctis manibus tus. Et cum dicit Benedictus 
dicat: Sanctus, et signet seip- qui venit, signum Crucis sibi 
mm dicensj Benedictus qui ve- producit afronte ad pectus. 
nit in nomine Domini. 

SANCTUS, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni 
sunt coeli et terra gloria tua : osanna (Hosanna^ Rom.) in 
excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini : osanna (Ho- 
sanna, Rom.) in excelsis. 
Postea sacerdos adorans cruet- 
fixum dicat: 

ADORAMUS te,9« Christe, 
et benedicimus tibi, quia 

Sala^ in his additions to Bona^ remarks that the words, *^ Osanna in 

excelsis/^ are added by the authority of the Church to this hymn : as if, 
quoting Natalis Alexander: '* ostendatur Adventum Domini in came non 
solum humani generis in terra, sed et Angelorum in Coelis esse quodam modo 
salutem : quia dum nos redempti ad supema perducimur, eorum munerus 
Sathana cadente imminutus impletur.*' Micrologus also observes : cap. xj. 
*^ Presbyter post finitam secretam orditur Prsefationem in Canonem, in qua 
supemorum Civium Ordines merito connumerantur, quia iisdem mysteriis, 
quae ibi conficiuntur, juxta attestationem Sanctorum Patrum, interesse cre- 
duntur, unde et Angelicum Trisagium subjungitur/' 

" The rest of this passage '* Dominus Deus Sabaoth -osanna in excel- 
sis/' omitted in Missal Leofric. 

^ '* In omnibus festis beattB Maria virginis ac etiam commemorationibus 
ejtudem, dicitur sic : Benedictus Marise filins qui venit in nomine Domini, 
osanna in excelsis/' Ruhr. Miss. Ebor. 

"* There are some other ancient Missals in which may be found interpo- 
lated prayers of this kind. The present is cited by Cardinal Bona from 
" Petrus ab Opmeer in atsertione Missa. p. 362," but with this addition at 

76 i)ttiinattum 90mt. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebqr. 

lev: corpore inclinato 
donee dixerit. Ac pe- 

the beginning. '* Domine Jesu Christe Fill Dei vivi adjuva infirmitatem 
meam, et conforta me nunc in hac hora : quia imperfectum meum vident 
oculi tui. Adoramus. &c/' Microhgtu, cap. x\j. attempts to proTe that such 
interpolations are most objectionable (as certainly they are, but not) be- 
cause such never were allowed to be made without the highest authority, in 

iDtHttiattum ^iflfae. 77 

Herford. Rom. 

per sanctam crucem tuam re- 
demisti mundum. Miserere no- 
bis, qui passus es pro nobis. 

the Canon. For certainly the Canon cannot be said to begin nntil the '* Te 
igitur.^' As I mention presently, the Canon was not only to be said secreto, 
but was also called secretum : whereas the Prefaces are said '' clara voce ;*' 
and there is no special direction to the contrary as regards this prayer, in 
the Hereford Use. 

Canon S^iftat.' 

Janctis mantbus* sa- 
cerdos incUnet se di- 

IE igitur, clementiBsime Pater, per Jesum Cbriatnm 
I Filium tuum Dominum noBtrum supplices rogamiu 
I ac petimus : 

r (Hie, Sarum et Bangor.) erigens se (sacerdos, Ebor.) 
oseuletur allare a dextris sacrijicii dkens : 

' (Ctinon Mints.) Oratio quee incipit, Te igitvr, qoamquB sequitur Pater, 
dicitur Caoon, quippe quce tanquam regulain Sacrificio offerendo servanda, 
nuDquarnqtie mutanda praeacripta fiierit Le Brun. torn. i. p. 197. 

The whole Canon of the Maaa was gometimes called Secretutn : as, for ex- 
ample, in the third decree of the Syaod of York, 1 19di which respects the 
correctness of the Manuscripts nsed in the public Services, and beg;inB: 
" Quia leeretum mitia frequenter invenitur, aut scriptoram falsitate, ant 
librornm vetustate corruptum, ita ut leg^ distincte noa pcsait," itc Wil- 
kiju. CoDC. i. 501. 

The title Canon, as applied to this part of the Service, is as old certainljr 
as at least the time of Gre^ry the Great : who himself speaks of his having 
directed the Lord's prayer to be said "moxpott Canonem." Strictly the 
Canon ends before the Lord's prayer : end in many Manuscripts a different 
style of writing begins again. 

But it may not be improper to mention some other titles which have been 
given to this portion of the Liturgy. " Precem vocat Innocentius 1. in 
Epist. ad Decentium : et Vigilins P. ad Profutumm, eatumiea prteU tex- 
titia." Gerbert, torn. i. p. 122. A^ain, the same antbor, p. 446, quoting 
Amtdariiu, " Ab iUo loco, nbi secretam dicit episcopns usque ad AoHtia 
])EI,totum illnd vocat Augustinns Orationcf." And Gavoiitttf has collected 
several others. Begvla eccletiattica : from S . Ambrose. Leffilimum. Op- 
tatns. Secretum. S. Basil. Ordoprecutn, Isidore. Actio, and, RtguUihy 
Walafrid Strabo. {Theiaurtu Saer. Rit. torn. i. 105.) 

To these I must not omit to add Lyndwood's explanation. " Licet qoi- 
dam simpUcessacerdotesintelligant canonem, quidquid est in secretomisBs: 
et stricte intelligendo Canonem, puto quod Hoitiemit dicit vemm. Eat 
namque Canon idem quod r^ula. Missa vero proprie dicitur EucfaaristiK 
£onsecratio. Alia autem omnia, quie vel sacerdoa dicit, vel chorus cani^ 

€mon S^i^at* 

Hebfobd. Rom. 

Sic inclinel se sacerdos ad al- Sacerdos extendens et Jungens 

tarejunciis Ttuiniius dicendo ; mantis, eUvans ad aelum oculos, 

et slatim demittens, prefunde 

inclinatus ante allare, manibtis 

super eo posilis, dicit : 

IE igitur, clementisBime Pater, per Jesum Christum 

\ Filium tuum Dominum nostram supplices rogamus 

ac petimus : 
t Hie osculetur al- Oseulaiur altare : 
tare, et erigat se dicendo : 

gratiarum actiooes snnl, rel certe obsecrationes. Unde Canon Mibseb vere 
dicilnr regula ilia, per quam Eucharistia consecratnr : large tamen intelli- 
gendo Cauonem MisBiejnxta commuDem intellectum simpliciuiii sacerdo- 
tnin, denotat totum Becretum iiii3S8e post pnefationem." Lib. i. til. 10. Ut 
Archidiacimi. veii. Canon. 

* {JtMctit manibut.) In thia the English Uses agree, but do not add irhat 
has always been the practice of the Roman C%urch, to repeat the whde 
Canon, tttanibut exteruii, bnless otherwise expressly ordered. It would seem 
however that rery aocieotly such was the custom, in some parts at least of 
this country also. For of S. Dnnslan we read ; " Eo quippe inter sacro- 
sanctain Missamm aolemnia lacrai nuntu extendmte, et Deum Patrem om- 
nipotentem, nt ' Ecclesiam mam Catholicam pacificare, castodire &c.' inter- 
pellante, nivea columba de coslo descendit." Vita S. DuTutam. cap. xxxij. 

Miervhj/ut says; " Notandum autem, per totum Canonem DominicES 
PaarioDH <commemoratiouem potissimnm actitari, juxta Dolnini prvceptnm 
in Enmgelie ; Httv, qtuAieteunqnt feeeritii j-c. Unde et ipse SaOerdos per 
totum Canonem in expansione manuum, non tam mentis devotionem, quara 
Christi exteunonem in cruce designat, jnxta illud : Erpandi maniM meat 
toU die." Cup. 16. So also, Radalph. Ttaigr. Prop. 23. But the later 
RitualistB take a different view. 

' There is no doubt that for some two or three oenturies at least before 
the Reformation, the Church of England, according to her different Uses, 
yet agreedin all of them with the rest of the Western Cfanrch, in this point: 
that the whole of the Canon, from the Te /^I'tur to the Per (mmiaiaeuhMt- 
«iiJi»-MHnaa said Mfreto, or tnhmina voce. It is a vulgar but not unfrequent 
error to soppoae, that by lecrelo is meant no utterance at all, or even what 
is commonly called ^tumbling: for there are many orders of the EngHah 
Chnrcb, wIh(^ I ahall have occasion to cite presently, which prove that a 

8o Canon a^ilTae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

UTI accepta habeas^ et benedicas heec •I' dona, haec ^ mu- 
nera,^ hsec •{' ^ancta sacrificia illibata :^ 

distinct proniinciation was required of every word, no less than in those 
parts of the Liturgy which were repeated aloud. The present RubrioB 
generales prefixed to the Roman Missal, explain well this point. ^' Quae vero 
secrete dicenda sunt, ita pronuntiet, ut et ipsemet se audiat, et a circum- 
stantibus non audiatur/' Tit, xvi. 2. 

But the subject of chief importance, upon which one or two brief remarks 
are necessary, is ; as to the time when this practice and abuse of repeating 
the Canon, so that no one but the officiating Priest might hear what was 
said, begun. There seems to be no question, even among the most strenu- 
ous upholders of the new practice as of high antiquity, that in the primitive 
ages the faithful heard the whole, and answered at the end, Amen, Very 
probably there was a variety of tone : but not .to such an extent that the 
Priest was inaudible. Cardinal Bona is decisive upon this : speaking of 
the Use of the Greek Church, that its Liturgy is said aloud, he adds : 
'* Eumdem morem servabat olim Ecclesia occidentalis, omnes enim audie- 
bant sanctissima et efficacissima verba, quibus Christi corpus conficitur/' 
And he further gives it as his opinion, that no change took place in this re- 
spect, until the tenth Century. 

In the xij th Century, the author of the Gemma Afdma, not only speaks of 
secret utterance, as then the usual practice, but gives three reasons for it : 
'' Una est, quia cum Deo loquimur, cni non ore sed corde clamare prseci- 
pimur. Secunda est, ne populus tam prolixa declamatione attaediatus abs- 
cedat, vel sacerdos tam longo clamore voce deficiat. Tertia est, ne tam 
sancta verba tanti mysterii vilescant, dum ea vulgus per quotidianum usum 
in inconvenientibus locis dicat.'^ Cap. 103. If these were the reasons which 
led to so great a departure from the long-established and unobjectionable 
use of the Church from her first-beginning until then, they were poor and 
insignificant indeed. Amtdaritu offers some of greater weight : ^' non est 
necessaria vox reboans," he says, de off, Eecles. lib. 3. cap. 20 : and again, 
** nt impudentis est clamoribus strepere, ita contra congruit verecundo, 
modestis precibus orare.'^ Cap. 23. He wrote before the 10th Century, 
and it is not certain, that he intends more than a proper modulation and 
lowering of the voice. 

Modem writers of the Roman Communion, cannot agree why the Canon 
should be said secreto. Some say, that the mystery should be concealed ; 
some, that greater reverence is to be the effect of it ; some, that the Canon, 
and especially the verba coruea'ationis should not be made common. As to 
this last, it can have little, if any weight, though most relied od>: because, 
not only are there an infinity of books which the laity may use, and always 
have been : but parish-priests are strictiy enjoined to make known to their 
people the meaning and complete knowledge of this Service, by Catechisms, 
and Sermons. &c. This seems to go as far the other way, beyond almost 
what is needful : for the words of a learned writer on the subject are, ^* nt 
•rfectam populo christiano tradant hujus mysterii notitiam/' RimuSe, 

Canon a^ilTae. 8 1 

Herford. Rom. 

X TTI accepta habeas et benedicas : 

Opera, torn. iy. p. 200. And the Catechismits ad Parochos declares that all 
those points ^* a Pastoribus diligentissime exponenda erunt, quae ejus ma- 
jestatem magis illnstrare posse videantnr/' Edit. Aldtis* 1566. p. 130. Of 
which teaching, as there exemplified, the verba consecrationis form the chief 
part. So that either these duties of the Parish-priest ought to be omitted, 
or the secret saying of the Canon is an unreasonable retention of an abuse 
which crept in during the middle ages. However, the Council of Trent 
cuts the matter short, in its decree : *' Si quis dixerit, Ecclesiae Romanes 
ritam, quo submissa voce pars Canonis, et verba consecrationis proferuntur, 
damnandum esse ; anathema sit.'' Sessio. 22. Can, ix. 

Against Bona, and the other great writers who agree with him, Le Brun 
wrote a long Dissertation, in which he collected all the authorities which in 
any way seem to prove the greater antiquity of saying the Canon in an 
inaudible voice. It is to be found at the end of the 4th volume of his 

I shall extract some constitutions of the English Church which are di* 
rected to the saying of the Canon : and shall leave to the judgment of the 
reader whether they decide clearly or not, at least the earlier ones, that the 
then custom in this country was that the priest should not be heard by the 
people. In one thing, they are decisive enough : that secreto did not ex- 
clude, but the contrary, distinct pronunciation. 

The first Canon of the Council of London, a. d. 1200, orders : '* Cum in 
divinis ofiiciis non sine periculo corporum et animarum erretur, salubri 
provisione concilii prospeximus, ut a quolibet sacerdote celebrante, verba 
canonis rotande dicantur, nee ex festinatione contracta, nee ex diuturnitate 
nimis protracta." Wilkins, Concilia, torn. i. p. 505. In the year 1222, a 
council at Oxford decreed, Canon VI. '* Verba vero canonis, prsesertim im 
consecratione Corporis Christi plene et integre proferuntur." Wilkins. p. 
586. One of the synodal Constitutions of Gilbert, Bishop of Chichester^ 
A.D. 1288, is of the highest importance, if we can allow that the Canon of 
the Mass is included among the *' divina officia'* there meant. '' Presbyteri 
sint seduli ad divina officia horis competentibus et statutis in suis ecclesiis 
celebranda, ne desidia vel negligentia argui sive puniri debeant a prselatis. 
Que autem leguut vel cantant, distincte proferant et aperte, non transilien- 
do, neqne transcurrendo, vel syncopando, sed cum debita reverentia, ut ad 
devotionem excitent mentes seu animos auditorum.'' Wilkins. tom. ii. p. 
170. Once more, a Provincial Constitution of Walter Ray n old. Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, a.d. 1322. *' Item verba canonis, prsesertim in his, 
qufe ad substantialia sacramenti pertinent, plene, integre, et cum summa 
animi devotione proferantur. Wilkins. tom. ii. p. 513. 

This last statute may be seen in the Provinciale, and Lyndwood gives 
the other Constitution of Archbishop Stephen Langton (a. d. 1222) in which 

is the sapte injunction. " Verba Canonis ^plene et integre proferantur.*' 

Lib. iii. tii. 23. Ad excitatidos. His Gloss is not of great importance to the 


82 C^non ^liTae. 

Sarum. BANGon. Ebor. 

Factis signaculis super Finitis his iri^ Hie elevet manus di- 
caliceniy elevet manus bus signaculis cens: 
suas ita dicens : super cdicem^ 

elevet manus 

suas, dicens : 

IMPRIMIS (In primis^ Bangor et Ebor,) quae tibi offerimus 
pro ecclesia tua sancta catholica : quam pacificare^ custodire, 
adunare, et regere digneris toto orbe terrarum^ una cum famulo^ 
tuo papa nodtro N. et antistite nostro N. {id est proprio episcopo 
tantum: Sarum.) et rege nostro'^ N. (et dicuntur nominatim. 

present point, as he seems to limit the Canon chiefly to the Words of Con- 
secration: which is an. improper interpretation of it Phne, he says 
means, absque omissione. And in the Constitution of Archbishop Raynold 
he refers '* cum summa animi devotione/' to the intention : ** at sc. mentis 
intentio firmiter applicetur ad Deum, et ad pronunciationem verborum. 
Intentio nainque semper est necessaria, vel specialis, yel generalis." 

I do not think it necessary to enter here upon the subject of Intention ; 
by it, I would remind the reader, is meant the deliberate purpose or will 
to do or perform something, say, a Sacrament ; and it is commonly defined 
to be, '' volitio efficax finis, unde differt intentio a simplici volitioney seu 
complacentia finis, sive boni alicujus, quia simplex voluntas, seu compla- 
centia respicit finem sine habitudine ad consecutionem. Intentio autem est 
volitio efficax tendens in finis consecutionem/^ Gavanti Thesaurus, tom. i. 
p. 337. Upon the doctrine of the Church of Rome in this matter ; how in- 
tention may be either actual, or virtual, or habitual, or interpretative ; how 
these differ from each other, and affect, as it is pretended, the validity of 
a Sacrament, the student will do well to consult Gavantus cited above : 
QtMrti in Ruhr. Miss. Part, 3. tit. v^ . and Benedict XIV. Opera, tom. ix. 
lib. iii. cap. 10. 

Returning to the order of secret recitation, it may be well to remark^ 
that the only exception at present to the general rule is at Ordinations of 
Priests, in the Church of Rome : when, as Benedict XIY . says, ** Ordi- 
nandi circa Altare in genua provoluti disponuntur, et Episcopus, quasi eos 
doceat Missam celebrare, lente ac paullulum elata voce Secretas profert, 
non eas ut Populus audiat, sed ut Sacerdotes novissime initiati cum eo pos- 
sint eas recitare, et verba Consecrationis uno eodemque tempore cum 
Episcopo pronunciare ; ad exemplum Christi, qui voce, quse ab Apostolis 
audiri potuit, in ultima csena panem et vinum consecravit, ut eos, quos tunc 
Sacerdotio initiabat, doceret cbnsecrandi modum, legitimumque Ritum ad 
consummationem usque saeculi duraturum.^' Opera. tom« ix. p. 248. 

* {Hisc dona, hoc munera.) '* Hasc dona haec munera. Quod Superior 
inferioribUs, Creator creaturis, Rex subditis donant, id dimum dicitur; 
quod autem subditi Principi, inferiores Superioribus, iisque exhibent, qui* 
bos debent, mwnus a][^llatar. Panis et vinum quas super Altad sunt, di- 

Canoit aiilTae. 83 

He^ford. Rom. 

Signet caliceni ter : Jungit manus deinde signat ier 

super oblata : 
hsec 4* dona^ hsee 4* munera^ hsec 4* sancta sacrificia illibata : 
Tunc erigat sursum brachia et Extensis manibus prosequitur : 
dicat : 

IN primis quse tibi ofiferimus pro Ecclesia tua sancta catholica : 
quam pacificare^ custodire^ adunare, et regere digneris toto 
orbe terranim : una cum famulo tuo papa nostro N. et antistite 
nofitra N. (et rege nostro N. Herf.) et omnibus orthodoxis, atque 
catholicse et apostolicsB fidei cultoribus. 

cuntuT dona quoad Deum, a quo omne bonum in nos derivatur, sunt autem 
munera quoad homines, qui Deo eadem exhibent. Le BrunAom. i. p. 200. 
See also some verses by Hildebert, quoted, Durant. ii. 33. 

' {Illibata,) This is to be referred, not to the sacred elements, but rather 
to the purity both of soul and body which is fitting to the Priest. By the 
use of this term he commends (according to the best ritualists) his own sin- 
gleness of heart, and sincerity, to God. 

Upon the variety in using the sign of the Cross here, vide jS^. Anselm, 
Opera, p. 139. Ad Waleranni querelas, Resp, Cap. 2. 

• " una cum beatissimo famulo tuo." Missal, Leofr, Probably the first 
Canon of any Council on this point is, the 4th of the Council of Yaisson, 
A.D. 529 ; '* Nobis justum visum est, ut nomen Domini Papse, quicunque 
Apostolicse sedi prsefuerit, in nostris Ecclesiis recitetur." 

"^ (J^t rege nostro.) Sacrificamus pro salute ImperatoriSy says Tertullian 
(ad Scapulam, c. 2.) quoted by Cardinal Bona ; and we know from Euse- 
bins, how strictly this duty was fulfilled, even in the case of the Emperors 
Gallus, Valerian, and Gallienus. Hist, Ecc, lib. vii. c. 1. 

S. Paul, in the 2nd chapter o^the Epistle to S. Timothy, must have 
alludedi to the Eucharist, and the prayers then to be offered up in behalf of 
Kings. There can be no giving (^f thanks m its usual sense to God, for His 
permitting of a persecuting King. - But, as Theophylact says, *' their strfety 
is ourpe€U!e." 

In the ecclesiastical laws of K. Athelred, a.d. 1012, the 3rd Chapter con- 
tains express directions that a certain prayer should be said daily for the 
King and his people. '' Et praecipimus, ut in omni congregatione cantetor 
quotidi^ communiter pro rege et omni populo suo una missa ad matatinalem 
missamy quae inscripta est, contra paganos, &c.'* Wilkins, Concilia, tom. i. 
295. Here the word JMissa is used in a rather unusual sense, to signify a 
collect : but of which some examples may be found : especially the passage in 
the second Council of Mile via, cap. xij. *' Placuit ut preces, vel orationes, 
seu MisssB, quas probates fuerint in concilio, ab omnibus celebrentur." The 
words *' et fiant Missse,'^ in the rule of S. Benedict, must be taken to mean 
the same. Other significations of Missa, aneh as for any Ecclesiastical 

84 Canon a^iffae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor 

Sarum.) et omnibus orthodoxis, atque catholicse et apostolicae 
fidei cultoribus. 
Hie oret pro vivis : Hie oret eogi- Hie oret pro vivis : 

tando pro v/- 


MEMENTO,® Domine, famulonim famularumque tuarum^ 
N. (et N.«$lirMm.)et omnium circumstantium (atque om- 
nium fidelium Christianorum/® Bangor et Ebor.) quorum tibi 
fides cognita est et nota devotio: pro quibus tibi offerimus, vel 
qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificiura laudis pro se, suisque omnibus," 
pro rederaptione animarum suarum : pro spe salutis et incolumi- 
tatis SU8B : tibique reddunt vota sua setemo Deo, vivo et vero. 

Office, for lections, &c. before the term became limited to its more proper 
sense, may be seen in Du Cange. And the same laws of K. Athelred afford 
another example of its use to signify *^ Collects.'^ Cap. ij. *' Et super hoc 
cantet omnis presbyter xxx. missas, et omnis diaconus et clericus. xxx. 
psalmos. &c." 

In the printed Missals is frequently inserted, sometimes before the 
Canon, sometimes af the end of the volume, a Mass, or prayers to be said 
for the King. The reader will find an example of these, among the Addi- 
tional Notes, taken from an edition of the Salisbury Missal, in 1516. 

® At this period of the Service, the Diptychs were recited, that is, the 
names contained in them : hence, in many ancient Liturgies, this prayer is 
entitled Oratio super Diptycha. These Diptychs were plates of wood or 
ivory, folded often latterly into three parts : upon the first of which were in- 
scribed the names of great Saints, Apostles, and Martyrs : upon the second, 
of those among the living, who were illustrious for rank and station, or had 
deserved well of the Church : and in the third were the names of those who 
had died in her communion. There was in some Churches a custom of re- 
citing here also the names of those who had offered any oblation previously : 
but this could only have been some selected from the many, and, I presume, 
not the same names always, or the first and chief; but taken promiscuously 
from the whole number. When the objectionable practice was introduced 
of saying the Canon in an inaudible voice, of course the recital of the Dip- 
tychs, or of any names, dwindled into scarcely even a shadow of the old 
observance, and a mere trifling with it. For much information upon the 
Diptychs, see Du Cange, verb. ** Diptycha." Mahillon, de lit Gall, lib. iii. 
11. Bingham, Orig. Eccles. vol. 5. and a very learned treatise, by Salig. 
de Diptychis Yeterum. 4to. 1731. 

' The Leofric Missal adds, '* illorum et illarum, et omnium &c.'^ 

'^ This addition in the Bangor and York Missals, is exclaimed against by 
Bona, '* Post ilia verba, et omnium circumstantium addunt quidam libri 
omniumque fidelium : sed omnino rejicienda hsec additio tanquam superfloa : 
nam in fine prsecedentis orationis prsemissa est pro omnibus fidelibos depre* 

Canon QgiiTae* 85 

Herford. Rom. 

Commemoratio pro vivis. 

MEMENTO, Domine, famulorutn famularumque tuarum, 
(N. et. N. Rom.) 
Hie oret pro vkis in corde sua et Jungit manus^ orat aliqudntu- 
postea dieat : lum pro quibus orare intendit : 

deinde manibus extensis prose-- 
quitur : 

catio illis verbis, et amnihis orthodoxis** Tom. iii. p. 256. The reason for 
this addition seems originally to have been, that the clause, *' et omnibus 
orthodoxis," was not invariably inserted ; and then this latter one was ne- 
cessary : which was not removed from the York and Bangor Uses when 
they adopted the et omnibus Sfc, See Microhgus, cap. xiij, who on the 
other hand says that \\ie first clause is the superfluous one. There can be 
no doubt that both are not required. The last is omitted in Missal, Leofr. 
"In this sentence the word vel must be taken not in a disjunctive but a 
conjunctive sense : as Menard shews in his Notes to the Sacramentary of S. 
Gregory. With it compare the prayer above : " Orate, fratres, ut meum 
pariterque vestrum sacrificium, &c." There is a very famous place in Ter- 
tullian, which bears upon the question involved in this passage: he is 
answering an objection, and whatever else his words may mean, they must 
be interpreted primarily with reference to that, and that the writer probably 
was not strict in weighing every word. " Vani erimus, si putaverimus quod 
sacerdotibus non liceat, laicis licere. Nonne et laici sacerdotes sumus? 
Scriptum est, Regnum quoque nos et sacerdotes Deo et Patri suo fecit. 
Differentiam inter Ordinem et Plebem constituit Ecclesise auctoritas, et 
honor per Ordinis confessum sanctiflcatus adeo ubi Ecclesiastici ordinis non 
est consessas, et offers et tingub et sacerdos es tibi solus. — Igitur si habes 
jus sacerdotis in temetipso ubi necesse est, habeas oportet etiam disciplinam 
sacerdotis, ubi necesse sit habere jus sacerdotis." De Exhort. Cast. Opera, 
p. 522. Now, it might be sufficient to remember in reply to the argument 
which some would be inclined to draw from this, what the fate of Tertullian 
was, and how unsound many of his peculiar opinions were. But as Rigalt 
observes in his Note, much more blame than is justly due has been thrown 
upon Tertullian in regard of this passage, from not properly considering in 
what sense that ancient author uses the terms, Oratio, Sacrificium, Oblatio, 
and Sacramentum : which, he says, may be collected from the Index to his 
works. Not only again, does Tertullian use the word offevre and not eonse- 
erare, but he could not have been ignorant of the universal practice of his 
day, to send portions of the Blessed Eucharist to the sick and to those in 

86 Cation S0iS&t. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

Sequiiur infra 

COMMUNICANTES, et memoriam venerantes : In primi« 
(Imprimis^ 4S*ar.) gloriosee semper virginis Mariae^ genitricis 
Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi : Sed et beatorum Aposto- 
lorum ac Martyrum tuorum/* Petri, (et, Sar.) Pauli, Andreae, 

prison, of which there would have been no need, if every layman was a 
Priest in the more strict and true sense of the word. 

The Church has always held that those who are present at the Holy 
Communion offer with the Priest : and this, either because they do so by 
his ministry, or because they unite with him in the prayers which he puts 
up to the Throne of Grace, or because they actually do make offerings either 
necessary (as of old) to the due performance of the Service itself, or as 
alms to be used for the benefit of the Church in any way. But never has she 
allowed, that a lay-person can, in its proper sense, consecrate the elements, 
even in cases of necessity. The conduct of Frumentius, a layman, who, as 
Theodoret relates. Hist, lib. i. cap. 23, went from Alexandria to Ethiopia, 
and there having converted many, proceeded to collect them into congrega- 
tions, and desired them to perform the Divine Offices, proves nothing, 
although not unfrequenily appealed to : for he went with others amongst 
whom probably were priests, and he was chi^y named, as the promoter of 
the mission ; and, as we learn .from Socrates, Hist, lib. i. cap. 49, he came 
back himself to Alexandria, and was consecrated the first Bishop of the 
Church which he bad planted. See Mosheim, Book. ii. Part. i. chap. i. § 20. 

I shall have occasion presently to refer to the address of S. Lawrence to 
Pope Sixtus, and shall here also speak of it, because from the received text 
in that place of the Benedictine Edition of S. Ambrose, it may be argued 
that Deacons might amsecrate the Cup. But as the very learned Editors 
say in their Note, torn. ii. p. 56, the term consecration is sometimes to be 
taken, *^ pro ejusdem effectu, i.e. jam peracta consecratione.'^ And. in this 
sense, a Sermon of Guerricus, an abbot, speaks of the people conseerating. 
And, if so : '* Sane Diacono competit non tanqumn uni e fidellum conv^n- 
tu, sed tanquam primario consecrantis sacerdotis ministro illiiis al;tioBi eo-^ 
operari per modum cujusdam, ut sic loquamur, concelebratioms :" and 
some authorities are cited in support of this interpretation. Again : '^ Se- 
cunda consecrationis acceptio, nimirum pro rei consecratte distributioney 
omni prorsus caret offendiculo, maximeque nobis arridet : quia vox cofUmt* 
ststi aliquid jam perfectum signat. &c." We must after all remember, that 
dispensationem is the common reading. 

Canon a^iiTae* 87 

Herford. Rom. 

ET omnium circumstantiumy quorum tibi fides cognita est, et 
nota devotio : pro quibus tibi ofFerimus, vel qui tibi offerunt 
hoc sacrificium laudis, pro se, suisque omnibus, pro redemptione 
animarum suarum, pro spe salutis et incolumitatis suae : tibique 
reddunt vota sua aeterno Deo, vivo et vero. 

Infra actionem, 

COMMUNICANTES, et memoriam venerantes: In prlmis 
gloriosae semper virginis Mariae, genetricis Dei et Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi : Sed et beatorum ^postolorum ac Mar- 
tyrum tuorum, Petri, (et, Rom,) Pauli, Andreae, Jacobi, Joannis, 

I shall. add from an old writer : '^ Qui tibi offeinint &c. In quibus verbis 
patenter ostenditur, quod a cunctis fidelibus, non solum viris, sed et muli- 
eribus sacrificium illud laudis offertur, licet ab uno specialiter ofierri sacer- 
dote videatur. Quia que ille Deo ofierendo manibus tractat, haec multi- 
tudo fidelium intenta mentium devotione commendat. Quod illic quoque 
declaratur ubi dicitur, *■ Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostras, sed ut 
cunctse familias tuae, ut placatus accipias.' Quibus verbis luce clarius con- 
stat, quia sacrificium, quod a sacerdote sacris altaribus superponitur, a 
cuncta Dei familia generaliter offeratur. Hanc autem Ecclesiae unitatem 
Apostolus manifeste declarat, cum dicit, ^ Unum corpus, unus panis, multi 
sumus.'" P«*nw 2>aiiii«n. cap. viij. 

" {Sequitur infra Canonem. Bangor.) This rubric was inserted to remind 
the ofiiciating Priest, that on certain days another form was to be used in- 
stead of the usual one here given. 

In the Roman Use, the ** infra actionem'* means the same thing: and 
in the most ancient MSS. the terms are used indiscriminately, '* propterea 
quod (says Le Bran) in hac Missse parte fit consecratio Corporis Christi, 
actio scilicet omnium maxima.'^ I^ra, he continues, is but another word 
for intra ; and many examples of its use are to be found in Councils, Litur- 
gies and Rituals. Infra octavam, is commonly found, for intra octavam. 

Bat, on the other hand, the Gemma Anima tells us : ^* Hie, (i. e. Canon) 
etiam actio dicitur, quia causa populi in eo cum Deo agitur." Lib. i. cap, 
103. And compare RadulpK Tungrensis. De Canon, observant. Prop. xxi^. 
Bibl, Patr, Auct, tom. i. p. 1160. 

" (oc Martyrum tuorum,) None are here commemorated by name, who 
are placed in the Church lower in rank than the Martyrs. The Blessed 
Virgin, although she departed at last in peace, is entitled, as S. Jerom has 
said, to that rank also, having indeed suffered all the pains of it, according 
to Simeon's prophecy. 

Upon this point I would also quote the fourth stanza of a very ancient 
English hymn to the Blessed Virgiii. 

*' Heyl mayden, heyl modur, heyl martir trowe, 
Heyl kyndly i knowe confessour, 

88 Canon a^iiTae. 

Saruu. Bangor. - Esor. 

Jacobi, Joannis, Thomse, Jacobin Philippic Bartholomseiy Msithm, 
Simonis et Thaddsei : Lini, Cleti, Clementisy Sixti, Cornelii, 
Cypriani, Laurentii^ Grisogoni/* Joannis et Pauli/* Cosmae et 
Damiani :*^ Et omnium Sanctorum tuorum : quorum mentis pre- 
cibusque concedas^ ut in omnibus protectionis tu® muniamur 
auxilio. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen.'^ 

Hie respiciat sacerdos Hie respiciat hostiam eum veneratione 
hostiam cum magna dicens: 
veneratione dicens :■ 

HANC igitur oblationem servitutis nostrse^ sed et cunctae 
familise tuae^ quaesumus Domine, ut placatus accipias: 
diesque nostros in tua pace disponas, atque ab aetema damnations 
nos eripi, et in electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerariJ^ Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Heyl evenere of old lawe and newe, 

Heyl buildor bold of cristes bour, 

Heyl rose higest of hyde and hewe. 

Of all ffruy tes feirest ffiour, 

Heyl turtell trustiest and trewe, 

Of all trouthe thou art tresour, 

Heyl puyred princesse of paramour, 

Heyl blosme of brere brihtest of ble, 

Heyl owner of eorthly honour, 

Yowe preye for us thi sone so fre. Ave, etc. 

Vide, Warton's Hist, of English Poetry, vol. ii. p. 152. 
The reason why Confessors are not added, is either because the recital of 
the names was always in this Great Service strictly limited to those whose 
blood was poured out even unto death, after the pattern of our Blessed 
Lord Himself: or, because the Canon, as it undoubtedly is, is older than 
the third century, at which time began the practice of honouring the me- 
mory also of Confessors. In the ixth Century it is said, that for a short 
time in some of the Gallic Churches, the names ofk few Confessors, "*• erga 
quos major erat Fidelium pietas," were introduced, but it was only for a 
short time. Le Brun. tom. i. 259. It is said, that all those who are here 
commemorated suffered either in, or near Rome. But there is some diffi- 
culty about ** Cosmae et Damiani,'^ which is met by the assertion that there 
were no less than three pairs so named : two, in Asia ; and the third in 
Rome. It will be seen below that the '' Golden Legend *' says that they 
were Arabian Martyrs. 

^* {Grisogoniis.) A noble Roman citizen, who, according to the Golden 
Legend suffered martyrdom near Aquileia, in the persecution under Dio> 
cletian. His day in the Calendar is Nov. 24th. Golden Legend, Edit. 
Wynkyn de Worde, 1527. 

Catton a^tiTae. 89 

Herford. Rom. 

Thomae, Jacobi, Philippic Bartholomasiy Matthaeiy Simonis et 
Thaddsei : Lini, Cleti, Clementis, Xysti, (Sixti, Herf,) Comelii, 
Cypriani, Laurentii, Chrysogoni, (Grisogoni, Herf.) Joannis et 
Pauliy Cosmoe et Damiani : Et omnium Sanctorum tuorum : quo- 
rum mentis precibusque concedas, ut in omnibus protectionis tuae 
muniamur auxilio. (Jungit manus. Rom.) Per eundem Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Hie inelinet se^^ parum versus Tenens manus expansas super 
hostiam dicens : obluta, dicit : 

HANC igitur oblationem servitutis nostras, sed et cunctaB 
familiae tuae, quaesumus Domine, ut placatus accipias : 
diesque nostros in tua pace disponas, atque ab aeterna damnatione 
nos eripi, et in electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari. {Jungit 
manus. Rom.) Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

** (Joannis et Pauli,) Brothers, who were heheaded by order of Julian 
the Apostate. The history of these Saints is given in the Golden Legend. 
Their day is June 26th. 

** (Cosma et Damiani,) These two, says the Golden Legend, were " of 
Arabye," also brothers, " lemed in the arte of medifcyne and of leche crqfte : 
and heled all malady eg and languoursfor ^ hue of Godj without takynge of 
ony rewarded They were put to death about a.d. 284. Their day is Sep- 
tember 27th. 

*^ Ame%i is omitted in the Leofric copy. This is an addition to the Commu- 
nicarttes which does not appear before the xiith century: Hugo speaks of 
it as in use in some places in his time, about 1250 ; in his work called Spe- 
culum Sacerdotum : and Durand also, lib. iv. cap. 38. It was an unaudio- 
rized interpolation, and gradually crept in until, though we can scarcely 
explain how, it was universally adopted : none of the antient Missals admit 
it, nor indeed the word Amen in any part of the Canon until its termination^ 

'" This practice again the English Uses continued to follow, long after 
another (the hands expanded) had been adopted in the Church of .Rome. 
Both Amalaritis, and the old Ordo Romanus, (edited by Hittorpius) 
prescribe that the Priest should incline ** usque Jubeas numerari:** Mierd- 
logus also ; *' Cum dicimus, Hanc igitur oblationem^ usque ad altare inclina- 
raur, ad exemplar Chriisti, qui se humiliavit pro nobis usque ad mortem 
crucis.'' Cap. xiv. Once more, the Gemma Animm: ''Cum Sacerdos, 
Hanc igitur oblationem dicit, se usque ad altare inclinat: quia ibi passio 
Christi inchoatur, qui se usque ad aram crucis obediens Patri pro nobis in- 
clinaverat.'^ Lib, i. cap. 46. 

Upon the modem practice of the Roman Church, see Gavantus. tom. i. 
p. 246. - 

** The reader will observe, how strong an argument against the wild and 

90 Canon a^iiliie. 

Sarum. Bangor Ebor. 

Hie iterum respiciat hostiam dicens : Supra calicem : 

QUAM oblationem tu Deus omnipotens in omnibus, quaesu- 

bene ^^ dictam, adscrip 4" taiUy ra ^^ tarn, rationabilem, accepta* 
bilemque facere digneris, ut nobis 

Cor t^i pus et San ^^ guis fiat dilectissimi Filii tui Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi* 

Hie erigat sacerdos manus et eonjungat : (et, San) postea tergat 
digitpSj et elevet hostiam^ dicens: 

QUI pridie quam pateretur, accepit panem in sanctas ac 
venerabiles manus suas : et elevatis oculis in ccelum,^ 
Hie elevet oculos suos 

ad te Deum Patrem suum omnipotentem. 
Hie inclinet se et postea elevet {hostiam j 
Bangor.) patdulum, dicens : 

tibi gratias agens, bene + dixit, (ac, Ebor.) fregit : ^^ 
Hie tangat hostiam dicens : 
deditque discipulis suis dicens:^ Accipite et manducate ex hoc 

Hiec sunt ver- 
ba consecrU' 

HOCestenimCor- TTOC est TTOC est enim Cor- 
pus meum. JLX enim -LX pus meum. 


blasphemous heresy of Calvin and his followers of the xvith Century, this 
yery ancient prayer furnishes. The Church knows nothing of a Predesti- 
nation such as he feared not to invent : but has followed the teaching of S. 
Augustine, of the Fathers before him, and of S. Peter that we should *'give 
diligence to make our calling and election sure." Epist 2. cap. i. 10. 

^ {In sanctas et elevatis oculis.) These particulars and some follow- 
ing, are not expressly stated in the Gospels, but are to be found in the li- 
turgies of S. Clement, S. James, S. Basil, and S. Chrysostom. 

^* {Fregit,) Nothing can be more objectionable, than the careless prac- 
tice which in too many of our Parishes is unhappily allowed, of some time 

Canon a^ifi&e. 91 

Hjsrford. Rom. 

/^UAM oblationem tu Deus in omnibus, qusesumus, 

Hicfaciat tres cruces supra ca- Signat ter super Oblata : 

liceni dicendo : 

bene t^i dictam, adscrip ^^ tarn, ra ^^ ^^^j rationabilem, accepta- 

bilemque facere digneris : ut nobis 

Hicfaciat crucern super hostiam Signat semel super ffostiam, et 

dicensy semel super CaHcem^ 

Cor + pus {Hicfaciat crucern super caliceniy Herf) et San + guis 

fiat dilectissimi Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi. 

Hie sumat sursum hostiam^ et 

dicat : 

QUI pridie quam pateretur, (accipit Hostiam. Rom,) accepit 
panem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas : 
Jt^rigat oculos sursum : Elevat oculos ad caelum : 

et elevatis oculis in coelum, ad te Deum Patrem suum omnipo- 
tentem^ tibi gratias agens, 

signet hostiam : signat super Hostiam : 

bene + dixit, (ac, Herf.) fregit, deditque discipulis suis, dicens, 
Accipite et manducate ex hoc omnes. 

Inclinet se ad hostiam^ et dis- Tenens ambabus manibus Hos- 
tincte dicat: tiam inter indices et pollices^ 

profert verba Consecrationis se- 
crete^ distinctCj et attente : 

HOC est enim Corpus me- TTOC est enim Corpus me- 
um. JlJL urn. 

previoQslyy cutting up the Bread which is to be consecrated, I'lt^o imeUi 
piece*. This is commonly done moreoyer by some sexton or servant of the 
Churchy without any reverence, or care ; probably with a dirty knife and 
unwashed hands. Surely, those Priests who suffer such a custom, can- 
not but do so unthinkingly. Not that any one, who has ventured to take 
upon himself so high an office, as that is of the priesthood ; who has not 
feared to ask that authority should be given to him to minister the Sacra- 
ments of Christ; — not that any such, so far as I can see, can justly rely 
upon this excuse, tiie want of due consideration. 
^ ^* Dedit discipulis suis.'' Mi9S. Leofr. 

92 Canon o^ifCat. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

Et debent ista verba profeiTi cum uno 
spiritu et sub una prolatione, nulla pau- 
satione interposita.^ Post hc^c verba 
(indinet se sacerdos ad hostiam et, Ban- 
gor,) elevet^^ earn supra front em, ut 

^ There is no doubt that very anciestly, both in the Eastern and the 
Western Churches, these words were pronounced so that the people, at 
least those who were near, might hear and answer, Amen, This is accord- 
ing to the doctrine of the Apostle, 1 Cor. xiv. 16. and is acknowledged by 
all the Ritualists, of any authority whatever. S, Ambrose says, *'Ante 
consecrationem aliud dicitur, post consecrationem Sanguis nuncupatur. Et 
tu dicis Amen^ hoc est, vernm est." lAher de Mysteriu. cap. ix. 54. Opera, 
torn. ii.p. 340. Cardinal Bona cites this, and another place from FUmu^ 
(Expositio Missse) a writer of the ninth century : after which time he sup- 
poses the practice fell into disuse, *^ quia post Florum, ejus mentionem non 
reperi apud aevi posterioris scriptores.'' Tom. iii. p. 276. Georgius de 
Liturg. Pontif. tom. iii. p. 68, adds some further authorities upon the point, 
Tertullian, S. Augustin, and Paschasius Radbert : which he allows are 
clear for the custom in those ages of the Milan, African, and Gallican 
Churches ; but does not admit that according to the Roman Use, the words 
were said otherwise than secretly, or that '' Amen '^ was answered (as I 
have remarked above) until the end of the Canon. 

^ (Elevet.) No mention of the elevation is made by the early ritualists, 
Alcuin, or Amalarius, or Walafrid Strabo, or Micrologus ; nor is there any 
allusion to it in the old Ordines Romani, or the Sacramentaries of Gelasius, 
or Gregory. It is commonly said that the tirst order upon the matter, and 
introduction of its observance, was based upon the famous decree of the 
Council of Lateran, (about Transubstantiation) under Innocent III. But 
there is no doubt, that in some Churches, it was already the practice. It 
is not proved by the passage from Ivo Carnotendt which Cardinal Bona 
cites, lib, 2. xiij, 2, because he does not even speak of it : but the following 
Canon seems clear, which Georgius , De Liturg, Pont, tom. iii. 72, has 
brought forward. A Council at Paris, a.d. 1188, ordered: ** Prsecipitur 
Presby teris, ut cum in Canone Missse incceperint, qui pridie quam piUeretur, 
tenentes hostiam, ne elevent earn statim nimis alte, ita quod possit ab om- 
nibus videri a populo, sed quasi ante pectus detineant, donee diterint. Hoc 
est corpus meum ; et tunc elevent eam, ut possit ab omnibus videri.'' The 
same author cites one or two others, of about the same date : but as a mat- 
ter of fact, the date of the Lateran Council is not an improper one to give, 
because then this rit€ of the elevating, so objectionable on account of the 
erroneous doctrine which it was intended to serve, began to be obligatory 
throughout the Western Church. See also Durant. de Ritibus. lib. ii. cap. 
40. and Durand. lib. iv. cap. 41. and Sala's notes to Bona. torn. iii. p. 283. 

The Canon of the Council of Paris, above, has reference to a practice 
which about the I3th Century was common in isiome places, for the Priest to 

Canon Q^iffat. 93 

Herford. Eom. 

Et debent ista verba proferri Prolaiis verbis Comecraiionfs, 

tarn sub uno spiritu quam sub statim Hostiam consecratam 

una prolatione^ nulla pausa^ genuflexus adorat: surgit, os- 

tione interposita. Tunc elevet tendit populo, reponit super 

corpus Christ i in altum ut vide^ Corporate ^ iterum adorat:^ et 

elevate before he had finished the words of Consecration. The S3mod of 
Exeter, a.d. 1287, has a Canon upon this point : ** Quia vero per haec verba, 
Hoc est enim corpus meum^ et non per alia,'panis transubstantiatur in corpus 
Christ!, prius hostiam non levet sacerdos, donee ista plene protulerit verba, 
ne pro creatore creatura a populo veneretur." Wilkins, Concilia, torn. ii. 
p. 132. 

At this time was rung the Sacring Bell: how much oftener during the 
Service, it is not possible now to decide. See Note 29. The modern 
practice of the Church of Rome is to ring this bell, ** thrice at the Sanc- 
tus, once immediately before the Elevation, three times at the Elevation of 
the Host, three times at the Elevation of the Chalice, once at the antient 
Elevation before the Pater, and three times at the Domine non sum dig- 
nus," Puffin, Glossary of Ornament j &c. p. 184. 

In the British Museum, among the Harleian MSS. (No. 955) is a volume 
of occasional prayers. Collects, Antiphons, &c. There are in it many In- 
dulgencies, granted to the Monastery of Sion, to which the book formerly 
belonged : and one of theni is this. ^^ Also he that saith at sahering time this 
prayer : Ave verum corpus natum ex Maria virgine : vere passum, immo> 
latum in cruce pro homine : cujus latus perforatum vero fluxit sanguine: 
esto nobis praegustatum, mortis in examine. O Clemens : O pie : O dulcis 
Jesu fili Mariae, nobis peccatoribus quaesumus miserere. Amen, he sc/iall 
have, CCC. daies of pardon J* fo. 76. 

The reader cannot but observe that the above is in a rhyming metre : but 
I have not altered the arrangement of the MS. It is a famous Antiphon : 
and sometimes is found with variations, especially, 

** Cujus latus perforatum, 
Unda fluxit et sanguine.'' 

^ {Adorat^ It has been a question, not only among the Roman doctors, 
but among members of other branches of the Church, whether the bread is 
consecrated and becomes the Body of Christ, without any consecration of the 
Cup. I shall give the judgment of the Church of Rome, merely observing that 
it entirely appears to depend upon the efficacy which she attributes, I >think 
in excess, and erroneously, to the repetition of the Words of Consecration. 
It has been decided then by her greatest authorities, that the Bread is validly 
consecrated, *' forma enim Consecrationis panis neque quoad significatum, 
neque quoad efficaciam pendet a forma Consecrationis vini.'* But here a dis- 
tinction must be observed, (which some among ourselves allow in the case 
of Lay-Baptism, in our own days) that such a consecration though valid, is 
not lawful : and that a priest who so consecrates, ** magno se peccato as- 
tringeret.'' Benedict, XIV, Opera, torn. ix. p. 318. who cites Andrea^ 


Canon ^tffiie* 

Sarum. Bangor. 

possit a populo videri:^ et revererUtr^ 
iUudj (earn, Bangor.) reponat ante cali- 
cem in modum crucis per eandenifactit. 
Et tunc discooperiat calicem et teneat 
inter manus suas non dvjungendo poUi- 
cem ah indice: nisi dumfacit benedic- 
tiones tantum, ita dicens : 


Hie discooperiat cali- 
cevfkj et teneat inter 
manus suits non dis- 
jungendo pollicem ab 
indice : 

OIMILI modo posteaquam ccenatum est, 

accipiens et hunc^ prseclarum calicem in sanctas ac yenerabiles 
manus suas : item tibi^ Hie inclinet se dicens^ gratias agens^ 

Zuccherius, Suarez, Aquinas, and Sylvius, He quotes also with high ap- 
approbation the following from S, Bernard, £p. 69: whose argument does 
not appear however to be in any way convincing, because our Blessed Lord 
did not consecrate Bread only, and we can have no right to theorize upon 
the supposition that He did. His words are : '^ Puto enim, quod si Domi- 
nus post factum de pane suum Corpus, vini Consecrationem placuisset ali- 
quandiu intermittere, aut certe penitus omittere: nihilominus Corpus 
mansisset quod fecerat, nee factis facienda praescriberent Nee nego panem 
et vinum aqua quidem mixtum simul debere apponi : quin potius assero, 
baud aliter debere fieri, Sed aliud est ^ulpare negligentiam, aliud negare 
efficaciam. Aliud, inquam, est quod causamur non bene quidpiam fieri, et 
aliud quod mentimur nee fieri/' This Epistle was written upon an occa- 
sion of the Chalice not being consecrated through negligence. 

^ ^^ Moneantur laici, quod reverenter se habeant in consecratione eucha- 
ristiae, et flectant genua; maxime in tempore illo, quando, post elevationem 
eucharistiae, hostia sacra dimittitur.^' Concilium Dunehnense* a.d. 1220. 
'^ Cum autem in celebratione missee corpus Domini per manus sacerdotum 
in altum erigitur, campanella pulsetur, ut per hoc devotio torpentium exci- 
tetur, ac aliorum charitas fortius inflammetur.'^ Can^tit, W. de jCanfUupf 

cotton ^tlTae. 


Herford. Rom. 

atur ab omnibus. Nee nimis non disjungit pollices et indices^ 

diu teneat elevatum : sedstalim nisi quando Hostia tractanda 

reponat illud in locum suum. est, usque ad ablutionem digi- 

Nee aliquo modo corpus Christi to^m. Tunc deteeio Calice^ 

osculetur: nee ab aliqua parte dicit : 

corpus Christi tangi debet: 

nisi tantum digitis ad hoc spe- 

cialiter consecratis, Et ex tunc 

illos digitos cum quibus levavit 

corpus Christi teneat junctos 

usque ad ablutionem, nisi cum 

necesse fuerit. Post hac cum 

aliis digitis discooperiat calicem, 

et teneat eum per medium et 

dicat : 

SIMILI modo posteaquam OIMILI modo postqnam 
coenatum est, k3 coenatum est, 

Ambabus manibus accipit Call- 
accipiens et hunc prseclarum calicem in sanctas ac venerabiles 
manus suas : (erigat sursum oculos dicens, Her/.) item tibi gratias 

Wigom, Episc, a.d. 1240. ** Sacerdos vero quilibet frequenter doceat 
plebem suam, ut cum in celebratione missarum elevatur hostia salutaris, se 
reverenter inclinet." Stat, synod, Norvic, Episc, a.d. 1257. " In eleva- 
tione vero ipsins corporis Domini pulsetur campana in uno latere, ut popu- 
lares, quibus celebrationi missarum non vacat quotidie interesse, ubicunque 
fuerint, seu in agris, seu in domibus, flectant genua.'^ Constit. Joh, Peck- 
ham, A.D. 1281. *' Hostia autem ita levetur in altum, ut a iidelibus cir- 
cnmstantibus valeat intueri.'^ Synodus Exon. a.d. 1287. These are but a 
few out of many orders to the like effect, which might be collected from 
WiUdtis, Concilia. See also Lyndwood, Proyinciale. lib. iii. tit. 23. Altis- 

^ Vide Hierurgia Anglicana, p. 51. 

^ '* Adde etiam, quod unus idemque Calix est, quem Christns post Coe- 
nam coiisecravit,etquem nunc Ecclesia consecrat : nisi enim unus, idemque 
foret, in Canone (ait Odo Cameracensis) non diceretur, Simih modo e t 
kunepreBclarum Calicem, &c.'' Angela Rocca* Opera, tom. i. p. 16. Compare 
also the Cfemma AninuB, '^ Idem calix est in mysterio, quem Christus in 
tttanibas temut, qiiarovis in materia metalli alius sit.*' Cap* 106. 

96 €anon ^tflfae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

bene + dixit,*^ deditque discipulis suis,^ dicens : Accipite et bi- 

bite ex eo omnes* 

Hie elevet sacerdos pammper caliceni, Ua 

dicens : 

HIC est enim calix Sanguinis mei, novi et setemi testament! : 
mysterium fidei : qui pro vobis et pro multis efiiindfetur in 
remissionem peccatorum. 

Hie elevet calicem di- Hie elevet ca- Hie elevet calicem us- 
cens : licevi usque ad que ad caput dicens : 

pectus tel ul- 
tra caput di- 
cens : 
IT TiEC quotiescumque feceritis, in mei memoriam facietis. 

Hie reponat calicem [super altare in lo- Deponat calicem : 
cum suum, et cooperiat, Bangor.) et ele- 
vet brachia {sua ejctendendo^ Bangor.) 
in modum crucis, junctis digitis usque 
ad hac verba de tuis donis : 

dicens hoc mo- 
UNDE et memores, Domine, nos servi tui, (tui servi,'^ Ban- 
gor. et Ebor.) sed et plebs tua sancta, ejusdem*^ Christi 

^ '* Loke pater noster thou be sayande. 
To tho chalyce he be saynande : 
Then tyme is nere of sakring, 
A litel belle men oyse to ryug : 
Then shal thou do reuerence, 
To Ihu crist awen presence." Museum MS, 

^ '^ dedit discipulis suis." Miss, Leqfr. 

« " tui servi." Miss, Lecfr. 

'' Ejusdem : omitted in Miss. Leofr. 

^ {et cooperiendo. Herf,) There was a variety of practice as to elevating 
the Cup, covered or uncovered. In would seem that the Use of the English 
Church was to elevate uncovered. Durand says : *' £t est notandum, quod 
quiedam ecclesise duas habent pallas corporales, et ibi elevatur calix co- 
opertus cum altera earum. Alise vero ecclesise unam tantum habent 

Cation ^tlTae. 97 

HsRFORD* Rom. 

signet calicem dicens : sinistra tenens Calicem^ dextera 

signal super euvij 
bene 'l' dixit; deditque (dedit, Herf.) discipulis suis, dicens, Acci- 
pile et bibite ex eo omnes. 

Elevet aliquantulum calicem et Profert verba Consecrationis 
cperte dicat : secrete super Calicem^ tenens 

ilium parum elevatum, 

HIC est enim calix sanguinis mei,. novi et seterni testament! : 
mysterium fidei : qui pro vobis et pro multis effundetur in 
remissionem peccatorum. 

Tunc elevet calicem in altum Prolatis verbis Consecrationis^ 
ut videaiur ab omnibus^ et sta- deponit Calicevi supei^ Corpo- 
tim reponat calicem in locum rale, et dicens secrete : 
suum, et cooperitndo^^ eum di- 
TTT^C quotiescumque feceritis, in mei memoriam facietis. 

Tunc extendat brachia sua in Gtnuflexus adorat, surgit, os~ 
modum cmcifixi et dicat : tendit populoj deponit j cooper it, 

et ittruvi adorat, Deinde dis- 
junctis manibus dicit : 

UNDE et memores, Domine, nos tui servi, (servi tui, Bom.) 
sed et plebs tua sancta, (ejusdem. Rom.) Christi Filii tui 

pallam, et ibi elevatur discoopertus absque velamine.'' Lib. iv. cap. 42. 30. 
iS, Anselm speaks upon the point, in his reply to Walerannus : who had 
complaiBed of the usage contrary to that of his own Church. (Newem- 
burgh.) "Quod vero nonnuUi'' says the Archbishop of Canterbury " ab 
initio Calicem operiunt, quidam Corporali, alii panno complicato propter 
custodiamimmunditie ; nee nudum dimittunt Calicem, sicut Christus nudus 
cmcifixus est, at sicut significatis, ostenderet se mundo revelatum : non 
magis intelligo eos debere reprehendi propter nuditatem Christi, quae non 
significant (sic) ab illis in sacrificando ; quam quia non demonstrant in eodem 
sacrificio, eum esse crucifixum extra cintatem, extra domum, et sub nudo 
eoelo.-— — Neque cbnjectare possum curpotius curandum 8it,ne panno ope- 
mtar sacrifieium, quia Christus nudus passus est ; quam ne sub tecto, vel 
fatra diitatem fiat, quoniam Christus sub n«do coelo extra civitatem passus 
est. Si autem usus non habet, at extra tectum fiat propter perturbationeS 
I :. simiB causa yidetur ut caMx in sacrificando non discooperiatur, prop- 


98 Cation outsat. 

Sahum. Bangor. Esor. 

Filii tui Domini Dei nostri tarn beatse passionis, necnon et ab 
inferis resurrectionis, sed et in coelos gloriosse ascensionis^ oflferi- 
mus prseclaraB Majestati tuse de tuis donis ac datis^ 

Hie signet ter 
ultra hostiavi 
et calicem si- 

HOSTIAM pu + ram,^ hostiam sane + tam, hostiam im- 
ma + culatam : {Hie hostiam tantum: Bangor.) Panem 
sane + turn vitae seternsBy et Ca + Ucem salutis perpetu®. 

Hie respiciat 
saerificium di- 

SUPRA quae propitio ac sereno vultu respicere digneris : et 
accepta habere, sicuti aceepta habere dignatus es munera 
pueri tui justi Abel, et saerificium Patriarchse nostri Abrahse: et 
quod tibi obtulit summus sacerdos tuus Melchisedech, sanctum 
saerificium, immaculatam hostiam. 
Hie sacerdos corpore inclinato^ et ean^ Hie corpore inelinato 

ter quasdam quae contiugere possnnt, incommoditates. Tutius itaqbe et 
diligentius puto ut calix, ne aut musca, aut aliquid indecens in illam cadat 
(quod ssepe contigisse cognovimus) operiatur: quia discoopertos contin- 
gentibus immunditiis exponatur." Opera, p. 139. Hence it would seem 
that in S. Anselm's time, the custom of England was different from that of 
after-years, unless the Church of Canterbury varied in this respect from the 
Churches of Salisbury, York, &c. But, we must not forget, that the Arch- 
bishop neither knew nor was speaking of any elevation. 

^ I have not thought it necessary to be continually pointing out the vast 
number of signs of the Cross which are appointed to be made during the 
Service, according to the old English Uses, and the modem Roman. The 
reader will not require me to remind him, that in such an intolerable mul- 
titude, they are of late introduction ; and in effect when seen, I should sup^ 
pose, at least unbecoming, if not ridiculous. 

But these five crosses in particular are a stumbling block in the way Of 
the ritualists of the Church of Rome; who fail in explaining how it is that 
they are to be used after the Consecration. They are earlier doubtless than 
the introduction of the doctrine of Transubstantiation, and it. would be well 
according fo the admi38ion.o£>^«/cii(ma<ti# that.tiiey ahouldhe.omitted.: ¥id» 

Canon Qitffae; 99 

Herford. Rom, 

Domini (Dei, Herf^ nostri tam beatse passionis, necnon et ab 
inferis resurrectionis, sed et in coelos gloriosae ascensionis, {Tunc 
ieneat brachiaut prius et dicaty Herf,) offerimus praBclarsB Majes- 
tati tu8e de tuis donis ae datis, 

signet calicem ter:^ jungit manusy et signat ter su-^ 

per Hostiam et Calicejn simtily 

HOSTIAM + puram, hostiam + sanctam, hostiam + ini- 
signet solum Corpus : signat semel super Hostiam^ et 

sernel super Calicem : 

PANEM 4- sanctum vitsB aeternae, {signet calicem, Herf.) et 
caUcem (4* Rom,) salutis perpetuae. 
Tunc erigat brachia sua ut prius Extensis manibus prosequitur : 
et dicat : 

SUPRA quae propitio ac sereno vultu respicere digneris : el 
accepta habere, sicuti accepta habere dignatus es munera 
pueri tui justi Abel, et sacrificium Patriarchae nostri Abrahae: et 
quod tibi obtulit summus sacerdos tuus Melchisedech, sancttim 
sacrificium, immaculatam hostiam. 
Tunc cancellatis brachiis in mo- Profunde inclinatusjunctis ma- 

Benedict. XIV, Opera, tonj. 9. p. 176. The Pope calls this however 
'^ audax sententia/' and thinks that they might be explained by drawing 
subtle distinctions between the kinds of Benediction : in which he follows 
the opinion of Aquinas and others. But, as I before said, these and the doc> 
trine of Transubstantiation in fact oppose each other. And if the crosses are 
a difficulty, much more is the prayer " Supra quae propitio," which follows, 
irreconcilable with the dogma of Transubstantiation. Anciently matters 
were not so : aiid before such novelties were introduced into the Faith of 
(he Church, one part of her Service harmonized with another, and there was 
no need, as the Ronum doctors now cannot but acknowledge, to explain 
away apy prayer that it might not contradict openly statements to which 
she had unadvisedly been committed. No longer, as once they could, can 
those branches of the Catholic Church which are in communion with Rome, 
poiot boldly to their Liturgy, and say that the prayers and the ceremonies 
and observances which it contains, are to be interpreted in an honest accefi- 
tattoh and in their ancient and true meaning. '' ■ 

» (Corpere inelinato.) Upon this gesture, all tibe Liturgies agree, and 
tbe old Ritualists speak of it, before this, prayer, which was always looked 
upon as Ml dC mystery. Amakiriui sj^s: *' Sacerdos inclinat seyet htfc; 

loo Canon ^tirae. 

Sabum. Bangob. Ebor. 

ceUaiis manibus dicat : et cancellaiis fnanibus 


SUPPLICES te rogamus, omnipotens Deus: jube hsec per- 
ferri per manus sancti Angeli tui^ in sublime altare taamiin 
conspectu divinse Majestatis tusB : ut quotquot, 
Hie engens se osculetur altare a dextris Oscuktur altare a dex- 
sacrificii dicens : tris sacrificii : 

ex hac altaris participationei sacrosanctum Filii tui cor t^' pus et 
san pffi guinem sumpserimus : 

omni {hie signet se infaeiem dieensy Sar.) bene 4" dictione ooslesti 

et gratia repleamur. Per eundem (Christum^ Sar. et Bangor.) 

Dominum nostrum. (Amen. Sar,) 

Hie oret pro mortuis : Hie oret cogi-- Hie oretpro mortuis : 

iando pro mor- 
tuis dicens hoc 
modo : 

MEMENTO ^7 etiam, Domine,^ (animarum^ Sar.) famulo- 
rum famularumque tuarum (N. et N. Sar. et Bangor.) 
(N. Ebor.)^ qui nos prsecesserunt cum signo fidei^ et dormiunt 
in somno pacis. 

quod vice Christi immolatum est, Deo Patri commendat.'' Lib. iii. cap. 
xxY. So also Honorius, lib. i. cap. xlvj. Innocent III. lib* y. cap. r. 
Hugo Victorinus. lib. ii. cap. xxxiv. and many others. 

Compare the Prayer in the Clementine Liturgy, beginning *En xdt in 
itflBQfuvy &c. 

^ {Per manus sancti Angeli tui.) Upon the meaning of this passage in 
this yery ancient prayer, there is a great yariety of opinion. Some refer 
it, but I think scarcely with sufficient reason, to our Blessed Lord Himself, 
as the Angel; ''per excellentiam Angelus, Sanctus Dei Angelas,'' i&c. 
Pope Innocent has said well: ''Tantas sunt profunditatis haec yerba, nt 
nulla acies human! ingenii tanta sit, ut ea penetrare possit" And again, 
according to another Bishop of Rome, quoted also by the Ritualists: 

Canon ^tiTae. loi 

HsRFORD. Rom. 

n crucis inclinet se devote so- nibus, et super altare positis, du 
dos ad altare J dicendo : cit : 

'UPPLICES te rogamuSy omnipotens Deus: jube haec per- 
' ferri per manus sancti Angeli tui^ in sublime altare tuum, 
conspectu divinee Majestatis tuse : ut quotquot^ 
^at se, et osculetur altare Osculaiur altare t 
mdo : 
hac altaris participatione^ sacrosanctum Filii tui, 

net corpus, jungit manus, et signal semel 

10R + PUS, super Hostiam, et seniel super 

J Calicem, 

net caliceniy 

langui 4- nem sumpserimus, /^OR + PUS etsaa + gui- 

V^y nem sumpserimus, 
riet setpsunij seipsum signal, 

ni bene ^^ dictione coelesti et gratia repleamur. Per eundem 
ristum Dominum. nostrum. Amen. 

igat brachia et dicat : Commemoratio pro defunctis. 

/FEMENTO etiam, Domine, famulorum famularumque tua- 
ijL rum {Hie oret pro defunctis in corde suo et postea dicat. 
rf. N. et N. Bom.) qui nos prsecesserunt cum signo fidei, et 
miunt in somno pacis. 

Jungit manus, oral aliquantU" 

uis enim fidelium, habere dabium possit in ipsa immolationis hora ad 
erdotis vocem coelos aperiri, in illo Jesu Christi mysterio angelorum 
ros adesse, summis ima sociari, terrena coelestibus jungi, &c." 

'^ « When thou has made this orison, 
Then shal thou with deuocion : 
Make thi prayeres in that stede, 
For alle thi frendes that are dede : 
And for alle cristen soules sake, 
Swilk prayere shal thou make.'' Museum MS, 

The Bangor Pontifical also omits '' animarum.'^ 

•* iUorum et iUarum." Miss, Leofr. 

IQ2 Canon ^tflfat 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

IPSIS^ Domine^ et omnibus in Christo quiescentibus^ locum 
refrigerii, lucis et pacis, ut indulgeas^ deprecamur. Per 
eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 
Hie peraitiat pectus suum (semelj Sar. et Bangor.) dicens: 

NOBIS quoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitudine 
miserationum tuarum sperantibus^ partem aliquam et so- 
cietatem donare digneris cum tuis Sanctis Apostolis et Martyri-^ 
bus : cum Joanne, Stephano,** Matthia, Bamaba, Ignatio, Alex- 
andro, Marcellino, Petro, Felicitate, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucia, 
Agnete, Caecilia, Anastasia, et*^ (cum, Sarum, et Ebor.) omnibus 
Sanctis tuis : intra quorum nos consortium, non sestimator meriti, 
sed veniae, quaesumus, lai^tor admitte. Per Christum Dominum 

Hie discooperiat call- 
cem dicens : 
T^^K quem haec omnia Doinine, semper bona creas. 

Hie sacerdos ter signet Hie signet ter 
calicem dicens : calicem coop^ 

ertuni dicens : 

SANCTI + PICAS, vivi + ficas, bene + dicis, et pra^tas 
Hie sacerdos discooperiat calicetn et fa- 
eiat signacvlum cruets cum hostia quin^ 
quies: primo ultra calicem ex utraque 
parte, secundo calici aquale, tertio infra 

^ '* Ipsis et omnibus, Domine, in Christo, &c." Miss, Leofr, 
^' The English rubrics do not specify this alteration of voice, but it was 
very anciently observed, as MicrotoguSy cap. xvij. and Anudariusy lib. iii. 
cap. 26, both testify. And, which is very important, Bede alludes to it as 
the usual practice in his day in the English Church. Trad, in Luc. Pope 
Innocent, lib. y. Myster. Missse, cap. xij. and Durand, Ub. iv. cap* 46. men- 
tion the striking the breast. 

^ (Cum Joanne y Stephano 8fc,) The martyrs, whose names are especially 

Canon ^iifae. 103 

Herford. Rom. 

lum pro lis defuncits, pro quibus 
orare intendit, deinde €xtensis, 
manibus prosequitur : 

IPSIS Domine, et omnibus in Christo quiescentibus^ locum 
refrigerii, lucis et pacis, ut indulgeas, deprecamun Per 
eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 
ffic tundat pectus dicendo : Manu dextera percutit sibipec^ 

tics, elataparum voce^^ dicens : 

NOBIS quoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitudine 
miserationum tuarum sperantibus, partem aliquam et so- 
cietatem donare digneris cum tuis Sanctis Apostolis et Martyri- 
bus : cum Joanne, Stephano, Matthia, Barnaba, Ignatio, Alex- 
andro, Marcellino, Petro, Felicitate, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucia, 
Agnete, Csecilia, Anastasia, et (cum, Herfprd.) omnibus Sanctis 
tuis: intra quorum nos consortium, non sestimatpr meriti, sed 
Teniae, qusesumus, largitor admitte. (Jungit manus. Rom,) Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. (Amen. Her/,) 


ER quem heec omnia, Domine, semper bona creas. 

Faciat signacula ter dicendo : Signat ter super Hostiam et Crf- 

licem simul, dicens : 

SANCTI + PICAS, vivi + ficas, bene + dicis, et prs^stas 
Tunc detegat cdicem et teneat Discooperit Calicem, genuflec* 
eum cum sinistra manu: et tit, accipit Sacramentum dex^ 
signet eum quater cum corpore tera, tenens sinistra Calicem : 
Christi hoc modo. Primo fa-- ^gnat cum Hostia ter a labio ad 

commemorated here, are not of one, but of several classes. Evangelists, 
Deacons, Apostles, Disciples, Bishops, Popes of Rome, Priests, Exorcists, 
the married and the virgin states, are all included. The only name which 
requires a remark, is that of John : which as most of the Ritualists agree, 
(except the Gemma Anima, Uh i. cap. 107.) refers to St. John the Baptist : 
who is especially commemorated in this place, in the Liturgies of S. Basil 
and S. Chrysostom. 

** " Et cum omnibus." Miss, Leofr, 

I04 Canon ^iffae. 

Sarum. Bangom. £b6b. 

calicem, quarto sicut primo, quinto ante 
calicem : 

)ER ip 4" sum, et cum ip 4" ^ ^^ in ip 4" so 


est tibi Deo Patri omnipo + tenti, in unitate Spiiitus + sancti 
omnis honor et gloria. 

Hie cooperiat sacerdos 
calicem^et teneat manus 
suas super altare usque 
dum dicitur Pater nos- 
ter, ita dicens : 

PER omnia ssecula saeculonim.** (Amen. Sarmn. Oremus. 
Bangor et Ebor.)^ PrsBceptis salutaribus moniti, et divina 
institutione formati audemus dicere :^ 
Hie aceipiat diaconus patenam, earn que 
a dextris sacerdotis extento brachio in 
(Utum usque Da propitius discoopertam^"^ 
teneat. Hie elevet manus sacerdos di' 

** ** Loke pater noster thoa be prayande. 
Ay to thou here tho priste be sayande. 
Per omnia ssecula, al on bight. 
Then I wolde thou stonde up right : 
For he wil saie with high steuen. 
Pater noster to god of heuen : 
Herken thou with gode wille, 
And whils he sales, hold the stille : 
Bot answere at temptationem, 
Sed libera nos a malo, Amen/' Museum MS. 
** "/Z.Amen.Oremus/* Miss.Leofr. ** Amen. Oremus/' Bangor Pon- 

^ *' De oratione Dominica in missa recitata adeundl Augostinus, {Epist. 
lix.) Hieronymus adversus Pelagianos, {lib. iii. pag. 643. Paris.) C^riillus 
Hieros. (Cateck. Mystag. v.) et Gregorius Turonensis. (lib. ii. de mirsUmUs 
S» Martini, cap. xxx. et de Vitis. PP. cap. xvj.)" Georgius. laturg. Rom. 
Pontif. torn. iii. p. 109. The same author adds : ^^ Ritus Dominice preca- 
tionis dicendse, ex S. Gregorio fuit^ ut a solo celcbrante ea pronunciaretur. 




ciat largam cruceni supra call' 
cem dicendo : 

PER 4^ ipsum : agtutlem ca* 
lici: et cum ^ ipso : /w- 
J^ro calicem : et in + ipso : 7/^- 
rum largam ut primo: est tibi 
Deo "l- Patri omnipotently Ante 
calicem, in unitate Spiritus ^ 
sancti omnis honor et gloria. 

Tunc reponat corpus in locum 
suum et cooperiat calicem: et 
ponat manus super altare et di- 
cat : 


labium Calicis, dicens : 

PER ip 4' su^> 6^ cum 
ip J^ &o, et in ip ti» so, Bis 

signat inter Calicem et pectus,^ 
est tibi Deo Patri ^ omnipo* 
tenti, in unitate Spiritus 4*' 
sancti, Elevans parum Calicem 
cum Hostia, dicit : omnis honor 
et gloria. 

Hepomt Hostiam, cooperit Ca^ 
licem genujlectit, surgit, et di- 


PER omnia ssecula sseculorum. Amen. Oremus. Pre&ceptis. 
sl^utaribus moniti, et divina institutione formati audemus 
dicere : 

Hie sacerdos elevet sursum bra*- Extendit manus: 
chia sua : 

Alta voce recitari solebat, ac hujus ritus reddit Amalarias. {Lib, iii. cap* 
xxix.) In Galliis mos fuit, ut a populo oratio Dominica repeteretur. (il/a*. 
hillon, De Lit. Gallic, lib. L v. 22.) Hie idem ritujs apud Grsecos etiam 
senrabatur. In Missa Mozarabum ad singulas fere petitiones populus re- 
spondebat, Amen, Hugo Victorinus auctor est (Lib, ii. xxxix.) verba; 
Sed libera nos a malo^ a choro dicta fuisse. De voce Amen^ in fine orationis 
Dominicae veterrima expositio Missce apud Martenium (Tom. i, p. 451.), 
haec adnotat: Ameuy inqnit, signaculum orationis Dominicae posuere, ubi 
fideliter possumus dicere, sequentem : Libera nos, &c.'' 

^ (Discoopertam,) Vide Note 73. p. 60. The reason why it was now held 
uncovered, is stated in the rubric of the modem Paris Missal, that the people 
might know that the time of communicating was close at hand. One of the 
Prayers in the Salisbury Pontifical, at the consecrating of a Paten, refers to 
this especial use of it ; '* Consecrare digneris banc Patenam in adminis- 
trationem Eucharistiae." See the Office in the Monumenta Bitualia, vol. i. 

*• Very anciently the people joined with the Priest here in repeating 
aloud the whole of the Lord*s prayer. This is clear from a passage in S,- 
Gregory of Tours, ** Factum est autem cum dominica oratio diQeretur, 

1 06 Canon ^ifiHe* 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

PATER nosier, qui es in coelis : Sanctificetur nomen tuutn':) 
Adveniat regnum tuum: Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in ccelo, 
et in terra. Panem nostrum quetidianum da nobis hodie : et 
dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus 
nostris. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. {Chorus respondeat, 
Sar.) Sed libera nos a malo. 
Sacerdos privatm : Sacerdos di^ 

cat :. 

et statim ; 

LIBERA nos, queesumus Domine, ab omnibus malis, praste- 
ritis, prsesentibus et futuris: et intercedente (pro nobis, 
Ebor.) beata et gloriosa semper (semperque, Sar.) virgine Def 
genitrice Maria, et beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, atque 
Andrea, cum^ omnibus Sanctis, (tuis, Bangor.) ^^ 
Hie committat diaco^ 
nus patenam sacerdoti 
deosculans manum e^ 
jus : et sacerdos deoa- 
ctdetur patenam : pos- 
tea ponat ad sinistrum 
oculum : deinde ad dex- 
terum: postea faciat 
crucem cum patena ul- 
tra caput: et tunc re- 

hsec.aperto ore coepit sanctam orationem cum reliquis decantare/' He is 
relating a miracle worked in the case of a deaf woman. De mirac. S, Mar^ 
tini, 1. ii. c. 30. This continued in the Gallic Churches up to about the 
sj Century : for Ivo Carnoteruis observes, that by these words *^ Pneceptis 
saltUaribus, &c.'* the Priest exhorts the people to repeat this prayer with him. 
In the earliest ages the Lord's Prayer was only allowed to those who 
had been baptized : and in the old Ordo Romanus, it was taught to all 
who were about to be admitted to that Sacrament, (on the Easter Eve) 
upon the fourth day after the fourth Sunday in Lent. See Bona, torn. iii. 
p. 324. 

^ Amen : omitted in Miss Lwft. 

€m(m9^iS&e. 107 

Hebford. Rom. 

PATER noster, qui es in coelis : Sanctificetur iiomen tiium : 
Adveniat regnum tuuin : Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in coelo, 
et in terra. Panem nostrum quotidiahum da nobis hodie : et 
dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus 
nostris. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. (Yfi^ Horn.) Sed 
libera nos a malo. 

Sacerdos secrete dicit : 


Veinde accipit patenam inter 
indicem et medium digitos, et 

LIBERA nos, qusesumus Domine, ab omnibus malis, praete-^ 
ritis, prsesentibus et futuris: et intercedente (pro nobis,- 
Herford,) beata et gloriosa semper virgine Dei genitrice Maria, 
et (cum, Rom.) beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, atque An- 
drea, cum (et, Rom.) omnibus Sanctis, (tuis, Herford.) 
Tunc sumat patenam cum dtx- Signat se cum patena a fronte 
tera manu^ et tangat ambos ocu- ad pectus^ et earn osculatur : 
los sujos cum ea et osculetur cam 


^ la many ancient Missals and Sacramentaries other names of Saints are 
found added here. That edited by Pamelios adds, for example, Cyriacus 
and Matiinus. From what Micrologus says, we may conclude that in his 
time, such additions were allowable at the pleasure of the Priest, or ac- 
cording to the Use of the particular Church. '' Aliorum sanctorum nomina 
annumerare non debemus, nisi quos in Canone invenirous antiquitns de- 
scriptos, excepto post, Pater noster, in ilia oratione, ubi juxta ordinem quo- 
rumlibet sanctorum nomina intemumerare possumus.'' De Ecc, observ. 
cap. xiy. The prayer as it stands in the text, is the same as in the Grego- 
rian and Gelasian Sacramentaries. 

'* This also is the reading of the Bangor Pontifical. 

io8 Canon ^tfliie* 

Sarum. Bangor. Esom. 

ponat earn in locum 
suum dicens : 

DA propitius pacem in diebus nostris : ut ope misericordis 
tuse adjuti, et a peccato simus semper liberi, et ab omni 
perturbatione .securi. 

Hie discooperiat calicem^ et sumat coT" 
pus cum inclinationej transpanens in con- 
cavitate calicis^ retinendo inter poUices et 
indices^ et frangat ** in tres partes,^ 
{primafractioy Bangor.) dum dicitur: 

PER eumdem^ Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium 
secunda/ractio : secunda fraC" 



UI tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus. 


^ {Et frangat.) i. e. Corpus : as it is more plainly expressed in the Use 
of Hereford. The Roman Liturgy has '* accipit Hastiam, frangit earn." 
In this distinction is involved a point of no little importance. The Ambro- 
sian Missal, has a form still stronger than the old Rubrics of the English 
Church : ** Corpus tuum frangitur, Christe, calix benedidtur :" Editt. 1560. 
1831. and in the beginning of the last Century these words were considered 
by many of high authority in the Church of Rome to be so objectionable, 
that great efforts were made to expunge them from the Milan Ldturgy. The 
pbint was, that they opposed that well known dogma ; ** integrum Christf 
corpus esse in quolibet Hostise fragmento, integrumque a Fidelibus sum! in 
quacunque Hostise particula/* According to a hymn sung in the Church of 
Rome on Corpus Christi day, and formerly also in the Liturgies of the 
English Church ; (tn die EuchariHiay according to the Use of Hereford) : " 

'* A sumente non concisus, 
Non confractus, non divisus. 
Integer accipitur." 

Here again must the plain meaning which these words '* sumat corpus et 
frangat illud,'' bear, the meaning which ia primitive and true, be explained 
away : the Roman Church declares that honestly to say *' Frangitur cor- 
pus Christi,'' is heretical : that we must only mean what no one can under- 
stAud, franffuntur species. Such, at any rate, was not the doctrine of the 

Cation ^iflTae. 1 09 

HsRFORD. Roii. 

DA propitius pacem in diebus nostris : ut ope misericordise 
tuae adjuti, {signet se cum ea et oscvletur earn ifeiiim dicen^ 
do J Herford.) et a peccato simus semper liberi, et ab omni per- 
turbatione securi. 

Tunc reponat patenam super Submittit Patenam Hostia^ dis^ 
altarcj et discooperto calice^ su- cooperit Calicem^ genuflectitj 
mat corpus Christi reverenier surgit, accipit Hostianiy/rangit 
in manibus suis, et supra cali- earn super Calicem, per medium^ 
cem frangat illud per medium dicens : 
dicendo : 

PER eumdem Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum Filium 
£t illam partem in dextera Partem^ qua in dextera estj 
manu frangat per medium di- ponit super Patenam. Deinde 
cendo: ex parte, qua in sinistra r<v 

mansit, frangit particulam, di* 
cens : 
/^UI tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus. 

Church Catholic for the first thousand years of her existence : and again, 
we, who are memhers of that branch of it, the English Church, may con* 
gratulate ourselves, that we are not driven to such extremities of explana- 
tion in our own times. 

" {Et frangat in tres partes.) Upon this rite, which Bona calls as it in- 
deed is, ** antiquissimus," and which may be traced up to the most remote 
antiquity, I would recommend the reader to consult the authors whom he 
cites, and our own very learned writer, Bingham, book xv. cap. iii. with 
Salads reply, in his notes upon Cardinal Bona. tom. iii. p. 328. — The Greek 
Church divides into four parts, and the Mozarabic Missal orders, into nine 
portions : to which separate names are given, having reference to the Life, 
Passion, and Glory of our B. Saviour. 

Of the three portions into which the English Church used to direct that 
the Bread should be broken, one was to be dropped into the Chalice, the 
other taken, and the third and largest, either taken by the Priest also, or 
distributed to the Communicants, and reserved for the sick. Now, when 
the Pope of Rome solemnly celebrates, is found a remnant of the ancient 
practice ; he divides the third part into two, and communicates the Deacon 
and Sub-Beacon. 

** Eumdem : omitted in Miss. Leofr, 

** Deus: omitted in Miss. Leofr. 

1 10 Canon ^iffae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Mbor. 

Hie teneat duas fracturas in sinistra 
manu : et tertiamfracturam in dextera 
manu in summitate calicis, ita dicens 
aperta voce : 

PER omnia saecula scBCulorum.^ T)] 
Amen. JL 

|ER omnia saecula sseculorum.^ TDER omnia ssecula 


^ It was after this, and before the ** Pax domini," that the ancient Epis- 
copal benedictions were recited. An account of them may be seen in the 
Ritualists, although they no longer are used in the Roman Church ; I 
would refer the reader also to my Dissertation on the Service Books : Mo^ 
Humenta Ritualia, vol. i. under the title, " Benedictionale.'' 

According to the Mozarabic Missal, Priests were allowed to give this 
benediction : and the 18th Canon of the 4th Counc. of Toledo, insists on 
their doing so : '* Nonnulli Sacerdotes post dictam Orationem Dominicam 
statim cominunicant et postea benedictionem Populo dant : quod deinceps 
ititerdicimus : sed post orationem Dominicam, benedictio in Populum se- 
quatur.'' Mdbillon says, that the same permission existed very anciently 
in the Gallic Liturgy. De Lit, Gall. lib. i. 4. 13. The reader will find one 
or two examples of these Episcopal Benedictions^ in the Additional Notes, 
which will enable him to judge of their general character. 

The Episcopal benedictions during the Service of the Holy Communion 
are not unfrequently alluded to in ancient documents. For example : in 
the year 1309, before the Council of London, a solemn Mass was celebrated : 
'* Et est sciendum, quod Norwicensis, qui celebravit missam, dedit so- 
lemnem benedictionem in missa.'' Wilkins, Concilia, torn. ii. p. 304. Again, 
in the account of the Mass before a Provincial Synod in the same year, we 
read ; '* In fine vero missae, ante Agnus Dei, prsedictus Episcopus Norwyc. 
de prsecepto et licentia speciali Cantuar. archiepiscopi sblennem benedic- 
tionem super populum fecit. Expleta missa archiepiscopus benedictionem 
populo dedit.'' Concilia, ^om. ii. p. 312. 

At this period also of the Service denunciations of excommunications, 
and prayers sometimes were to be said : some examples of which are given 
by Bona : and Angelo Rocca, " de Campanis." To those I would add from 
Wilkins: ** Advertentes insuper prsesentium turbationum pericula, quae 
veraciter ex nostris excessibus et delictis causari creduntur, ad quontm 
inde re medium opportunum decet et expedit divinum implorare subsidium : 
vobis cseterisque coepiscopis antedictis injangimus, ut psalmos et orationes 
pro pace, antequam dicatur 'Pax Domini,' intra missas et processiones 
publicas, prout jamdudum mandabamus, dici ac fieri faciatis, et faciant di- 
ligenter." Concilia, tom. ii. 222. A. D. 1296. 

The following also from the oath of an Abbot of Westminster, for fulfil* 
ling the Will of K. Henry VII. ** Item I shall cause every monke singing 
and sayeing in the Chapitre Masse in the said inonasterie— ^ — ^to sing and 
sey deuoutly for the same kyng, at euery such masse after the fFaocion of 
the Holy Sacrament, and before the holye prayer of Agnus Dei, all such 

Canon ^tflrae* 1 1 1 

Herford^ Rom. 

Revianeant du(c partes in sinis- Aliam mediam partem cum 
tra manUr: et iertia in dextera, ipsa sinistra ponit super Pate- 
et dicat : nam, et dextera ienens particu- 

lam super Calicem, sinistra Ca- 

licemj dicit: 
ER omnia ssecula sseculo- T^ER omnia ssecula sseculo- 

PER omnia ssecula saeculo- T) 
rum. Amen. X 

rum. ^. Amen. 

special Psalms, Orations and Prayers for the same kyng, ats l>e conteigned 
in the same indentures/' Dugdale. Monast, Anglic, vol. i. p. 279. 

To this part of the Service are also to he referred the Preces in prostra^ 
tione^ which are commonly found in the printed editions of the Sarum 
Missal : according to the ruhric : ^* Et sciendum est quod in omni missa 
quando de feria dicitur fiat prostratio a toto choro statim post Sanctus usque 
Pax Dominiy per totum annum: nisi a Pascha usque, Deus omnium*' 
These prayers consisted of three psalms Deus venerunt gentes : Deus mise- 
reatur nostri. : and Domine in virtute tua ; followed hy some Verses and 
Responses, and three Collects, yiz. *' Oremus. . Deus qui admirabiii provi- 
dentia cuncta disponis, te suppliciter exoramus : ut terram quam unigenitus 
Filius tuus proprio sanguine consecravit, de manibus inimicorum crucis 
Christi eripiens restituas cultui Christiano, vota fidelium ad ejus liberatio- 
nem instantium misericorditer dirigendo in viam pads setemce. 

Oratio. Rege quaesumus, Domine, famulum tuum pontificem nostrum : 
et intercedente beata Dei genitrice semperque^irgine Maria, cum omnibus 
Sanctis tuis, gratiae tuse dona in eo multiplica: ut ab omnibus liberetur 
offensis : et temporalibus non destituatur auxiliis : et sempiternis gaudeat 

Oratio, Da, quaesumus omnipotens Deus, famulo tuo regi nostro salu- 
tem mentis et corporis : ut bonis operibus inhaerendo, tuae semper virtutis 
mereatur protectione defendi. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. 
Amen. Sequatur. Pax Domini. &c.'' The first of these at least, is to be 
traced to the aera of the Crusades. 

A similar Office is appointed in the other English Missals : but they vary 
as to the days on which it may be said. Thus, the York Use appoints two 
different arrangements of psalms and prayers : the Bangor has one only : 
and so the Hereford. The order of this last is as follows. 

** In missa de die veldepace vel pro familiaribus : dicantur preces hoc modo. 
— Qtiando sacerdos hanc missam celehrans^ post quam Pater noster dixerit et 
Per omnia stecula saeculorum : antequam dicat Pax domini, dicantur hi 
psalmi a saeerdote cum mitdstris, et similiter a choro sub silentio : videlicet^ 
ps. Domine in virtute tua. Deus roisereatur. ps. Leetatus sum. Dictis 
psahms: dicatur Kyrie eleyson. &c.'' Then follow verses and responses 
as in the Salisbury Use : after which these three collects. 

*^ Oratidf, Da queesuitius, Domine, famulo tuo." as above. 

^' AUa oratio. Miserere quaesumus, Domine, pdpulo tuo : et continuis 
toibulatiombml laboranlem propitios respirare conc^^ Per Dominum. 

Alia oratio, Deus, a quo sancta desideria, recta concilia et justa sunt 

112 Canon ^iffife. 

Sarum. Bangor. Eb'qr. 

Hie faciat Ur stgnum 
cruets dicens: 


AX Da + mini sit sem + per vo + biscum. 

Chorus respondeat : , Chorus res- 

pondeat aperta 
T cum spiritu tuo. 


Ad Agnus Dei dicendum^ accedant dia^ 
eonus et subdiaconus ad sacerdotem uter- 
que a dextris : diaconus propior, subdia^ 
conus remottor, et dicant privatim :^ 



GNUS Dei, qui toUis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.^ 
GNUS Dei, qui toUis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. 

opera : da senris teds illam quam mundas dare non potest, pacem, nt et 
corda nostra mandatis tuis dedita, et hostium sublata formitadine tempora 
sint taa protectione tranquilla. Per Dominam nostrum Jesum Christum 
Filium tuum, qui tecum vivit et regnat, in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus, per 
omnia saecula sseculomm. Amen. 

" See a very learned disquisition in Gerhert. De Musica. torn. i. p. 454. 
&c. as to the ancient custom of singing or saying this, and whether the peo- 
ple joined with the Choir. A passage in iElfric's Homilies appears to 
prove that in his time, the Agnus Dei was sung in the Churches of £ngland. 
'' Be t'am singaiS Codes iTCOwas fet felcere maessan. Agnus Dei qui tollis 
peccata mundi, miserere nobis, t^at is on urum ge|)eode. &c.'' Horn, in di. 
sanct. Paschae. It was forbidden on Easter Eve in that age by the Canons 
of iElfric : (whether the same iElfric I cannot say.) '' On Euter B¥«, let 


Canon 9^mz. 




Deinde cum parte hostile quam Cum ipsa pdrticula signal itr 
tenet in manu dexter a fiant super CaHcem^ dicens: 
ires cruces supra calicevi, dicerir- 

T3AX ^ Domini sit ^. semper vobis ^ cum. 

TT^T cum spiritu tuo. 



ITj^T cum spiritu tuo. 

Particularn ipsam immittit in 
Calicem, dicens secrete : 

MC commixtio et conse- 
cratio Corporis et San- 
guinis Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi, fiat accipientibus nobis 
in vitam setemam, Amen. 
Ad Agnus Dei dicendum^ ac- Cooperit Calicemy genuflectit, 
cedant diaconus et subdiaconus surgit^ et inclinatus Sacramen^ 
ad sacerdotem utcrque a dextris : to, Junctis manibus, et ter peC" 
diaconus propior et subdiaconus tus percutiens^ dicit: 
remotior: et dicant privatim : 

GNUS Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. 


GNUS Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. 

there not be sung at the mass-offering, neither Agnus Dei, nor ' Corn- 
mania/ but among those who desire the housel, let the chanter begin : 
Alleluia. &c.'' Thorpe. Autient Laws and Institutes. voL ii. p. 360. 

*• " Then eft sonc tho prist wil saye, 

Stande stille and herken him al waye : 

He saie Agnus thryse or he cese, 

Tho last worde he spekis of pese : 

—Then is gode of god to crave, 

That thou charyte may haue : 

There when tho prist pax wil kis, 

Knele thou and praye then this.'' Museum MS. 

* The Canon of the Leofiic MmssI ends here. 


114 Canon ^iffae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

GNUS Dei^ qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.^ 


Hie cruce signando deponat dictam ter- Hie deponat iertiam 
tiam partem hostue in sacramento san- partem hostile in san* 
guinis (in sanguine, Bangor.) sie dieen^ guine dicens: 

HMC sacrosancta commixtio corporis et sanguinis Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi fiat mihi (nobis, Ebor.) et omnibus^ 
(omnibusque, Sar,) sumentibus salus mentis et corporis : et ad 
vitam setemam (promerendam et, Sar. et Bangor.) capescendam^ 
preeparatio salutaris. ^ 

PER eundem Christum Dominum T^^I^^undemDomi- 
nostrum. Amen. X^ num nostrum Je- 

sum Christum Filium 
tuum. Qui tecum vi* 
vit et regnat. 
Antequam pax detur dicat sacerdos : 

DOMINE, sancte Pater, omnipo- 
tens seterne Deus : da mihi hoc 
sacrosanctum corpus et sanguinem 
Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi ita 
digne sumere : ut merear per hoc remis- 
sionem omnium peccatorum meorum 
accipere et tuo Sancto Spiritu repleri, 
et pacem tuam habere. Quia tu es 
Deus (solus, Bangor.) et non est alius 

^ *' Propter denique scbisma e medio toUendum, et propter pacem 
Christi fidclibas a Deo impetrandam, ad banc usqae diem remansit Ritas 
dicendi, Dona nobis paceniy in tertio Agnus Dei, dum celebratur Missa. 
Antiquitus enim tribus vicibus uniformiter dicebatur ; miserere nohis : sed 
ob multas et varias Ecclesice olim adversitates Ecclesia coepit ad Dominam 
de tribulatione clamare : Dona nobis pacem,'* Any eh Rocca, De Gampanis. 
cap. xviij. He goes on to quote from Innocent, the practice still observed 
'' in Basilica Lateranensi'' as being the most ancient Church, of repeating 
the miserere nobis three times : and complains that Durandin his Rationale, 
lib. iv. cap. 25, has spoken of this, and of the alteration, without acknow- 
ledging the authority of Innocent. 

*' The Bangor Pontifical reads, ^* omnibusque/' 


Canon ^iKm. i i 5 

Herforb. Rom. 

GNUS Dei^ qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem. 

Tunc partem guarn tenet in 
dextera manu ponat in calice 
dicendo : 

HMC sacrosancta commix- 
tio corporis et sanguinis 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi fiat 
mihi et omnibus sumentibus 
salus mentis et corporis : et ad 
vitam sBternam promerendam 
et capescendam prseparatio sa- 
lutaris. Per eundem Christum. 

Oratio. Deindt junctis manibus super 

altare, inclinatus dicit sequentes 

DOMINE Jesu Christe^ qui dixisti Apostolis tuis : pacem 
meam do vobis, pacem relinquo vobis : (Pacem relinquo 
vobis, pacem meam do vobis : Bom,) ne respicias peccata mea, 
sed fidem EccIesisB tuse: eamque secundum voluntatem tuam 
pacificare et coadunare dignare : (digneris. Bom,) Qui vivis et 
regnas Deus^ per omnia ssecula saeculorum. Amen. 

^ Ad yitam aeteraam capescendam/' Bangor Pontifical. 

** This prajer is a yerj remarkable one, retained as it was so long in the 
English Church, after the Communion of the Cup had been denied to the 
laity. It is not in the Roman Use, in the editions of the 15th Century. 
Archbishop Cranmer in his Answer of the Devonshire rebels, was not for- 
getful of the argument which this prayer so decidedly affords, for the Com- 
munioa in both kinds. Vide Rerhaina, vol. ii. 217. 

The mystical intention of the Immission into the Cup is explained by 
Mierohgut, '^ Ad designandum corporis et animce conjunctionem in resur- 
rectione ChristL" Cap. xvij. And to the same effect Innocent the Third, 
'' Comnuxtio panis et vini, designat unionem carnis et animce, que in re* 
surrectione Christi denuo sunt unitse.^' 


Canon ^liTae. 

Sarum. Bangor. 

prseter te : cujus regnum gloriosum per- 
raanet in ssecula seeculorum. Amen. 
Hie osadetur sacerdos corporalia in dex-^ 
tera parte et summitatem calicisj et pos^ 
tea diaconum dicens : 

lAX tibi et eccle- T^AXtibiet 
sise. jL ecclesise 



Responsio : 


Responsio di- 
aconi : 
T cum spiritu tuo. TT^T cum 

r^ spiritu 
Diaconus a dextris sacerdoiis ab eo pa- 
vera recipiat^ et subdiacono porrigat: 
deinde ad gradum chori ipse diaconus 
pacem portet rectoribus chori: et ipsi 
pacem choro portent uterque sua parti 
incipiens a majoribus. Post pacem da^ 
tarn dicat sacerdos orationes sequentes 
privatim, antequam se communicet : tC" 
nendo hostiam duabus manibus : 


Hie detur osculum pa- 
CIS dieendo: 

HABETE vincu- 
lum pacis et car 
ritatis, ut apti sitis 
sacrosanctis mysteriis 

Hie inclinet se sacerdos^ 
dicens orationes sequen- 
tes antequam eommu- 
nicety tenendo hostiam 
duabus manibus: 

^ {Diaconus •pacem reeiffiat*) Pax : instrumentum, quod inter Missarom 
solemnia populo oscalandum prebetur. Du Cange, Glos». The intro- 
duction of the Pax instead of the old practice of mutual salutation was not 
until about the thirteenth century. In a Council held at York, in the year 
1250, under Walter Gray, Archbishop, the earliest mention occurs of the 
Pax, or Osculatoriumf as used in England. It is named among the orna- 
ments and furniture of the Altar, which were to be prorided by the parish- 
ioners. Wilkitu. Concil. i. 098. Again, in the same collection, ii. 280, we 
find a similar order to have been made in the province of Canterbury, in the 
year 1305, at the Council' of Merton: **tdbulas pads ad osculatariMMJ* 
Both of these Constitutions are to be found also in JoknsovCs Eocles. Laws, 
vol. if. Several figures of the Pax are given in works relating to the sub-^ 
ject, and in many of the printed editions of the Sarum Missal it is repre- 
sented as part of the furniture of the Altar, in the woodcut which commonly 
precedes the Service for Advent Sunday. Le Brvn^ torn. L pi. 2d2, has an 
interesting disquisition on the subject of the Pax : and in a note states that 
why it also, in its own turn fell into disuse abroad, was on account of qaar« 

cation e!^if[(it* 

Hebfosd. Rom. 


Tunc offerai pacem : sed primo 
osculetur calicem : deinde altare 
dicendo : 

HABETE vinculum carita- 
tis et pacisy ut apti sitis 
sacris mysteriis Dei. 

Si danda est paxy osculatur al- 
tare y et dans pacem y dicit: 


AX tecum. 

£t osctdando ministrum dicat : Ijk. 



\X Cbristi et sanctse eccle- T7^ T cum spiritu tuo. 
siae tibi et cunctis ecclesiee r^ 

rels about precedency which it occasioned among the people. Notices of 
the Pax are common in the Monastic and Church Inventories. See also the 
Injunctions given (1548. 2 Edwd. yj.) to the Deanery of Doncaster. '* And 
the clerk in like manner shall bring down the Pax, and standing without the 
Church door, shall say boldly to the people these words : ' This is a token 
of joyful peace, which is betwixt God and men's conscience. Christ alone 
is the peace-maker, which straitly commands peace between brother and 
brother.' " Hierurgia Anglic, p. 2. In the Rites of Durham Ahhey we are 
told, that they possessed '' a marvelous Faire Booke, which had the Epis- 
tles and Gospels in it, the which booke had on the outside of the coveringe 
the picture of our Saviour Christ, all of silver — whiche booke did serve for 
the Pax in the Masse." P. 7. A book which an Abbot of Glastonbury 
gave to his Church there, might have, and possibly did answer the same 
purpose. '* Unum textum argenteum et auratum, cum crucifixo, Maria 
et Johanne, splendidus emalatum." Johan, GUuton, de rebus Glastcn. 
Heame, p. 265. 



Canon e^ifSne. 


DEUS Pater, fons et origo totius 
bonitatis, qui ductus misericordia 
Unigenitum tuum pro nobis ad infima 
mundi descendere, et carnem sumere 
voluisti : quam ego indignus hie in ma- 
nibus meis teneo : 

Hie inclinet se sacerdos ad hostiam di- 

TE adoro, te glorifico, te tota cordis 
(ac mentis meoe, Bangor.) inten- 
tione laudo : et precor, ut nos famulos 
tuos non deseras, sed peccata nostra 
dimittas : quatenus tibi soli Deo vivo et 
vero puro corde ac (et, Bangor.) casto 
corpore servire mereamur. (valeamus, 
Bangor.^) Per eundem Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. .Amen. 

DOMINE Jesu Christe, Fili Dei 
vivi, qui ex voluntate Patris coo- 
perante Spiritu sancto per mortem tuam 
mundum vivificasti : libera me, (quseso, 
Bangor.) per hoc sacrosanctum corpus 
et hunc sanguinem tuum a cunctis ini- 
quitatibus meis, et ab universis malis : 
et fac me tuis semper obedire mandatis : 
et a te nunquam in perpetuum permittas 
separari : (separari permittas. Salvator 
mundi,^ Bangor.) Qui cum Deo Pa- 
tre, et eodem Spiritu sancto, vivis et reg- 
nas Deus : per omnia ssecula sseculo- 
rum. Amen. 

CORPORIS et sanguinis tui, Do- 
mine Jesu (Christe, Bangor.) sa- 



DOMINE, sanctc 
Pater, omnipo^ 
tens seteme Deus, da 
nobis hoc corpus et 
sanguinem Filii tui 
Domini Dei nostri Je- 
su Christi ita sumere, 
ut mereamur per hoc 
remissionem peccato- 
rum nostrorum acci- 
pere et tuo sancto Spi- 
ritu repleri : quia tu es 
Deus, et prseter tenon 
est alius nisi tu solus. 
Qui vivis et regnas 




poris et sanguinis 

®* The Bangor Pontifical also reads, ** valeamus." 

Canon g^ilTar. 119 

Hbbford. Mom. 



DOMINE, sancte Pater, 
omnipoteDS seteme Deus, 
da mihi hoc sacrosanctum cor- 
pus et sanguinem Filii tui ita 
digne sumere ut merear per hoc 
remissionem omnium peccato- 
rum meorum accipere: et tuo 
sancto Spiritu r^leri : quia tu es 
Deus solus, et prseter te non est 
alius : cujus regnum et imperi- 
um sine fine permanet in saecula 
saeculorum. Amen. 

Alia oratio. 

DOMINE Jesu Christe, Fill Dei vivi, qui ex voluntate Patris, 
cooperante Spiritu sancto, per mortem tuam mundum vivi- 
ficasti: libera me per hoc sacrosanctum corpus et sanguinem 
tuum, ab omnibus iniquitatibus meis et (ab, Herford.) universis 
malis, et fac me tuis semper obedire (inhaerere, Rom,) mandatis, 
et a te nunquam in perpetuum permittas separari. (et a te nun- 
quam separari permittas. Rom.) 

QUI vivis et regnas cum /^UI cum eodem Deo Patre 
Deo Patre in unitate V^^ et Spiritu sancto vivis et 
ejusdem, etc, regnas Deus in ssecula saeculo- 

rum. Amen. 


ERCEPTIO Corporis tui, 
Domine Jesu Christe, 

•• This is an important variation : with which agrees also the Bangor 


Canon 90me. 

Sarum. Bangor. 

cramentum quod licet indignus accipio : 
non sit mihi judicio et condemnation!, 
sed tua prosit pietate corporis met et 
animee saluti. Amen. 

tui, Domine Jesa 
Christe, quam indignus 
sumerepreesumo: non 
mihireniat ad judicium 
nee ad condemnatio- 
nem^sed pro tua pietate 
prosit mihi ad tuta-' 
mentum animse et cor- 
poris. Qui cum Deo 
Patre et Spiritu sancto 
vivis et regnas Deus. 


Christe, Fili Dei 
yivi, qui ex voluntate 
Patris, cooperante Spi- 
ritu sancto, per mortem 
tuam mundum vivifi' 
casti: libera me per 
hoc sacrosanctum cor- 
pus et sanguinem tuum 
ab omnibus iniquitati- 
bus et universis malis 
meis: et fac me tuis 
obedire prseceptis et a 
te nunquam in perpe- 
tuum separari permit, 
tas. Qui cum Deo 
Patre et eodem Spi- 
ritu sancto vivis et reg- 
nas Deus. Per om- 
nia seecula seeculorum. 

Canon ^tflfae. 




quod ego indignus sumere prse- 
sumo, non mihi proveniat in 
judicium et condemnationem : 
sed pro tua pietate prosit mihi 
ad tutamentum mentis et cor- 
poris, et ad medelam percipi- 
endam. Qui vivis et regnas 
cum Deo Patre in unitate Spi- 
ritus sancti Deus, per omnia 
saecula sasculorum. Amen. 

DEUS Pater, fons et origo 
totius bonitatis, qui mi- 
sericordia ductus Unigenitum 
tuum pro nobis ad infima mundi 
descendeie, et camem sumere 
voluisti, quern ego indignus et 
miserrimus peccator hie mani- 
bus teneo, te adoro, te glori- 
fico, te tota cordis intentione 
laudo, et precor ut nos famulos 
tuos non deseras sed peccata 
nostra deleas: quatenus tibi 
soli Deo vivi et vero, puro 
corde et casto corpore semper 
servire valeamus. Pereundem. 

AGIMUS tibi Deo Patri 
gratias pro jam beatifi- 
catis, postulantes eorum inter- 
ventu apud te adjuvari : pro 
his autem qui adhuc sunt in 
purgatoriis locis, offerimus tibi 
Patri Filium : supplicantes ut 
per banc sacrosanctam hositiam 
eorum poena levior sit et bre- 
vior: pro nobis autem quos 
adhuc gravant peccata carnis 
et sanguinis immOlamus tibi 

Genuflectity surgif, et dicit : * 

PAN EM coelestem accipi- 
am, et nomen Domini in- 

Deinde parum inclinatus^ acci^ 
pit ambas partes Hostia inter 
pollicem et indicem sinistra^ 
manwf, et patenam inter eum- 
dem indicem et medium^ et dex- 
tera perctitiens pectus, elevata 
aliquantulum voce, dicit ter de- 
vote et humiliter: 

DOMINE non sum dignus, 
ut intres sub tectum me- 
um : sed tantum die verbo, et 
sanabitur anima mea. 



Canon ^0im. 



Ad corpus dicat^ cum Ad corpus 
humiliatione antcquofn cum inclinati- 
perdpiat: one antequam 

percipiat di" 

cat : 

AVE in setemum sanctissima caro 
Christi : mihi ante omnia et super 
omnia summa dulcedo. Corpus Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi sit mihi peccatori 
via et vita. (Amen. Bangor.) 

IN nomine + Patris, 
et Filii, et Spiritus 
Hie sumat corpus^ Hie debet sa^ 

Hie sumat corpus eruce 
prius facta cum ipso 
corpore ante : deinde 
ad sanguinem dicens: 

CORPUS Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi 
sit mihi remediumsem- 
pitemum in vitam 8Bter- 
nam. Amen. 

^ In the first edition of the '^ Ancient Liturgy/' I was obliged to leave 
a part of this prayer conjecturally supplied in Italics: ^' apud te adjuvari: 
et pro defunctisJideUbus offerimus &c/' As I then stated in a note, this was 
because one of the two copies of the Hereford Use in tiie Bodleian Library 
had an erasure in this place, which was supplied with those words in an old 
hand, though (as I also remarked) they could not be those which Originally 
had been there : and the other had lost the leaf altogether. I was not then 
aware (through some error which I cannot now. account for) that the copy 
which I spoke of as being in S. John's College, Oxford, was not a York, 
(see Pref. 1st Edit. p. Ixxviij) but a Hereford Missal. This Book upon ex- 
amination, though yery imperfect and mutilated in many places, yet happily 
supplies the perfect text, in this important prayer, as I hare given it above. 

Since the publication of that edition, I have als6 found this prayer, ocen- 
pying somewhat the same place in the Canoq, in the MS. Missal «aid to 
have belonged to the Church of St. Paul's, London ; and of which I have 
«poken in the Preface to the present Edition. 

^ It will be observed that the English Uses di£fer in the Form at receiv- 
ing. When the sacred Elements were delivered to the people, there was 
also a considerable variety in the words used. From S. An^roSe^ d6 
SacrameniiSf Lib, iv. cap, 5 ; and from S, Augustiney Setm, 272. dd2. we 
may conclude Ihat the simple words, aa va li^ Ci\^\ius<GdQSk<& Litiiurgyt ^®r® 

canon ^0tSm 



Patri Filium: obsecrantes ut 
peccata quae ex carne et san- 
guine contraximus caro mun- 
det, sanguis lavet Unigeniti 
Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi. Qui tecum vivit.^ 
Tunc inclinet se supra caliceni, 
et valde devote percipiat corpus 
Christi, scd ante ptrceptionenv 
dicat : 


Postea dextera se signans cum 
ffosfia super Patenam^ dicit : 

CORPUS Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi sit animse 
mesB remedium in vitam aeter- 
nam. Amen. 

CORPUS Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi custodiat 
animam meam in vitam aeter- 
nam. Amen. 

Sumit reverenter ambas partes 
Hostile, jungit manuSf et guies- 
cit aliquaniulum in meditatione 

said : " Corpus Christi :'' to which was answered " Amen." Many form^ 
of later ages, in deliyering both the Body and the Blood to the people, may 
be seen collected in Georgius, torn. iii. lib. iv. cap. xix. Several again in the 
▼arious Orders printed by Martene, in his first yoliime : de Ant, RUibus, 
Mierologug gives this : " Corpus et sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Christi pro- 
ficiat tibi in vitam setemam.'^ Cap, 23. 

^ ijmmat) i. e. standing. The Popes were accustomed to receive the Eu- 
charist sitting : but it would seem that now they stand, as other Bishops 
do, and do not resume their seat until after the rite is finished of washing 
the hands. See AngeloRocca* '* De solemni Communione Summi Ponti- 
ficis." Opera, tom. i. p. 10. It is not out of place to add briefly that this 
author appears to doubt, that the Bishops of Rome ever received sitting. 
*' Dicitur Summus Pontifex sedere, dum communicat; vel quia ipse anti- 
quitus in communicando sedebat, vel quasi sedentis instar communicabat, 
sicut prsesens in tempus fieri solet. Summus namque Pontifex ad solium 
stans, non sedens, ad majorem venerationem repr^es^ntandam, ipsi tameii 
solio, populo universo spectante, innixus et incurvus, quasi sedens coramu« 
nicat, Christum Dominum cruci affixum, in eaque quodam modo reclinan- 
tem riepnesentans." P. 20. We cannot read these last words without pain 
and sorrow: such gestures for such an end, surely sprung not from that re- 
verence whjclf men ooght to feel. 

J 24 

cruce prius facta cum 
ipso corpore ante os. 

Canon Q^ifOit 


cerftos intimt 
carvatione, ca- 
rifate, passi- 
one. et de di- 

ra morte Jesu 
Christif quas 
pro nobis pas^ 
sus est et eti- 
am voluntarie 
sustinuit, Et 
sic cum timo- 
re et reoeren- 
tia magna cor^ 
pus. Christi et 
sanguinem su- 
mat : cruce de 
ipso corpore 
prius facta an^ 
te OS ejus reci^ 

Deinde ad sanguinem cum magna devo» 

time dicens : 

AVE in eetemum ccalestis potus^mi- 
hi ante omnia et super omnia sum- 
ma dulcedo. Corpus et sanguis Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi prosint mihi pecca- 
tori ad remedium sempitemum in vitam 
setemam. Amen. In nomine •]• Pa- 
trisy etc. 

Hie sumai sanguinem : Hie sumat to- 
quo sumpto*^^ inclinet turn sanguin- 


nostri Jesu Christi 
consenret me in yitam 
setemam. Amen. 

CORPUS et san- 
guis Domini nos- 
tri Jesu Christi : custo- 
diat corpus meum et 
animam meam in vitam 
seternam. Amen. 

^ If any were to be communicated during the Mass, this was the time 
appointed : as it is still directed in the Ritut ceUbrandi Miisvm* '* Si qui 

Canon ^tflfae. 



sanctissimi Sacramenii. De^ 
inde discooperit Calicem, genu-- 
flectitf colligitfragmenta^ si qua 
sint, extergit Pattnam super 
Calicenif interim dicens : 

QUID retribuam Domino 
pro omnibus, qu» retri- 
buit mihi? Calicem salutaris 
accipiam, et nomen Domini 
invocabo. Laudans invocabo 
Dominum, et ab inimicis meis 
salvus ero. 

Ante perceptionem sanguinis di- Accipit Caliceni manu dexiera^ 
cat : et eo se signanSy dicit : 

SANGUIS Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi conserve! ani- 
mam meam in vitam stemam. 

SANGUIS Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi custodiat ani- 
mam meam in vitam aeternam. 

Sumit totum Sanguinem cum 
particula. Quo sumpto, si qui 

sint commoiiicandi in Missa, sacerdos post sumptionem sangainisy anteqoam 
se. purificety facta genuflexione, ponat partkulas^ &c/' Tit, x. 6. The 

126 Caium^iflGiei 

Sarum. Bjngob Ebor. 

€€ sacerdoSy et dicat cum em : quo sum- 

devoiione orationem se- pto et calkeal- 

qutnteni : tari superposi- 

RubrioB Generates of the modern Paris Missal are particular on one point. 

'^ Si qui sint sacram Communionem accepturi, Sacerdos non eos differat 
post Missae iinemwsine necessitate. Ordo enim postulate ut Communio po- 
poli fiat intra Missam, et immediate sequatur Communionem Sacerdotis/' 
Cap. X. 

Upon the mode of receiving, I need scarcely remind the reader of the 
famous passage in S. Cyril, Catech. My stag, v. cap. xxj. : and according to 
the same feelings the Church has always insisted upon outward gestures of 
reverence and awe ; not merely by way of decency as on less solemn occa- 
sions, but here as of actual necessity. As S. Augustine declares: '' nemo 
Camem illam manducat, nisi prius adoraverit.^' Enar. in Ps, xcviii. 5. I 
shall only add a passage from S. Chrysostom, as cited and translated in 
AshweIVs Gestus Eucharisticus.'^ Oxf, 12mo. 1663. p. 44. (in which the 
reader will find this subject well considered.) '^ This Body the wise men 
reverenced, even when it lay in the Manger, and approaching thereto, wor- 
shipped with great fear and trembling. Let us therefore, who are citizens 
of Heaven imitate at least these Barbarians. — But thou seest this Body not 
in the Manger, but on the Altar : not held by a woman, but presented by 
the Priest. — Let us therefore stir up ourselves, and shew far greater rever- 
ence than those Barbarians, lest by our careless and rude coming, we heap 
fire on our heads.'' Homil. xxiv. Cf. also Ashwellj p. 46. and p. 120. 
And in Ltictantius de morte persec: the vision of S. Perpetua: cited by 
Gerhert. tom. i.p. 125. '' Ego accepi junctis manibus." 

How long the custom continued of receiving the Eucharist into the hands, 
and permission also to carry it home, is most uncertain. There is a Capon 
of the Council of Toledo ; a. D. 400. '^ Si quis, acceptam a Sacerdote £u- 
charistiam, non sumpserit, veluti sacrilegus repellatnr.'' But this is di- 
rected against the heresy of the Priscillianists. It seems certain that the 
old form was first given up at Rome, before the age of S. Gregory the 
Great: and that for some long time after it was still retained in other 
Churches. Mahillon tells ns of a certain Abbess, S. Odilia, into whose 
hands not only the Body, but the Cup, was delivered in the 8th Century. 
Prtrfat, in Sac. III. Benedict, p. i. ObseiVat. x. Georyins, tom, iii. p. 174. 
from whom I quote the above, cites alsoS. Csesar. Arelatensis, who proves 
that men and women received di£ferently. " Viri enim, quando ad altare 
accessuri sunt, lavant manus suas, et omnes mulieres nitida exhibent lin- 
teamina ubi Corpus Christ! accipiant." See, almost word for word, S. Au- 
guitine^ Sermon. 152. (cit. Casalius. p. 91.) There is an express canon, in 
the year 578 : '* Ne liceat mulieri nuda manu Eucharistiam accipere.'' 
Concil, Autisiodor, And another Canon of the same council orders that, 
'* Unaquseque mulier, (quando communicat) dominicalem suam habeat." 
As to what this dominicale was, Barohius, Mabillon, and many others, 
suppose it to be the same as the linieamina above : but Stephen BmhigtwkjB 

Canon ^iirae« 127 

Herford. Rom. 

sunt communicandiy eos com- 
municety antequam se purificet. 

it was a covering for the head, resting his opinion upon a Council of An- 
gers : '' Si molier communicans dominicale suum super caput suum non 
habuerit, usque ad alium diem non communicet." One thing is clear, that 
then women were not permitted to receive with uncovered hands. To re- 
turn to men : in the year 680, Bede records the death of Caedmon, a monk ; 
a layman. Feeling himself dying, '* Interrogavit, si eucharistiam intas 
haberent. — Rursus ille ; ' et tamen,' ait, * afiferte mihi eucharistiam/ Qua 
accepta in manu, interrogavit, si omnes placidum erga se animum haberent, 
&c." Hist, Eccles. lib. iv. cap. 24. 

Very anciently there seems to have been great difference of practice as to 
the administration of the Cup by Deacons. Martene, de Ant. Rit, lib, i. c. 
iv. brings many examples by which he proves that it was not only allowed 
but general: and there is the well known complaint of S. Lawrence to Pope 
Sixtus: '' Quo sacerdos sancte sine diacono properas ? nunquid degenerem 
me probasti ? experire, utrum idonenm Magistrum elegeris, cui commisisti 
Dominici Sanguinis dispensationem/' As Merati remarks upon Gavantiu, 
torn. i. p. 230, citing this : S. Lawrence says not the Body, but the Blood : 
and this, as if it were an especial part of the Office of Deacons. On the 
other hand, we have S. Chrysostom, Hom. 46. in Matt, declaring that none 
but a Priest can administer the Cup: and the xvth Canon of the 2nd 
Council of Aries, decreeing, that when a Priest is present, a Deacon may 
not administer *' the Body of the Lord : '' which seems still further to limit 
the Canon of the Council of Nice, viz. that Deacons should not to Priests 
"give the Body of Christ." The xvith of the Canons of iElfric allows 
Deacons to " baptize children, and housel the people : " which, if there 
should be any doubt, is fully explained in the Pastoral Epistle of the same 
^Ifric : " the deacon may give the bread, and baptize children.'^ Thorpe, 
Ancient Laws and Institutes, vol. ii. 349. 379. 

But this Canon of the Council of Nice may be reconciled with the others, 
by remembering that by it. Deacons were forbidden to distribute to Priests 
only : and in this case, there would be conveyed a tacit permission that 
they might to the Laity. There seems to be no ground for supposing that 
the Nicene Fathers intended in any way to oppose the custom of the first 
and Apostolic age, when, as S. Justin tells us, (Apolog. ii.) the Deacons 
conveyed the Eucharist to the absent and the sick. The 38th Canon of the 
4th Council of Carthage a.d. 252. is very much to the point. " Prsesente 
Presbytero, Diaconus Eucharistiam Corporis Christi populo, si necessitas 
cogatyjwsus eroget." And with this Lyndwood agrees, in his Gloss upon 
the text, Diaeoni haptizare non prasumanty nisi Sfc. " In casu necessitatis, 
absente Presbytero, potest Diaconus suo jure baptizare, et Corpus Christi 
erogare infirmis : sed in Ecclesia prsesente presbytero, non potest, etiamsi 
necessitas exigat, nisi jussus a presbytero, puta, cum multisint qui indigent 
BaptismOy et presbyter non potest omnibus sofficere. Similiter, si miilti 

128 Canon ^iflne. 

Sarum. Bangor. . EsfOM. 

to, indinam se 
sacerdos cum 
magiia venera- 
tione in medio 
altaris et aii" 
ctmi respiciens 
tionem sequen- 

G RATI AS tibi ago, Domine, sancte 
Pater, omnipotens eeteme Deus : 
qui me refecisti de sacratissimo corpore 
et sanguine Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi : et precor, ut hoc sacramentum 
salutis nostrse quod sumpsi indignus 
peccator, non veniat mihi ad judicium 
neque ad condemnationem pro mentis 
meis : sed ad profectum corporis et ani- 
mee in vitam seternam. Amen. 

Yolunt accipere Corpus Christi, nee presbyter sufficit omnibua/' Lib. iii. 
tit. 24. Baptisterium habeatur. So that in all these cases, an express com- 
mand from the Priest was thoaght necessary, that Deacons might not pre- 
sume and attempt even perhaps to consecrate : as may be inferred from the 
25th cap. of the Council of Laodicea, dted by Cammder^ Opera, p. 73. 
'' Non oportet Diacono panem dare, nee Calicem benedicere." One word 
upon the address of S. Laurence to Pope Sixtus cited abore. I would re- 
mind the reader that in the text of the Benedictine Edition of S. Ambrose, 
upon whose authority the tradition mainly rests, the reading is not dispe^ua- 
tionem, but consecrationem, De Off. lib. i. 41. tom. ii. p. 55. If this latter is 
correct, it can only be understood in a very extended sense. See above. 
Note 11. p. 86. 

There seems to have crept in an abuse in England, about the xig th Cen- 
tury, which is thus described and forbidden in the Constitutions of Walter 
Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester. ^ Audivimus autem quidem, quod merito 
credin\us reprobandum, quod quidam sacerdotes parochianos sues, com 
communicant, offerre compellunt: propter quod simul communicant, et 
offerunt, per quod venalis exponi videtur corporis et sanguinis Christi hos- 
tia pretiosa : hoc, quod execrabile sit, nullus ambigit sanee mentis: hoc igi- 
tur avaritise horrendura vitium, interdicimus et execramus.'' Wilkuu. 
Concilia, tom. u p* 671.. 
And here^ without entering into the question of whether the integrity of 
the Sacrament is affected by t\ie cVrcumftUcace o^xkc^ Q^uv^^Wlihje. officiating 
Priest, commonicating ; 1 cannot paaa otim\\vo\i\ TCBtask^^^QoftTw^x^ 

Canon a^tflfae. 1 29 

Uerfobd. Rom. 

that as a fact none is so undeniable, none rests upon greater authorities 

than this, that in the first ages all who were present at the Service, except 

those under discipline, partook of the Communion : the prayers alone of 

the Liturgies, even had we no other evidence, abundantly testify, that they 

were drawn up on the supposition of the presence of ^any, and of many 

communicants. Micrologus in the xith Century says: *' Sciendum est, 

juxta antiquos Patres, quod soli communicantes divinis Mysteriis interesse 

consueyerunt/' Cap, 61 . Cardinal Bona not only admits this, adding '* Hanc 

eonsuetudinem din perstitisse eyidens est," but goes on to speak of some 

churches at Rome, where the Priest is not permitted to communicate alone : 

the whole passage is of great importance. *^ In Missa solemni retenta est 

ab aliquibus Ecclesiis communio ministrorum, quae Romae nunc permanet 

in insignioribus Basilicis, et ubi desierat, Apostolicse visitationis Decreto 

restituta est Sapientissimo sane consilio, ne in desuetudinem abeat anti- 

quUsimui Ecclena ritus, sine quo vix possunt intelligi, qua in Uturgicis ora- 

tionibus quotidie recitantur," Rerum, Liiurg, lib. ii. cap. xvijt. 2. Van 

Espen speaks to the same purpose, and advises that Parish Priests should 

warn their people that they would communicate them only during the Ser- 

Tice : and again, '' Ulterius populo exponendum, quod ipsa Communio sive 

participatio Sacrament! partem quodam modo Sacrificii constituat : ideoque 

summopere conveniens esse, ut dum una cum Sacerdote Sacrificium ofie- 

runt, etiam una de Sacrificio sacramentaliter communicando partici^xvt./' 

lus, Ecc, Universum, Para, ii, sect. i. tit. v, 


Canon ^ilTae. 


Post primam ahlutio- 
nem dicetur hac oratio : 

Sarum. Bangor. 

Qua dicta eat sacerdos ad dexterum cor- 
nu altaris cum calice inter 7nanus, digi- 
tis adhuc conjunctis sicut prius : et acce- 
dat subdiaconus et effundat in calicem 
vinum et aqtiam:'^^ et resinceret'^ sa- 
cerdos manus suas ne aliqua reliquia 
corporis vel sanguinis rernaneantj in digi- 
tis vel in calice. 

Post primam ablutio^ Hie lavet sa- 
nem vel effusionem, di- cerdos digitos 
citur hac oratio : suos in conca- 

vitate caliciSf 

cum vino in/u- 

so a subdiacO' 

no vel alio mi- 

nistro : quo 

haustOj dicat 

sacerdos : 

QUOD ore sumpsimus,'^' Domine, pura mente caplamus : et 
de munere temporali fiat nobis remedium sempiternum. 
(in vitam seternam. Amen. Ebor,) 
Hie lavet digitos in Hicetiamsuh- 

diaconus vel 
alius minister 
infundat vi- 
num vel a- 
quam in ca- 

concavitate calicis cum 
vino infuso a subdia^ 
conoj quo haustOy sequa- 
tur Oratio : 

Sumat hie calicem^ et 
ponat super patenamj 
et postea inclinando se 
dicat : 

^* The reader will observe a differeuce here in the English Uses, and 
again between them and the Roman : which last appoints wine for the first 
ablution, which rather is called, the purification. Many of the ancient 
Ritualists speak of wine : and Durand of an ablation '* missa finita/' 
which was then to be thrown away into some clean place : probably the 
Piscina. '* In locum mundum et honestum.'' Lib, iv. cap, d5. 

Whatever we may think of the old rubrics of the English Liturgies, this 
must at least be undeniable : that every proper care should be taken that no 
remnants of the consecrated Elements be left behind after the conclusion of 
the Service, but that the whole be decently and with the greatest rever- 
ence consumed, according to the strict order of our present Liturgy. 

^' ^' Loke pater noster thou be sayande, 
I whils tho prisie is ryTv&^xide ; 

Canon a^ilTae. 1 3 1 

Herford. Rom. 

Postquam communicaverit eat 
ad dextrum comu altaris cum 
calice^ et abluat eum cmn vino, 
dicendo : 

QUOD ore sumpsimus^ Domine^ pura mente capiamus : et 
de munere temporali fiat nobis remedium sempitemum. 
(in vitam aeternam. Amen. Herford.) 
Deinde abluat digitos suos su- 
pra calicem cum vino vel aqua, 
dicendo : 

When tho priste has rinsynge done, 

Upon thi fete thou stonde up sone : 

Then tho clerke flyttis ys boke, 

Agayne to tho south auter noke : 

Tho priste tumes til his seruyce, 

And saies forth more of his office/' Museum MS, 
^^ '' Postquam omnes cammunicaveruni, dicit : Quod ore sumpsimus, &c. 
Microhgus, cap. xxiii. Compare what the same ancient writer says in an- 
other place : '* Postquam omnes communicayerint dicit sacerdos hanc ora- 
tionem sub silentio, Quod ore sumpsimus. Qua finita sequitur oratio sive 
orationes post communionem dicendae.'* Cap. 19. Many forms of prayer 
after receiying are in the collections of Martene : de ant, Ecc, rit, tom. i. 
212, ficc. 




Canon ^iflfae. 



licem: quo 
hausto, sequa- 
tur hac ora- 
iio : 

HMC nos communio, Domine, (Domine, commnnio, Ehor.) 
purget a crimine : et ccslestis remedii faciat esse consortes. 
(Per Christum. Ebor, Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Finita oratio" 
ne: eat sacer- 
dos in medio 
altaris, ibidem 
calicem super 
patenam ja^ 
centem dimit- 
tens: etsecum 
magna venera-' 
tione respicien-- 
dum crucem 
inclinans, di- 
cat in memo^ 
ria passionis 

Post perceptionem ab- 
lutionum ponat sacer- 
dos calicem super pate- 
nam : ut si quid rema- 
neat stillet; et postea 
inclinando se dicat : 

ADORAMUS (Adoremus. Bangor) 
crucis signaculum, per quod salu- 
tis sumpsimus sacramentum* 

^^ (Qvem potavi. Herf. and Rom.) This prayer was necessarily altered, 
after the Cup was denied to ail except the officiating Priest. Anciently it 
was in the plural number : and occurs in the old Gothic Liturgy ; '* Corpus 
tuum, Domine, quod accipimus {accepimus?) et calicem tuum {calixtmul) 
quem potavimus, &c.'' Thorn, Missale Gothicum, p. 392. It is in the sin- 
gular, however, in the ancient Missal edited by Flaccus Illyricus : but that 

Canon a^tifae* 

Hebford. Rom. 


H^C nos communio, Do- 
mine, purget a crimine : 
et coelestis remedii faciat esse 
consortes. Per Christum Do- 
minum nostrum. Amen. 
Tunc abluat cum aqua, et redeat 
ad medium altaris cum ilia ab^ 
iutione, et ibi sumat earn et ite- 
rum dicat : 

Interim porrigit Calicem mi- 
nistroj quiinfundit in eoparum 
viniy quo se purificat : deinde 
prosequitur : 

CORPUS tuum, Domine, quod sumpsi, et calix, (Sanguis, 
Bom.) quem potavi,^* adhsereant semper (adheereat, Bom.) 
visceribus meis : 

et prsesta, ut in me non rema* 
neat macula peccati, in quem 
pura et sancta introierunt sa- 
cramenta corporis et sanguinis 
tui. Qui vivis et regnas. 

et prsesta, ut in me non rema- 
neat scelerum macula, quem 
pura et sancta refecerunt Sa- 
cramenta. Qui vivis et regnaff 
in ssecula seeculorum. Amen. 

scarcely can prove much, as it seems allowed, that that famous blunder (as 
regarded the purpose of its first editor) is rather to be considered as a 
manual of prayers which might be used by the officiating Priest, mixed up 
in no exact arrangement, with the much more ancient Roman Sacramentary. 
In it, besides, the Cup is appointed to be given also to the assistant Clergy : 
though there appears to be some doubt as to the people. 



Deinde lavet manus:'^^ 
diaconus interim cor- 
poralia complicet?^ Ab- 
lutis manihus et rede^ 
unte sacerdote ad dex- 
terum comu altaris : 
diaconus calicem porri- 
gat ori sacerdotisy si 
quid infusionis in eo re- 
manserit resumendum. 
Postea vera dicai cum 
suis ministris comniii- 

Deinde facto signo crucis 
se sacerdos ad populum : 

Canon o^ifOit. 


Tunc cum ista 
oratione eat 
sacerdos ad 
dextrum cor~ 
nu altarisy et 
abluat mantis. 
Post perception 
nem sacra^ 
menti sacer- 
dote ad manus 
abluendas ve~ 
niente, diaco- 
nus corporalia 
complicet : et 
in loculoponaf. 
Postea vero ip- 
sa corporalia, 
cum offertorio 
vel sudario, ca- 
lici supponat. 
Ablutis mani- 
bus revertat se 
ad dexterum 
comu altaris, 
et dicat una 
cum ministris 
suis commU" 
in facie vertat 
elevatisque ali- 


^* " Cardinal Wolsey officiated at S. Paul's, where, it seems, some of the 
principal nobility gave him the basin to wash at high Mass. He is charged 
with intolerable pride, for suffering persons of the first quality to do this 
office : however, the matter is capable of a fairer construction than is gene- 
rally put upon it. For the holding the basin at high mass may rather be 
supposed a ministration in religion, and an honour to God Almighty, than 
any respect to the Cardinal : and if the ceremony was thus paid, why might 
it not be received under the same consideration ? '^ Collier. £cc. Hist vol. 
ii. 18. 

^^ {Corporalia complicet) '*Quod ita pllcari debet, ut nee initium^ nee 

Canon ej^tlTat 135 

Herford. Rom. 

Tunc ponat calicem jacentem Abluit digitosjextergitjetsumit 

super patenam, et inclinet se ad ablutionem : extergit osy et Ca-- 

altare, et eat ad sacrarium et licejn guem operitj et plicato 

lavet manus suaSj et in eundo Corporali, coUocat in altari ut 

dicat : prius : deinde prosequitur Mis- 

LAVABO inter innocentes sam. 
manus meas : et circum- 
dabo altare tuum^ Domine. 

Deinde reversus ad altare dicat 

Sua dicta signet se et vertat se 
ad populum et dicat : 

finis appareat, sicut etiam sudarium in sepulchro Domini inventum est. 
Sudarium est ligamentum capitis/^ Alcuin, De dirinis Officiis. Bibl. 
Pair, Auct, torn. i. p. 282. 

^ (Communionem.) This was an Antiphon, or verse taken from a Psalm, 
which varied with the day : and was sung whilst the people communicated. 
See Gerbert. torn. i. p. 468. S. Augustine speaks of it, in his own time at 
Carthage: ** Ut hymni ad altare dicerentur de Psalmorum libro, sive ante 
oblationem, sive cum distribueretur populo quod fuisset oblatum/^ Re- 
tract, lib. ii. cap. sj. On the practice of the old Gallic Church, see Ma- 
billon. De Lit. Gallic, lib. i. 5. 27. 

136 Canon ^t(ra^« 

Sarum. Bangor, Ebor. 

quanfuluni brachiis tt junctis manibus 
dicat : 

DOMINUS vobis- T^ O M I- 
cum. LJ N U S 

Et iterum reoertens se ad altare dicat : 

o remus. /^i^e- 

kJ mus. 

Deinde dicat postcommunionem : '^^juxta 
numerum et ordincm antedictarum ova-- 
tionum ante epistolam, Finita tdtipna 
postconimunione'^^ factoque signo crucis 
in fronte^ iterum vertat se sacerdos ad 
populuniy et dicat : 

Dominus vobiscum. 
Deinde diaconus : 
Benedicamus Domi- 


In • alio vei^o tempore 

dicitur : 

Ite, missa est.®* 

^^ (Post communionem.) A short prayer, which like the Commamo, yaried 
with the office of the day. Some antient copies of the Gregorian and Gela- 
sian Sacramentaries prefix instead the title : ^* ad complendum.*' Which is 
followed in the Leofric Missal. It is to this that S. Augustine alludes, 
when writing to Paulinus, he says '' Participato tanto Sacramento, gratia- 
rum actio cuncta concludit/^ It was especially intended for those who had 
communicated : as Walafrid Strabo, de rebus Ecc. cap. xxii. declares, '^ ejus 
petitio maxime pro iis est, qui communicant.'^ Micrologtu repeats this, and 
in another place says, that in numher they ought to correspond with the 
collects and secret prayers before the Preface. See also Radulph, Tungr* 
prop. 23. '' ante ipsas communicare non negligunt, quicunque earundem 
orationum benedictione foveri desiderant.'* De Canonum observantia, 

^^ During Lent in the old English Missals, a prayer was appointed to be 
said after the Post-Communion, called the *' super populum :" and preceded 
by the form, '* Humiliate capita vestra Deo.'' This was very ancient, as 
may be seen by an examination of Cardinal Thomasius' edition of the Ge- 
lasian Sacramentary : and was for a long time said during the whole year : 
but afterwards was restricted to the season of Lent, that the people might 
during their discipline, be the better fortified by the prayers and benedic- 
tions of the Church, against the malice of the Devil. jLs Amalarius says, 
Ibe intention was : '* Si omni tempore necesse est paratum esse bellicosum, 

Canon Q^ifCat 




y^OMINUS vobiscum. 

Et dicat postcomniunionem, 

Et ad jinevi orationis jungat 
wanusy et eat ad medium altaris 
dicendo : 

PER Dominum nostrum Je- 
sum Christum Filium tu- 
um. Qui tecum vivit. 
Iterum signet se et vertat ad po^ 
pulum et dicat: 
Dominus vobiscum. 
Jntequam revertatur dicaty Ite: 
in revertendo dicatj missa est. 
In missis quando rum dicitur, 
Gloria in excelsis, dicatur : 
Benedicamus Domino. 

DictOypost ultimam orationemj 

Dominus vobiscum. 

1^. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

dicity pro Misses qualitate^ vel 

Ite missa est^ vel 

Benedicamus Domino. 

]^. Deo gratias. 

ad versus insidias sive impetus inimicorum : quanto inagis in procinctil? 
Quadragesiraali tempore scit adversarius noster a sancta Ecclesia singulars 

certamen commissum esse contra se. ^Vult sacerdos noster ut nostris 

armis vestiti simus : propterea jubet per ministrum, ut humiliemus capita 
nostra Deo, et ita tandem infundit super milites protectionem benedictionis 
suae." iift. iii. cfl;?. 37. Compare ifcf/croZog-M*. cap. 61. These prayers are 
still retained in the Roman Missal. 

^ {Benedicamus Domino,) The reason why sometimes this form, and 
sometimes the " Ite missa est :" was used, seems to be, that upon the lesser 
festivals, only the more religious and spiritually disposed would make a prac-* 
tice of being present, who were not to be so suddenly, as it were, dismissed, 
but rather were to give thanks to God. Upon the greater feasts, a large 
number of people of all occupations would probably attend, and to these 
the '' Ite missa est" would be a license to depart. See Micrologus, cap. 46. 

" ** Then when thou heris say ite, 
Or benedicamus if hit be : 
Then is tho messe al done, 
Bot yit this prayere thou make right sone : 
Aftir hit wele thou may, 
In gods name wende thi way.'^ Miueum MS. 

138 Canon 6S^tirae. 

Sarum. Bangor. Ebor. 

Suotiescuvique enim 

dicitur, Ite missa est: 

semper dicitur ad po^ 

pulum convert endo.^ 

Et cum did debt^at, Be- 

nedicamus Domino : 

convertendo ad altare 


His dictisy sacerdos inclinato corporCj Sacerdos hie inclinato 

junctisque manibuSy tacita voce coram corpore junctisque ma- 

altari in medio dicat hanc orationem : nibiis, tacita voce in me-- 

dio altaris dicat hanc 

PLACEAT tibi,®* sanctaTrinitas, obsequium servitutis mese^et 
prsesta : ut hoc sacrificium quod oculis Majestatis tu8&(tuse 
Majestatis, Ebor, et Bangor,) indignus obtuli^ tibi sit (sit tibi, 
Ebor,) acceptabile: mihique et omnibus pro quibus illud obtuli, 
sit, te miserante, propitiabile. Qui vivis et regnas. (Deus. Per 
omnia ssecula seeculorum. Amen. Sar, et Bangor, ) 
2ua finita erigat se sacerdos j signans se 
in facie sua^ dicens : 

IN nomine Patris, TN nomine 
etc, X Patris, et 

Filii, et Spiri- 

^ This turning of the Deacon towards the people or towards the altar, if 
** Benedicamus'^ was said, is noticed by many of the ancient ritualists: 
Micrologus, cap. 46. '' Cum Ite, Missa est, dicimus, ad populum vertimur, 
quem discedere jubemus ; cum autem, Benedicamus Domino, non ad popu- 
lum sed ad altare, id est, ad Dominum vertimur, nosque ipsos non ad dis- 
cedendum, sed ad benedicendum Domino adhortamur." So also, Du- 
randus: lib. iv, cap, 57. Belethus, cap. 49. &c. In some Churches of 
France, Le Bi^n says, that the Deacon turned towards the North, but why, 
he knows not. 

^ Micrologus gives us also, (and writing in the eleventh Century he is 
the first author who notices it) the rule which governed the sajring either of 
the one form or the other. '* Semper autem cum Gloria in excelsis, etiam, 
Te Deum, et, Ite Missa est, recitamus.'* Cap. 46. That is, upon the Lord's 

Canon ej^iiTae. 139 

Herford. Rom. 

Tunc vnclinet se cumjunctis Dicto Ite missa est, vel Bene- 

manibu^ ad altare, dicens : dicamus Domino, Sacerdos in- 

dinat se ante medium ^altarisy 
et vianibus junctis super illudy 

PLACEAT tibi, sancta Trinitas, obsequium servitutis meae, et 
praesta : ut (hoc, Herford) sacrificium, quod oculis tusB Ma- 
jestatis indignus obtuli, tibi sit acceptabile : mihique et omnibus' 
pro quibus illud obtuli, sit, te miserante, propitiabile. (Qui vivis. 
Herford. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. Rom.) 

Et oscukfur altare. Deinde osculatur altare: et ele- 

vatis oculiSf extendens, elevansy 
et jungens manus^ caputque 
Cruci inclinansy dicit : 

BENEDICAT vos omnipo- 
tens Deus. 
Et versus ad populum, semel 

day, and Greater Festivals. 

'' Ad Missas de Requiem quod attinet, Stepbanus Augustodunensis ex 
600. jam annis nos raonuit loco Ite Missa est, did Requiescant in pace, 
Non ergo populum per Ite Missa est dimitti congrueret, cum fere Missam 
sepultura, precesque consequantur, quae sane persuadere adstantibus debeut, 
ut ne recedant.'* Le Brun. r. 323. Vide. Belethus, cap. 49. 

®* Although the Ordines Romani do not mention this prayer, it is never- 
theless very ancient, and occurs in the MS. edited by lUyricus, in many 
others of equal date, and is noticed by Micrologus. The reason why the 
old Ordines omit it, possibly is, because in fact the Service is already over, 
having concluded with the *' Ite, Missa est.'' So in many MSS. it is headed 
post Missam, and Micrologus says : *' Finita Missa, dicit, Placeat tibi, 
Sancta Trinitas.'' Cap. 23. 

HO Canon ^ilTae. 

Sarum. Bangor. EbOr. 

tussancti. A- 

Ei sic inclinatione facta^ eo ordine, quo 
prills accesserunt ad altare in principio 
missie, sic induli cum ceroferariis et 
cateris ministris redeant. Sacerdos vero 
in redeundo dicat Evangclium :^ In 

^ This Lection was the first 14 verses of the 1st Chapter of the Gospel 
according^ to S. John. It is said that in the Use of the Church of Rome, it 
was not obligatory, until the last revision, after the Council of Trent : but 
the rubrics of the Bangor and Sarum Missals do not seem to leave a discre- 
tion, tn some of the Churches of France, it is still said, not at the Altar, 
but &s in Engltod anciently in returning to the Sacristy : in others standing 
at the entrance to it : and again, in some, in the Sacristy. In many of the 
Monastic Uses the saying of this Gospel has not been at any time admitted 
at all. 

The directions when this Gospel is to be omitted according to the modem 
Roman Liturgy, and knothef read in its stead, are given in the Rvbr, Gen, 
xiij. 2. 

^ '* Cum vero sacerdos exuerit casulam et alia indumenta sacerdotalia, dicat 
psdlmos subscriptos: cum antiph, Trium puerorum. ps, Benedicite sacer- 
dotes: usque ad Jinem cantici. ps, Laudate Dominum in Sanctis ejus: totui 
psalmus. Nunc dimittis servum : cum Gloria Patri. et sicut erat. Deinde 
dicitur tota antiph, Trium puerorum cantemus h3rmnum, quern cantabant 
in camino ignis benedicentes Dominum. Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. 
Kyrie eleyson. Pater noster. Et ne nos. Sed libera nos. Benedicamus 
Patrem, et Filium, cum sancto Spiritu. Laudemus et superexaltemus eum 
ssecula. Benedictus es Domine in firmamento coeli. £t laudabilis et glo- 
riosus in saecula. 

Benedicat et custodiat nos sancta Trinitas. Amen. Non intres In judi- 
cium cum servo tuo, Domine. Quia non justificabitur in conspectu tuo 
omnis vivens. Domine Deus virtu turn converte nos. £t ostende faciem 
tuam et salvi erimus. Domine exaudi orationem meam. Et clamor meus 
ad te veniat. Dominus vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo. Oremus. 

Deus, qui tribus pueris mitigasti fiammas ignium, concede propitius, ut 

Canon ^iflfae. 141 

Herforv. Rom. 

tantum benedicens, prosequitur : 
Pater, et Filius + et Spiritus 
sanctus. ^. Amen. 
Dum deponit vestimenta sua^ Deinde in cornu Evangeliij 
vel in eundo ab altari usque ad dicto, Dominus vobiscum, et 
vestibulum, dicat ant: Trium Initium, vel Sequentia sancti 
Puerorum. Evangelii, signans altare, vel 

librum, et se^ legit Evangelium 
secundum Joannem^ In prin- 
cipio erat Verbum. vel aliud 
Evang. ut dictum est in Rubri- 
cis generalibus. Cum dicit, Et 
Verbum caro factum est, Genu- 
fleciit : In fine ^ Ijfe. Deo gratias. 

no8 famulos tuos non exurat flamma vitiorum. 

Oratio, Ure igne sancti Spiritus renes nostros et cor nostrum, Domine : 
ut tibi casto corpore serviamus, et mundo corde placeamus. 

Oratio, Actiones nostras quaesuraus, Domine, aspirando prseveni et ad- 
juvando prosequere : ut cuncta nostra operatio et a te semper incipiat, et 
per te coepta finiatur. Et finiantur ha tres orationes sic: Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen." Sar, Miss, Edit, 1492. 

With the above agrees in the main, the Bangor Use. The York, has 
also nearly the same verses and responses, with one collect only, viz. 
*' Deus, qui tribus :*' and headed % Orationes post missam communes. The 
Hereford appoints similar verses and responses, and the prayer, '' Deus, 
qui tribus,'' followed by " alia oratio,'* 

^' Protector in te sperantium Deus, sine quo nihil est validum, nihil sanc- 
tum : multiplica super nos misericordiam tuam, ut te rectore, te duce, sic 
transeamus per bona temporalia, ut non amittamus setema. Per.'' 

On the same page, immediately preceding the Canon, in the Salisbury 
Missal of 1492, upon which is the '' oratio dicenda ante missam,^* which I 
have already given, (Note l.p. 1) is the following, '' Oratio dicendapost Mis- 
sam, Omnipotens sempiteme Deus Jesu Christe Domine, esto propitiiis 
peccatis meis, per assumptionem corporis et sanguinis tui. Tu enim lo- 
quens dixisti : qui manducat meam carnem et 1[)ibit meum sanguinem, in 
me manet et ego in eo, ideo te supplex deprecor : ut in me cor mundum 
crees, et spiritum rectum in visceribus meis innoves, et spiritu principali me 
confirmare digneris, atque ab omnibus insidiis diaboli ac vitiis emundes : 
ut gaudiorum ccelestium merear esse particeps. Qui vivas et regnas Deus, 
per omnia scecula saeculorum. Amen." 

Many editions contain more prayers to be said at the Priest's choice both 
before and after the Service. These two only are so appointed in the first 
Edition. The Bangor and Hereford Missals do not give any : in my copy 

142 Canon a^iorae* 

of the York Use, a very loog prayer is printed before the Ordinary, to be 
said before the Service, ** quam sanctus Augustinus composuit :'' and the 
following at the end of the Canon. 

** IT Oratio dicenda post celebrationem misstB. Gratias ago tibi, dulcissime 
Domine Jesu Christe, lux vera, salus credentium, solatium tristium, spes- 
que cunctorum, gaudium angelorum : qui me miserum et magnum pecca- 
torem famulum tuum hodie sacratissimo corpore et sanguine tuo pascere 
dignatus es. Ideo et ego miserrimus et innumerabilibus criminibus infectus, 
lachrymosis precibus imploro benignissimam misericordiam tuara, et sum- 
mam clementiam, ut haec dulcissima refectio, summa et incomprehensibilis 
communio, non sit mihi judicium animse m^ae sed prosit mihi in remedium 
ad evacuaudas omnes insidias et nequitias diabolicse fraudis, ita ut nulla 
ejus dominetur iniquitas in corde, corpore, anima, et sensibus meis, sed tua 
dementia me perducat ad supema convivia angelorum, ubi tu es vera beati- 
tudo, clara lux, sempiterna laetitia. Amen/' 



•- ■ '\ 

atilJttional Jlote 

:^hhmomi mtt. 


SAVING determined, as has been already 
1 stated in the Preface, not to give so full a body 
of Notes upon the Ordinary and Canon, as I 
I had at one time proposed to myself, I still 
think that there are some obserrations which may fitly 
be put together in this place, and some extracts and 
other documents relating to the Liturgy, by way of an 
additional Note ; which I trust will not be found alto- 
gether without their use. 

I. First then, upon the origin of the word Mtssa. 
Some, with Baronius, have traced it to the Hebrew; 
Missah, which signifies an oblation : others to the Greek ; 
f«unirif : and some few, of whom AlbaE^inseus is the chief 
authority, to the German ; Mess, or Mes. With re- 
spect to this latter derivation, a late very superficial 
writer, notwithstanding that it has been long exploded 
among the best learned in the subject, has not hesitated 
to state that '* it can admit of no doubt." * Some other 
derivations, not necessary to be mentioned, have been 
proposed : and lastly, that which, as it appears to me, 
Cardinal Bona has completely established to be the true 
one : that it is a genuine Latin word, a mittendo .- and 

' Hampson. Medii svi Kalen- wished that some ime really learned 

darium. vol. ii. p. 263. This is a would give lu a work which the 

work uaeful in some pomts, but above scarcely inakea more than a 

cannot be recommended to the Stu- pretence to be. By far the best 

dent : being written in a bigoted , at present, is the Chronology of 

spirit of ignorant hostility to Ca- Hilary, by Sir H. NicoUs. 
tholic Truth. Much is it to be 

annittonal jeot^. 145 

derived from the usual form by which, first the Catechu- 
mens and others were dismissed, and secondly the Faith- 
ful at the conclusion of the Service : " Ite, Missa est." 

For further information, I shall refer the reader to the 
following authorities : all of whom treat fully upon the 
matter, and in fact exhaust it. Baronius. Ann. 34. 
Bellarmin. de Missa. lib. v. cap. 1. Bona, Opera, tom. 
i. lib. i. cap. 1. and Salads additions to his text. Casa- 
lius. de Christian. Rit. cap. 9. Cassander. Liturgica. 
cap. 26. {Opera, p. 55.) Durant. de Ritibus. lib. ii. cap. 
1 . Van Espen. tom. i. p. 410. Du Cange. Glossarium : 
and, Gavantus. Thesaurus, tom. i. p. 7. These are 
works which are more easily to be obtained than are the 
older Ritualists, Micrologus, Alcuin, Isidore, Hugo Vic- 
torinus, &c. who agree with them : and having examined 
them, as well as those who hold the contrary opinion, I 
repeat that the question seems to be completely settled, 
that Missa, is derived " a mittendo," and the " Ite, missa 

II. The word " Missa," especially in the most ancient 
writers and ecclesiastical documents, such as Monastic 
Statutes and decrees of Councils, does not always signify 
"the Liturgy," or "Office of the Holy Communion." 
It means sometimes the dismission from any Divine 
Office: sometimes the portion of the Service at which 
Catechumens were present, sometimes again that to 
which only the Faithful were admitted : also, as I have 
had occasion to remark before, (Note 7. p. 83.) it occa- 
sionally means "Collects," or "Lections" or even the 
" Hora Canonica," and in later ages, the " feast-day," as 
our own Christ-mas, and Michael-mas. I again refer the 
student to the authors before named, especially Bonaj 
and Du Cange. There is usually little difficulty in de- 
termining whether the term is to be taken in its strict 
and more usual, or in its improper sense : and instances 
are not very abundant of its use, even in early writers, 
in other than its true meaning, as applied to the Liturgy. 

146 atitiitionai ]l3ote« 

III. As "Missa*' is to be understood sometimes as 
other than "the Liturgy," so the Liturgy had other 
names than Mhsa. Such, among the Greeks were 
Mystagogia, Sjmaxis, Telete, Anaphora, and Prosphora : 
and among the Latins: CoUecta, Dominicum, Agenda, 
Communio, and Oblatio. 

IV. I pass on to the chief kinds of Masses : and these 
were (1.) Missa Solemnis : or, that which was celebrated 
with the full attendance of the Priest and his Ministers, 
Deacon, Sub-deacon, and Acolytes : with the proper 
solemnities of Incensing, &c. and in short all the cere- 
monies which the full rubrics of the particular Church 
appointed. Under this head were included the Missa 
Pontificia Episcopalisy and Abbatialis : when a Bishop 
or mitred Abbot officiated, Pontijicaliter. 

(2.) Missa Alta : or, as it is now commonly called in 
England, by the members of the Roman Communion, 
Hiffh Mass. This is the same as the Missa Solemnis : 
and appears to have been a term chiefly in use in this 
Country. Gavantus cites only from a Charter in Bi/- 
mefs Foedera : " usque summum Altare ad Altam 
Missam celebrandam accesseram." Tom. vii. p. 139. 
But the term (and also Missa magna) occurs not unfre- 
quently in the York and Sarum Missals. 

(3.) Missa Puhlica: at which persons of either sex 
were permitted to attend : and was so called from that 
circumstance, and not from the place where it was cele- 
brated, " quia olim" says Gavantus^ " in cryptis et abdi- 
tis locis celebrabatur." These were forbidden in Monas- 
teriies, for obvious reasons. The Missa Communis seems 
to have been the same as the Puhlica. 

(4.) Missa Privatay was celebrated by the Priest with 
only one attendant, and is that which is now commonly 
called in England, Low-Mass; or Missa Bassoj or 
Plana: that is, as distinguished from Missa Alta, or 
Solemnis : but as opposed to the Missa Publica, it means 
that, at which, whether the people were present, or not, 

annitional il5ote- 147 

the Priest alone communicated. The M issa Privata must 
not be confounded with the Missa Sditaria ; which last, 
although for a time it was not uncommon in Monasteries, 
was at length altogether forbidden : and was that in which 
a Priest consecrated and performed the Divine Service, 
not only privately, but without any attendant Minister. 

The following examples will prove how early care was 
taken in England to prevent this abuse. At a Council 
of York, A.D. 1195, it was decreed, " Cum inter caetera 
ecclesiae sacramenta hostia salutaris praeemineat, tanto 
impensior circa eam debet existere devotio sacerdotum, 
ut cum humilitate conficiatur, cum timore sumatur, cum 

reverentia dispensetur : nee sine ministro literate ce- 

lebretur."* Some centuries earlier, there are in the 
Anglo-Saxon Ecclesiastical Institutes, two remarkable 
decisions upon this point : which would appear to prove 
that in those days, one minister alone present was not 
sufficient. " At such times when ye attend the gemot 

of bishops, have II priests or III or as many laymen 

called, that they may reverently celebrate the holy mys- 
tery with you." Almost immediately after follows : 
^* Mass-priests shall not, on any account celebrate mass 
alone, without other meriy butan o«jiam mannam, that he may 
know^ whom he addresses, and who responds to him. 
He shall address those standing about him, and they 
shall respond to him. He shall bear in mind the Lord's 
sajring, which he said in his Gospel. He said : " there, 
where two or three men shall be gathered in my name, 
there will I be in the midst of them. " * 

Van Espenj after some remarks for and against the 
validity of these Solitary Masses, says : " Quidquid sit, 
hoc certum est Missas has solitarias quae a solo Sacerdote, 

* Wil^ins. Concilia, torn. i. p. Durham, " Ad augendum vero di- 

501. Compare also, in the same vini, &c." 

vol. p. 707. Tke Constitutions of ^ Thorpe. Antient Laws. vol. ii. 

Walter de Kirkham, Bishop of p. 405. 407. 

H^ atmittonal Ji^otev 

nemine praesente aut ministrante, pristinis seculis ignotas^ 
fiiisse : privatas vero olim rariores quam hodie ; hasque 
posterioribus seculis nimium esse multiplicatas."* 

(5.) Of the same kind as the Missa Privata, were the 
Missa Familiaris, and Peculiaris:^ the Specialise and 

(6.) The Missa Votiva strictly meant a Mass which 
the Priest said at his own option; not agreeing with 
the Office appointed for the day. This,, of course, was 
subject to certain rules. But in a wider sense, those 
were called Votive Ma^sseSy which by a statute of the 
Church were fixed to be said at certain times ; and they 
were so-called with respect to the Church herself, by 
whose devotion they had been so prescribed. Such was 
the "Missa pro defunctis" which was to be said upon 
the second day of November. 

(7.) The Missa Prcesanctijicatorumj was a species of 
imperfect Service, in which no Consecration was made, 
and the Priest communicated of the Oblation which had 
been consecrated upon a previous day. In the Greek 
Church during Lent these only are allowed, except 
upon Saturdays and Sundays, and the Feast of the An- 
nunciation : in the Latin Church it was limited to Good 

(8.) With this the Missa Sicca has been often con- 
founded : but there is an essential distinction : because 
this last not only was without consecration, but without 
communion : a mere repetition and a most objectionable 
one, of part only of the Service, without consecration 
and without communion. It was in fact almost a mockery. 

* Jus. Ecc, Uhiversum, Pars, obligent, quo minus valeant C». 

II. sect. i. tit. 5. nonico Officio commissam sibi offi- 

'^ There is a Constitution of John ciare Ecclesiam, ut tenentur." And 

Peecham '* Sacerdotes caveant uni- see Lyndwoodls Gloss, lib. iij. tit. 

versi, ne Missarum peculiarium, 23. De celeb. Miss. Sacerdotes 

seu familiarium se Celebrationi caveant 

anntttonal jfSote. 149 

and long before the Reformation was abolished through- 
out the Christian world. Durand's account of it is: 
" Potest sacerdos accepta stola Epistolam et Evangelium 
legere, et dicere orationem Dominicam, et dare bene- 
dictionem ; quinimo si ex devotione, non ex supersti- 
tione velit totum officium missae sine sacrificio dicere, 
accipiat omnes vestes sacerdotales, et missam suo ordine 
celebret, usque ad finem offerendse, dimittens secreta, 
quae ad sacrificium pertinent. Praefationem vero dicere 
potest, licet in eadem videantur Angeli invocari ad con- 
secrationem Corporis et Sanguinis Christi. De Canone 
vero nihil dicat, sed orationem Dominicam non praeter- 
mittat, et quae ibi sequuntur sub silentio dicenda non 
dicat : calicem et hostiam non habeat : nee de his, quae 
super calicem seu eucharistiam dicuntur, vel fiunt, ali- 
quid dicat, vel faciat. Potest etiam dicere * Pax Domini 
sit semper etc' et exinde missae officium suo ordine per- 

There is some doubt after all, although Durand speaks 
thus decidedly, whether the Missa Sicca was at any 
time permitted in the Catholic Church. Quarti and 
Merati think that it was so : but against these are even 
greater ritualists, among whom are Cardinal Bona, and 
Benedict XIV. But there is evidence certainly that 
another, the same in fact, viz. the Missa nautica or 
navalis was at one time allowed, " tempore navigationis, 
quando scilicet ob periculum effiisionis non licebat cele- 


I have been the more particular in remarking upon 
this Missa, because some' people ignorantly call the 
Office, which frequently is used in the Church of Eng- 
land now, consisting of the first part of our Communion 
Service, and ending either with a Sermon, or after the 
prayer for the Church Militant, a Missa Sicca: but. 

^ Lib. iv. cap. i. 23. 

ISO znnitiomi Bote. 

whatever else it may be called, (and I confess I am at a 
loss myself for a name) we are free from the disgrace, 
for it has none of the characteristics of that barren ser- 
vice. Indeed rather, those who suffered so much as I 
have just mentioned, to be said on certain days, very 
carefully placed the limits to which we are perinitted to 
go, short of the beginning of the solemn part of the Li- 
turgy itself : and the Divine Providence, which has ever 
watched over our Church, has not suffered that Holy 
Service to be subject to so great a scandal. 

Besides the above, there are many other kinds of 
Masses, the names of which may be found and a full ex- 
planation of them in Gavantics^ Bona^ and other writers. 
I have very briefly noticed the chief differences, and 
those which relate to the Church of England before the 

V. I shall not make any attempt at a short account of 
the various Vestments, which the Priest wore in cele- 
brating the Divine Mysteries. A good arrangement 
which without repetition would give us the sum of the 
information which is dispersed in very numerous volumes, 
is still to be desired : but for this I have not space. I 
shall therefore now state the names only, in the order in 
which they were to be put on. 1. The Amice. 2. The 
Alb. 3. The Girdle. 4. The Maniple. 5. The Stole. 
6. The Chasuble. Full information about these, as well 
as other Ecclesiastical Vestments, is to be collected, 
(without mentioning rarer works) from Gavantus, Car- 
dinal Bona, Durand, Durant, Du Cange ; and of modem 
writers, Dr. Rock's Hierurgia, and Mr. Pugin's Glos- 

But I shall extract the following from the Pontifical 
of the Church of Exeter, of which I have given an ac- 
count in my dissertation on the Service Books.^ 

' Monumenta Ritualia* vol. i. 

Stutitttonal Bott 1 5 1 

' "yo/. 1. Modus induendi episcopum ad solemniter ce- 
lebrandum. Primo veniat pontifex ante altare, vel alibi 
ubi dispositum fuerit, et prostratus breviter oret, et sur- 
gens ponat se ad cathedram et statim incipiantur psalmi 
consueti : * Quam dilecta : ' cum caeteris, ut supra. In- 
terim ministri vel domicelli caligas cum sandalis secrete 
extenso superiori indumento ei subministret. Deinde 
manutergium cum aqua ad lavandum deportent. Postea 
exuat cappam et induat amictum, albam, et stolam, et 
reliquias circa coUum, ac deinceps tunicam, dehinc dal- 
maticam et manipulum. Et tunc sedendo chirothecas 
manibus imponat, et annulum pontificalem magnum, una 
cum uno parvo strictiori annulo ad tenendum fortius 
super imponat. Et sudarium retortum in manu recipiat 
ad faciem extergendam. Et sic sedendo post psalmos 
infra scriptos orationes sequentes consuetas perdicat. 
Et cum hora fuerit, surgat et casulam induat, et mitram 
capiti imponat, et baculum pastoralem in manu sua sinis- 
tra assumat, curvatura baculi ad populum conversa, cu- 
jus contrarium faciant ministri tenendo baculum vel por- 
tando. Et sic choro cantando^ * Gloria Patri ' procedat 
de sacrario ad altare populum benedicendo." 

The psalms and the prayers above mentioned, follow 
on the reverse of the same folio. I have printed them 
below, from the Sarum Pontifical, together with the 
" Modus induendi Episcopum " at full length, from the 
same MS. The reader will see that it agrees exactly 
with the order in the Pontifical of Bishop Lacy. 

There is one point in the above, valuable as it all is, 
especially worthy of notice : viz. that the Maniple is 
directed to be put on before the Chasuble. Whereas 
the custom of the Church of Rome, and with two excep- 
tions all the Pontificals which Georgius had examined, 
(the most learned writer on that subject) appoint 
Bishops, when they officiate, to be vested with the Ma- 
niple last of all. And, indeed, this Exeter Pontifical 
expressly remarks the distinction. " Et sciendum quod," 


antiittonal Bote. 

it says, in the rubric before the prayers, "secundtun 
usum curiae Romanae, ultimo omnium datur et ponitur 
in veniendo ad altare Manipulus, in brachio sinistro^ et 
post missam primo amoveatur juxta illud : Venientes 
autem venient cum exultatione, portantes manipulos 
suos." The remark of Oeorgius is : " Praeterea mani- 
pulum celebraturi Pontifices sumebant post caetera sacra 

indumenta, sed in Pontificali tantum Prudentii Tre- 

censis imponitur post stolam, et in Sacramentario Moy- 
sacensis monasterii annorum 800. post zonam. Alias 
Liturgiae antiquae omnes statuunt, manipulum sumendum 
post reliqua sacerdotalia indumenta. &c."° Cardinal 
Bona says, that anciently all priests, and not Bishops 
only, received the Maniple last of the Vestments : ^ and 
this was rendered necessary by the peculiar shape of the 

VI. In the first ages of the Christian Church, when 
persecutions raged, and in all after times of like dangers 
and necessity, the Holy Communion was celebrated not 
only in secret places but at any hour either of the day 
or night, when the malice of the enemy might the more 
probably be escaped. Of these night-assemblies for the 
purpose of Communion, the " Missa in Nocte Nativitatis 
Domini," was for many ages in England, as it is still 
in all countries of the Roman Obedience, the last rem- 

The Rubric in the Note below" states the present 

^ De Lit. Rom. Pontificis. torn, 
i. p. 270. 

^ Compare also Hugo de Su' 
cram. lib. i. cap. 51. " De Favone. 
Ad extremum sacerdos favonem in 
sinistra brachio ponit, quem et ma- 
nipulum et Sudarium veteres appel- 
laverunt. &c." This author does 
not especially mention the Maniple 
among the Episcopal Vestments. 

See also Amalarius. lib. ii. cap* 
5. '* De introitu Episcopi ad Mis- 
sam." But Rahanus JSfaurtu 
speaks of it as a priestly Vestment, 
in its modern order. De InstU. 
Clericorum. cap. 18. 

^° " Cum Planeta totum corpus 
ambiret, &c." Tom. ii. p. 223. 

" " Missa privata saltern post 
Matutinum et X#audes quacunqutt 

anntttonal jl^ote. 


order of the Church of Rome : ^* and I shall proceed to 
cite some authorities, upon the ancient custom of the 
English Church. 

The first from a Constitution of Archbishop Ray- 
nold, published in the Council of Oxford, a.d. 1322. 
** NuUus insuper Sacerdos Parochialis prsesumat Missam 
celebrare, antequam Matutinale persolverit Officium, et 
Primam et Tertiam de die."** Lyndwood in his Gloss 
upon this, says, that the Matutinale Officium includes 
" totum illud, quod continetur in Nocturnis et in Lau- 
dibus." And, that although this Canon is especially 
directed towards Parish Priests, yet that every Priest is 
bound at least to say Matins, before he presumes to ce- 
lebrate. There are other Canons, which respect Paro- 
chial Communions, and these equally insist upon the 
Third Hour also being said before : because, says Lynd- 
wood, about the Third Hour our Blessed Lord was cru- 
cified, and, the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apos- 
tles. In considering these and similar Constitutions, 
the reader must remember that the Missa Parochialis 
was not necessarily a Missa Solemnis : but that, if it 

hora ab aurora usque ad meridiem 
dici potest. 

Missa autem Conveutualis et so- 
lemnis sequenti ordine dici debet. 
In festis duplicibus, et semiduplici- 
bus, in Dominicis, et infra Octavas, 
dicta in cboro Hora tertia. In fes- 
tis simplidbus, et in Feriis per an- 
num, dicta Sexta. In Adventu, 
Quadragesima, Quatuor Tempori- 
bas, etiam infra Octavam Pente- 
costes, et Vigiliis quae jejunantur, 
quamvis sint dies solemnes, Missa 
de Tempore debet cantari post No- 

Missa autem Defunctorum dici 
debet post Primam diei." Ruhr. 

Generates, xv. Some few excep- 
tions follow to these general rules. 
The reason why the Mass was to 
be said after Sext upon common 
days, appears to be, because it is 
neither a feast nor a fast, upon the 
one of which, after tierce, and upon 
the other, after the ninth hour was 
appointed for the Service. JBona 
says, from Francolinus, that an> 
tiently these days were 1^ with no 
fixed rule. 

^ Compare Amalartus* lib. iii. 
cap. 42. '^De consueto tempore 

^ WUkim. Concilia, torn. ii. p. 


anQitional Bote. 

was " sine cantu" even, it would be of the nature of a 
private Mass, and therefore not limited by the same 
strict rules as were the Services of greater solemnity.** 

In the Synod of Norwich, a.d* 1257, it was ordered 
" quod nuUus sacerdos celebret, quousque Prima cano- 
nice sit completa." ** And again, by the Constitutions 
of Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, a.d. 1240, to the 
same effect: but, on account of the reason which is 
given, I shall cite the canon at length. " Et quia, sicut 
accepimus, quidam capellani, ad annualia, vel ad officium 
beatae virginis assumpti, interdum matutinis prsepositis, 
aut seorsum, a choro vel ab ecclesia, per se dictis, missas 
celebrant immature, per campos, vel per villas postmo- 
dum discurrentes : praecipimus, ut onmes capellani, qui 
in una parochia conunorantur, simul intersint et conve- 
niant matutinis et vesperis, et aliis horis canonicis, in ec- 
clesiis celebrandis, et missis : et maxime de die, nisi causa 
rationabili fuerint impediti : nee aliquis celebret, quous* 
que Prima fuerit canonice completa." ^ 

There seems no necessity upon this point to add many 
examples: and I shall therefore only quote two more' 
from Monastic Statutes. The one, of the Hospital of 
Elsing Spital, London. This has reference also to the 
time before which mass should end. " Circa horam ter- 

tiam cujuslibet diei pulsatis primitus campanis, 

Missam de die, prout diei solemnitas requirit, decantent ; 

^* We must not forget either, 
that "the third Hour" admitted of 
some considerahle yariation from 
that which naturally and strictly 
was the corresponding hour of the 
Day. Hence, we find it laid down 
hy Van Espeni "Insuper ut po- 
pulus ad Missam Parochialem fre- 
quentandam incitetur, decretum est, 
ut Parochi statuta eaque populo 
commodiori hora Missam Parochia- 

lem diehus praesertim Dominicis et 
festis celehrent." Jus. JEccles, 
Pars. II. sect. i. tit. v. And he 
goes on to cite Councils which for- 
hid the stated hour to he put off, or 
hastened^ for the sake of rich Beigh-* 
hours ; and others, directing Bells 
to he rung to call the people toge- 

^^ Concilia, tom. i. p. 735. 

^ Concilia, tom. i. p. 668. 

atitittional Bote. 


ita quod hujusmodi Missa singulis diebus, circiter horam 
nonam, finiatur.^^ The other, from the rule of the Hos- 
pital of S. John Baptist, at Nottingham. "Insuper 
statuimus^ ut omnes fratres simul surgant ad Matutinas, 

cantatisque consequenter Prima et Tertia, celebre- 

tur missa.^® 

It has always been held, that the Holy Communion 
should not be celebrated, unless the Office of one of the 
Hours had been previously recited : whether of Tierce, 
Sext or the Ninth Hour. So that Lyndwood says : 
" potest coUigi, quod in Festo Natalis Domini celebra- 
turus primam Missam, quae solet cantari ante Laudes, 
debet prius perficere Matutinas et Primam." ^^ With 
whom agrees a more modern Ritualist. "Missa So- 
lemnis semper dicitur post aliquam Horam, etiam in 
nocte Nativitatis Domini : ut Horae Canonicae sint 


quasi quiedam ad Missam praeparatio."*^ 

VII. Although there can be no doubt that in the 
first beginnings of the Christian Church, the Holy Com- 
munion was celebrated not only in such places, but at 
such times and opportunities as would be the most likely, 
in periods of violent persecution, to escape observation ; 
and therefore, chiefly taking care not to omit it if pos- 
sible upon the Lord's day, as S. Austin tells us, it was 
subject occasionally to longer intervals than was per- 
mitted afterwards,^^ yet long before the age of the Coun- 

^^ Dugdale, Monast. Anglic 
vol. vi. p. 706. 

^ Monast. Anglic, vol. vi. p. 
679. See also Rites of the Church 
of Durham. " At ix of the clocke, 
ther rong a bell to masse, called 
the Chapter masse." P. 82. 

^ Lib. iii. tit. 23. Lmteamina 
CorporaUa, verb. Primam. 

^ Gavantus. Thes. Sacr. Rit. 
torn. i. p. 112. 

I must however, before passing 
on to the next subject, add the fol- 
lowing from Piers Ploughman. 

" The kyng and hise knyghtes, 
To the kirk wente, 
To here matyns of the day, 
And the masse after.*' 

Passus quintus. 

^ I am now speaking of the pre- 
vention of communion ; for there 

156 annttional Jl^ote. 

cil of Nice, the practice of priests consecrating daily, 
became common in most Churches. S. Cyprian's testi- 
mony is sufficient upon this point, who says, " Episcopatus 
nostri honor grandis et gloria est pacem dedisse mar- 
tyribus, ut sacerdotes, qui sacrificia Dei quotidie cele- 
bramus, hostias Deo et victimas praeparemus/'** 

This custom was not likely for many reasons to be- 
come, as time went on, less observed : and it is recorded 
of Alcuin, that at the request of Archbishop Boniface, 
he drew up Services for each day in the week ; T^hich 
might be used when otherwise the days would have been 
vacant, or have had no Proper Office. Or again, as 
Micrologus says : ** Et hoc ideo, ut presbyteri illius tem- 
poris nuper ad fidem conversi, nondum ecclesiasticis 
officiis instructi, nondum etiam librorum copia preediti, 
vel aUquid haberent, cum quo officium suum quaUbet die 
possent explere.^ And in the very ancient Missal which 
Flaccus Illyricus edited, the Priest after the Communion 
is directed to say this Prayer : " Obsecro etiam te piis- 
sime omnium auxiliator, ne ad damnationem aetemam 
mihi proveniat, quod quotidie cum conscientia poUuta, 

— corpus Christi Filii tui et sanguinem indignus audeo 

accipere." But, before the tenth Century, more than 
one Canon of Councils is to be found, not exactly direct- 
ing, so much as strongly exhorting all Priests to cele- 
brate daily.** I shall not however add other testimonies 
upon this point, except one of Bede, cited by Gabriel 
Biel ; ^ and which, whatever opinion we might have as 
to the truth of its doctrine, and validity of its argument, 

is no doubt that in the days of the cutions then had not begun. 

Apostles, no opportunity was lost 22 Epi8t54. Ad CorneHum. 

of receiving the consecrated ele- ^ 

ments: when "the multitude of . ' 

them that believed were of one ^ Mahillon. Annal. Benedict 

heart and of one soul," they con- P^aef. iv. 36. Gavantus.U^mA.^. 

tinned " daily breaking bread from 21. 

house to house." But the perse* ^ Lect 87. In Canonem* 

30liitional Bott. 157 

certainly declares the reason on which, in his day, the 
necessity of this practice was supposed to rest. " Sa- 
cerdos non legitime impeditus celebrare omittens, quan- 
tum in ipso est, privat sanctissimam Trinitatem laude et 
gloria, Angelos Isetitia, peccatores venia, justos subsidio 
et gratia, in purgatorio existentes refrigerio, Ecclesiam 
speciali Christi beneficio, et seipsum medicina et reme- 

There is no proof that in the Church of England, the 
practice of daily consecrating the Holy Eucharist, or 
even of the daily communion of the Clergy, was enforced 
by any Council, or rested upon other obligation than 
individual piety, or the statutes of some deceased bene- 
factor. In the Council of Cloveshoo, a.d. 747, it was 
decreed. Canon XIV. " Ut dominions dies legitima 
veneratione a cunctis celebretur, sitque divino tantum 
cultui dedicatus, omnes abbates ac presbyteri isto sacra- 
tissimo die in suis monasteriis atque ecclesiis maneant, 
missarumque solennia agant." And the end of the same 
canon extends the like obligation, in nearly as strong 
terms, to the people. ** Hoc quoque decemitur, quod 
eo die sive per alias festivitates majores, populus per 
sacerdotes Dei ad ecclesiam saepius invitatus, ad audi- 
endum verbum Dei conveniat : missarumque sacramen- 
tis, ac doctrinae sermonibus frequentius adsit."^ 

More than five hundred years after, we find no other 
order than the following : I quote from Lyndwood, on 
account of his Gloss upon it. " Statuimus insuper, ut 
quilibet Sacerdos, quem Canonica necessitas non excusat, 
conficiat omni Hebdomada, saltem semel."^ 

Upon the Canonica necessitous Lyndwood observes 
that such would be, if the Priest were suspended,, or ex- 
communicate, or in mortal sin : or, if he could not obtain 
access to a consecrated place : " nam in loco non sacrato, 

^ WUkins. Concilia, torn. i. p. 96. *' Lib. iii. Tit. 23. Altissimus. 



non est celebrandum sine licentia Episcopi." Or, if he 
has not the sacred Vestments: or even, "quia non 
habet Stolam et Manipulum." Or, if he has not an 
assistant : " et breviter, in omni casu ubi non potest ha- 
bere requisita ad Missae celebrationem, et confectionem 
Eucharistise, praesertim ea quae sunt de materia hujus 
Sacramenti." Upon the words saUem semelj his Gloss 
is. " Et hoc fiat die Dominica, si fieri poterit, juxta 
illud Aug. * Quotidie Eucharistiam communionem acci- 
pere nee laudo, nee vitupero : omnibus tamen Dominicis 
diebus ad communicandum hortor.' Et ista Constitutio 
facta est ad invitandum Presbyteros frequentius cele- 
brare, qui forsan vix quater in anno consueverunt cele- 

VIII. The great stress which was laid for some Cen- 
turies, upon the necessity of every Priest celebrating the 
Holy Service once every day, led, more especially (when 
men .began to suppose that the benefits of the Commu- 
nion might be purchased for money) for many reasons 
which will naturally occur to the reader, to a great 
abuse. And this was; that priests cpnsecrated more 
than once, and indeed many times, upon the same day. 
That this, in some instances, was the result of a mistaken 
piety and devotion only, unmixed with any baser motive, 
we cannot doubt, from the fact which Walafrid Strabo 
records, that Pope Leo the Third sometimes celebrated 

* He goes on to speak of ano- 
ther case : " Et hie nota, quod 
licet quidara dicant Sacerdotem non 
peccare, qui dimittit celebrationem 
Missse, nisi habeat populum sibi 
commissum, vel ex obedientia te- 
neatur celebrare : tamen quia, ut 
Grego, dicit, cum crescunt dona, 
rationes crescunt donorum. Ideo 
cum Sacerdoti sit data potestas no- 
bilissima, reus est negligentise nisi 

utatur ea ad honorem Dei et salu- 
tem animse susb, et aliorum vivo- 
rum et mortuorum : secundum illud, 
1. Petri. 4. Unusquisque^ sicut 
accepit graHamy alterutrum Ulam 
administreU &c. — Sacerdos enim 
tenetur Deo Sacrificium reddere, 
licet nuUi homini teneatur. Sacer- 
dotibus enim prseceptum est. Hoe 
fadte in meam commemoratio' 



9Dtrittonall^ote. 159 

nine times in one day. " Fidelium relatione virorum in 
nostram usque pervenit notitiam, Leonem Fapam (sicut 
ipse fatebatur) una die vij* vel ix. Missarum solennia 
saepius celebrasse."*^ 

But, in England, measures were very early taken to 
check (at least) the excess into which this practice, so 
very objectionable, was running. The 55th of the Ex- 
cerpts of Archbishop Egbert, a contemporary of the 
Venerable Bede, declares : " Et sufficit sacerdoti unam 
missam in una die celebrare, quia Christus semel passus 
est, et totum mundum redemit."** The 37th of the Canons 
enacted under K. Edgar, enjoins : " That no priest, on 
one day, celebrate mass oftener than thrice, at the very 
utmost." ^^ The 18th of the Laws of the Northumbrian 
priests, is to the same purpose : " If a priest in one day ce- 
lebrate mass oftener than thrice, let him pay xij ores."** 
In almost the same words as in Egbert s Excerptions, 
^Ifric speaks in his Pastoral Epistle : " It is much that 
Mass may be celebrated once in one day, though it be 
not celebrated oftener."** These bring us nearly to the 
period of the Norman Conquest, up to which time we 
find no more than repeated attempts to check (as I have 
said) the evil which existed : but soon after that event, 
there were very frequent orders, and more determinate, 
made in the Provincial and Diocesan Synods. Take the 
second Canon of the Council of London, a.d. 1200. 
" Non liceat presbytero bis in die celebrare, nisi neces- 
sitate urgente; et tunc idem cum in die bis celebrat, 
post primam celebrationem, et sanguinis sumptionem nil 

^ De Rebus Eccles. cap. 21. ^ Wilkim. Concilia, torn. i. p. 

But it has been said that this was 104. 

owing to the multitude whom he » Thorpe. Ancient Laws, &c 

was desirous to communicate : and ^^j^ jj^ 253, 

for all of whom he wished himself „ „ . , , .. ^^^ 

to celebrate. See Fleufy. Hist. "" ^'^' ^«^- ^^- P- 293. 

Eccl. torn. X. p. 158. ^ Ibid. vol. ii. p. 377. 

i6o atmttional Ji^ote. 

infundatur calici."** These cases of necessity seem ex- 
plained more fully, a few years later, in a Provincial 
Constitution of Archbishop Langton. " Bis in die cele- 
brare nullus praesumat, nisi in diebus nativitatis et resur- 
rectionis dominicae : et quando corpus in propria ecclesia 
fuerit tumulandum : et tunc in prima missa ablutio digi- 
torum vel calicis a celebrante non sumatur."** The 
Council of Durham, a.d. 1220, makes a like order, "ne 
quis celebret bis in die : " with the same exceptions, or 
"aliqua evidens urgeat necessitas." And so also, the 
Council of Oxford, about the same time ; and some Sy- 
nodal Constitutions (of an uncertain diocese,) a. d. 
1237."^ In the year 1230, one of the Articles of En- 
quiry for the archdeacons of the diocese of Lincohi, 
asks : " An aliquis sacerdos bis celebret in die, nisi in 
casibus concessis, et in propria persona in propria ec- 
clesia ? " ^^ GavantuSj or rather, Merati in his additions 
states, that the first order to the effect of the above 
Canons, was made by Pope Alexander the Second, a. d. 
1070. And the words used by Archbishop Egbert, and 
-^Ifric, already cited, are those which are in the decree 
of Gratian,^ which he cites. 

The injunctions added to the above Canons which I 
have cited, that the Ablution should not be taken in the 
first Mass, if, for any lawful cause, the Priest was about 
to celebrate again, was in consequence of the strict rule 
which was laid down that none should consecrate ex- 
cept fasting :^ which fast would not, upon the theory of 

^ Wilkins. Concilia, torn. i. p. Christus semel passus est, et totum 

505. mundum redemit. Non modica 

^ Ibid, torn. i. p. 531. res est unam Missam facere; et 

^ Ibid, torn. i. p. 579. 586. 574. valde felix est, qui unam Missam 

657. dignam celebrare potuit." De Con- 

^ Ibid, torn. i. p. 628. secraU Distinct i. can, 53. 

^ " Sufficit sacerdoti unam Mis- •* Walafrid Strabop cap. xix. 

sam in die una celebrare, quia allows that anciently there was no 

anntttonal j^ote. 


the doctfine of Transubstantiation, be broken by the com- 
munion of the consecrated Cup, although of course by the 
subsequent ablution. Hence on the Day of the Nativity 
when Priests might lawfully consecrate three times, the 
ablution was ordered to be taken only at the third and 
last Mass. And to such an exactness was this to be ob- 
served, that it has been held, that if by mistake or acci- 
dent, the Priest should have taken the ablution at the 
first of these Services, he was not then allowed to per- 
form the other two.^ Lyndwood says : *' Ratio est, 
quia si faceret, non esset jejunus, et celebratio Missae 
debet fieri jejuno stomacho." And again, it has been 
decided, that no Priest might, under any necessity, con- 
secrate twice upon Good Friday : because his fast would 
be broken, by the Host which he must take with un- 
consecrated Wine. In this case, the exception of two 
parishes or large populations, which I shall speak of 
presently, would not hold, because there was no obligation 
upon the people to attend the Service on Good Friday.** 
The Constitution above, of Archbishop Langton, 
allows not only an exception upon the Day of the Nati- 
vity, but of the Resurrection. Lyndwood says. ^* Re- 
svrrectianis Dominicce : i. e. in die Paschae : de isto 
die, quod in eo possit bis celebrari, non invenio Textum 

rule to this effect : '^ sed a sequen- 
dbus honesta et rationabili delibe- 
ratione statutum esse cognoscitur; 
lit ornni tempore a jejunis, sacro- 
sancta celebrentur mysteria." De 
rehfu Ecclesiastkis. Pope Bene- 
dict however denies this : '* Nemo 
nescias est sanctos apostolos tunc 
jcjimoB AOD fuisse, cam £ucharis<» 
tiam aecqpemnt, tamen ob tanti 
Sacramenti reverentiam ab apos* 
tolieis usque temporibus statutum 
fiiit semperque in ecclesia observa- 

tum, ne quisquam nisi jejunus £u- 
charistiam sumeret." Opera, torn, 
ix. p. 328. But the Pope does not 
(the Canon excepted) support his 
dictum with any authorities. See 
Bingham, book. xv. cap* vij . And, 
especially, FelVs note upon S. Cy- 
prian. EpiH. Ixiij. p. 166. 

*^ Thorn, iii. par. quaest. 80. 
art. 8« 

^ Benedict XIV. Opera, torn. 
ix. p. 286. 

1 62 aimmonai i&ote. 

alicujus juris vel canonis. Sed istud ideo fortassis hie 
ordinatuT) quia contingit ssepius^ quod in una magna 
Parochia non est nisi unus Presbyter, qui commode iUo 
die non posset in Missa solenniori de die omnes Faro- 
chianos suoscommunicare, et oportet quod servientes illo 
die ministrent et praeparent ea quse ad ipsorum serritia 
spectant erga adventum Dominorum suorum et Magis^ 
trorum ; undo tales communicari possunt et debent in 
prima Missa/' ^^ There are nevertheless some examples, 
which may be seen in Bonay^ of two Communions, with 
their full and different Services, upon Easter Day : and 
it is possible that in the 12th Century, some remains of 
these were still left in England, and not intended to be 
forbidden in the Archbishop's Constitution. 

But the Gloss of Lyndwood at any rate teaches us 
what was the practice of his own time : and that upon 
Easter Day no more than on other days, excepting 
always of the Nativity, more than one Service was not 
permitted to be celebrated by the same Priest. For the 
exception which he allows, and supposes in the Arch- 
bishop's Constitution to be intended, does not seem to 
meet thq case ; because nojt only upon Easter Day, but 
on other great Festivals, it was always lawful for the 
Parish-priest, who had Wge populations under his 
charge, to celebrate for their convenience^ and to meet 
the necessities of their case, more than once. The same 
was permitted, if he had two Parishes under him*** 

The cases of necessity which are spoken of in the 
Canons, as exceptions, are agreed generally to hava 
been, lest a sick man should die without the Vialicum^ 

^ Province Mb. iij. tU. 28. Ad ^aest. 2. art 2. GonzaU»» m 

excitandos. cap. Gonsukmti de CekU 14]88«r. 

xyV-.T^"" "■ '*'*' "«•«•*»•»• Cardi,^ th Lugo. 

^* ' de Euckarist, disput 2(k 1. nam. 

^ Sotus, in 4, Sent. dist. 18. 46. 

aooftional Bote: 


and there was no Host consecrated : if a Bishop or 
Prince should arrive at a place after the Service was 
over : if a person was to he huried ; hut this, in places 
only where it was always the cnstom not to hury hut 
with the celehration of th^ Holy Communion. Lynd- 
wood, in the same place hefore cited, says, that in all 
excepted cases, they availed only, in case no other Priest 
happened to he at hand : and that, upon any account 
whatsoever, it was not permitted to celebrate more than 
twice : ^* quod in nullo casuum praBdictorum licet ultra 
duas Missas celehrare, excepto die Nativitatis Domi- 


The day of the Nativity having been so often men- 
tioned, as the only exception, I cannot think it will he 
out of place, to add Lyndwood's reasons why three Ser- 
vices were not only permitted but ordered for that day. 
He does not offer them as his own, hut from ancient 

^^ Significat prima Missa tempus ante Legem et ideo 
celebratur in tenehris. Secunda significat tempus sub 
Lege, quo tempore incipiehat sciri Christus, sed non 
dare, et ideo celebratur inter diem et noctem. Tertia 
significat tempus Gratise, et cantatur in plena luce, ad 
designandum Christum venisse, qui est Lxjkx vera^ et UlU" 
minat omnem hormnem venientem in hunc mundnm. 

• This rule howe? er does not 
appear to be strictly observed in 
Englaad now, by the Priests of the 
Roman Communion. QuarH^ in 
considering the excepted cases, says : 
** In Anglia, ubi panci sunt Sacerdo- 
tety potest idem Sacerdos ssepiusin 
die Sacrum fiicere ad satisfaciendum 

popalo cadioHco: et idem di- 

cendum de aliis partibus hasretico- 
rum, vel infidelium, ubi plures Car 
tholicidegunt." He further decides, 

that the Canons do not limit the 
number to two, or even three times : 
but that in all cases, the Priest must 
be fasting, and that therefore he 
must (it would seem at least) know 
that he would be required to cele- 
brate again, before he takes the 
ablution. And if this be so, I do 
not see how in the case of commu- 
nion only the necessity could arise, 
for he might reserve from the ele- 
ments first consecrated. 

1 64 aooitionat Bote; 

Vel die, secundum Jo. An. quod prima Missa significat 
Generationem Christi aetemam quae occulta est, et ideo 
celebratur in nocte. Secunda significat Nativitatem 
Christi, partim naturalem quia ex muliere, et partim oc- 
cultam quia ex virgine : ideo celebratur in mane. Ter- 
tia significat Generationem Spiritualem, quae fit per 
Gratiam, et ilia celebratur in tertia, quia clarescit se- 
cundum veritatem."*^ 

VIII. I shall conclude this, with some observations 
upon the "CautelsB Missae," or, as they were called 
" The Cautells of the Mass." 

Scarcely was the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons com- 
menced, and Christianity for a second time introduced 
into England, before the same care was insisted upon 
to be observed by all the Priests of the English Church, 
in the celebration of the Divine Mysteries, which was 
enforced as much as possible, in other parts of the Chris- 
tian world. Whether these precautions were carried 
into excess or not, is not a question upon which I shall 
enter : it is very possible that some were ; and as time 
went on, others were added, which were the produce 
only of that false reverence which accompanied necessa- 
rily the novel introduction of the doctrine of Transub- 
stantiation. But in earlier ages, and indeed always, it 
would be idle uncharitableness to deny, that these 
"Cautells'* and directions, sprung solely from a pious 
regard towards the great Sacrament of the Gospel : and 
in such a matter, concerning the highest Mysteries, con- 
cerning that Bread and Wine, that Body and Blood, it 
is most difficult to say, where reverence ceases to be 
within the bounds of a due moderation, and becomes a 
superstition : but it is not so difficult to say, where irre- 
verence begins. I wish that I could ad<^ that I think 

^ Lih, iii. tit. 23. Ad exdtan" vj. cap. 13. and Gavantus, torn. i. 
dos. Compare also, Durand, lib. p. 374. 

aootttonat Bote; 165 

the Priests of the English Church now, as a body, are so 
reverent in their administration of the Supper of the 
Lord, as I do believe they really wish to be : I cannot 
suppose but that much that looks like carelessness is 
without intention : but how far neglect of the plain ru- 
brics even of the Common Prayer Book can be excused 
by want of thought, is not for me to decide. 

I shall begin therefore, with some extracts from the 
Penitential of Archbishop Theodore. His 39th Chapter 
is, ** de negligentia eucharistiae," and to each offence or 
accident a certain penalty is attached, proportioned to 
the greatness at which it was then esteemed. " Si quis 

eucharistiam negligentiae causa perdiderit. Si sacri- 

ficium in terra ceciderit, causa negligentiae. Qui non 

bene custodierit sacrificium. Qui.autem perdiderit, 

et non inventum fuerit. — '- — Qui neglexerit sacrificium, 
ut vermes in eo sint, aut colorem non habet saporemque. 

' ^Si ceciderit sacrificium de manibus offerentis terra 

tonus, et non inveniatur, omne quodcunque inventum 
fuerit in loco quo ceciderit comburatur igni, et cinis 
ejus sub altare abscondatur. Si vero inventum fuerit 
sacrificium, locus scopa mundetur, et stramen igni com- 
buratur, cinisque, ut supra dictum est, abscondatur. 

Si de calice per negligentiam aliquid stillaverit in terra, 

lingua lambatur, terraque radatur. Si super altare 

stillaverit calix, sorbeat minister stillam, &c. "*^ 

Other orders, to the same effect, may be found in the 
same Archbishop's Capitula.^ 

In the next Century Archbishop Egbert of York, in 
his " Confessionale," appoints a penance : " Si Sacerdos 
calicem effiindat postquam missam cantaverit."^ In 
Egbert's Penitential, we find several canons to the same 
effect. " Si quis ex incuria sua eucharistiam perdiderit. 

*'' Thorpe. Ancient Laws and ^ Ibid. p. 75. 
Institutes. toI. ii. p. 46. ^ Ihid. p. 141. 

1 66 atmittonaljBote. 

Si sacrificium ex incuria in terrain ceciderit.—— Si 

quis neglexerit consecratam eucharistiam, ita ut nimis 
din servata sordes in ea sit, vel colorem suum non faabeat 

Omne sacrificium quod sordidum est, vel yetustate 

corruptum, comburatur. Qui efPiiderit calicem suum 

inter missam suam. &c."* 

I pass on to the Canons of ^JElfric. ^^ The priest shall 
purely and carefully do God's ministries : (Lo^wr NnoBsa) 
with clean hands and with dean heart ; and let him see 
that his oblations be not old baken^ nor ill seen to. — ^— 
Great honours they merit who minister to God with zeal 
and devotion : and also it is written, that he is accursed, 
who doth God's ministry with carelessness. We may 
by this know, that a man who has not his sight should 
not dare to celebrate mass, when he sees not what he 
offers to God, whether it be clean or foul.^^ Archbishop 
Lanfranc in his Statutes, has one chapter, ^* de negligentia 
circa Corpus Domini."^ But, lastly, to come down 
nearer to the date of the Cautells themselyes. In the 
13th Century, a Canon of the Constitutions of W. de 
Kirkham, Bishop of Durham, orders : ^^ ut si per n^li- 
gentiam aliquid de sanguine Christi stiUaverit super ter- 
ram lambatur lingua ; tabula radatur, super quam stilla- 

verit : si autem super altare : si super linteum :" 

&c. :^ and to each of these a penalty is attached, 

for the carelessness owing to which it must have oc- 

It is not possible to say, by whom these " Cautelse 
Missae" were drawn up and arranged, from the decrees 
of Councils and the opinions of Doctors and Canonists : 
nor by whose authority they were introduced into the 

«> Thorpe. \ol ii. p. 218. Wil- ^ Opera Lanfranci. p. 282. 
kins. Concilia, torn. i. p. 139. cap. x. 

^ Wilkins. Concilia, torn. i. p. 
*i Thorpe, vol. ii. p. 361. 707. 

aoDttional B0tt 1 67 

Missal. Gavantus says, in his Thesaurus, that the ear- 
liest edition of the Roman Use in which he had seen 
them^ was in that printed at Venice, 1557. They have 
since been always added to the Roman Missal, and are 
differently arranged from the Cautelce^ and headed " De 
defectibus circa Missam occurrentibus." In the Here- 
ford Missal, they are styled '^ De casibus et periculis quae 
possunt evenire circa altare." These differ somewhat 
from the Sarum : but as well as those in the present 
Roman Use, have the same object in view, and make 
very similar arrangements and rules. In the York 
Missal, 4to, 1517) (which has been followed in th0 pre- 
sent volume) the " Cautelae ad missam celebraadam,^^ are 
placed at the end of the book, and are exactly the same 
96 those which I am now about to give, from the Sails-* 
bury Use, In this last (the Salisbury Missal) they are 
to be found, in almost all editions alter 1500 : either in 
the beginning after the Calendar, or at the end of the 
book ; and, more commonly, eitheir before th^ Ordinary 
or after the Canon. I shall take them from an edition 
by RegnauUf Paris, 1529. They will require no re- 
mark : every reader is probably as well able to judge of 
them as I can be, and to form his own opinion, as to the 
necessity, or the reasonableness, or the superstition of 
them : and I need make no apology to more exact en- 
quirers into documents of this kind, who will see that 
they furnish much valuable matter, bearini? not only 
upou historical and antiquarian, but, which is of far 
greater consequence, upon theological questions. 

1 68 zmtiomlBoU,. 

Cautelae a^tffae. 

C Sequuntur injbrmationes et cauteltB ohservanda 
preshytero volenti divina celebrare. 

RIMA caotela est : ut sacerdos missam cele- 
braturus, conscientiam euam per puram con- 
fessionem optima prseparet, sacramentum 
Tehement«r desideret, et coufiteri intendat. 
Notnlam de mode agendi officium memoriter et bene 
Bciat. Gestus valde composites ac devotes habeat. Cam 
enim quilibet teneatur Deum diligere ex toto corde, ex 
tota anima, et ex totis viribus suis. Hie Deum diligere 
non probatur, qui in mensa altaris ubi Res regum et 
Dominus omnium tractatur et sumitur, irreligiosus, inde- 
Totus, impudicus, distractus, vagus, aut desidiosus appar- 
ruerit Attendat igitur unusquisque quod ad mensam 
magnam sedeat. Cogitet qualiter eum prseparari oporteat. 
Sit cautua et circumspectus. Stet erectus, non jacens in 
altari. Cubitos juugat lateribus. Manns exaltet, ut ex- 
tremitates digitorum modicum super humeros videantur, 
Intellectum signis et verbis coaptet, quoniam magna 
latent in signis, majora in verbis, maxima in intentione. 
Tres digitos jungat quibus signa faciat, reliquos duos in 
manu componat. Signa faciat directe non oblique, alte 
satis ne calicem evertat. Non circulos pro crucibus. 
Cum vero inclinandum erit, noa oblique sed directe ante 
altare, toto curvatus corpore, se incUnet. 

Secunda est, ut non putet, sed certo sciat se debitas 
materias habere, hoc est, panem triticeum, et vinum cum 
aqua modica. De vino et aqua sic poterit eertificari. 

antitttonal n^ote. 169 

Exigat a ministro, ut gustet tain vinum quam aquam. 
Ipse autem presbyter gustare non debet. Guttam fundat 
in manum, digito terat et odoret, sic erit certior. Non 
credat ampullae signatae, non colori ; quoniam saepius fal^ 
luot. Videat calicem ne sit fractus. Consideret vinum ; 
si est corruptum, nullo modo celebret : si acetosum, dis- 
simulet. Si nimis aquosum, abstineat, nisi sciat vinum 
aquae praevalere. Et in omni casu si contingat dubitari ; 
vel propter acedinein, vel propter mixturam vel illimpi- 
ditatem utrum possit confici, consulimus abstinere : quia 
in hoc Sacramento nihil sub dubio est agendum, ubi cer-? 
tissime est dicendum ; Hoc est enim corpus meum^ et, Hie 
est enim cdlix sanguinis mei. Item oblatas convenientes 
eligat, et vinum competenter infundat, quia hoc sacra- 
mentum debet sensibus deservire ad videndum, tangen- 
dum, et gustandum, ut sensus reficiatur ex specie^ et 
intellectus ex re contenta foveatur; Aqua etiam in par- 
vissima quantitate infundatur, ut a vino absorbeatur, et 
saporem vini recipiat. Non est enim periculum quanr 
tumcunqiie modicum apponatur de aqua, est autem peri^ 
culum si multum. Apponitur etiam aqua solum ad sig- 
nificandum, sed una gutta tantum significat, quantum 
mille. Ideo caveat sacerdos ne cum impetu infundat, ne 
nimis cadat. 

- Tertia est, ut canonem morosius legat quam caetera. 
Et praecipue ab illo loco : Qui jh^die quam pateretur. 
a^icepit. Tunc enim respirans attendere debet, et se 
totum coUigere (si prius non potuit) singulis verbis in- 
tendehs. Et dum dixerit : Accipite et mandiicate ex 
hoc omnes ; respiret et uno spiritu tractim dicat, Hoc est 
enim corpus nieum : sic non immiscet se alia cogitatio. 
Non enim videtur esse rationabile discontinuare formam 
tarn brevem, tam arduam, tam efficacem, cujus tota virtus 
■dependet ab ultimo verbo, scilicet, meww, quod in per- 
sona Christi dicitur. Unde non debet cuilibet verbo 
punctus imponi. Cum id nulla ratione valeat ut dica- 
tur : Hoc est enimj corpus meum. Sed totum simul pro- 

170 ^DitionalBote. 

ferat. Pari modo hoc idem in forma consecrationis san- 
guinis obseryetur. 

Item proferendo verba consecrationis circa quamlibet 
materiam, sacerdos temper intendat conficere id quod 
Christus instituit, et ecclesia facit. 

Quarta est, ut si plures hostias habet conseorare, debet 
harum unam elevare, quam sibi deputaverat a principio 
ad missam ; et teneat iUam penes alias, ita quod visum 
et intentionem ad omnes simul dirigat Et signando 
et dicendo : Hoc est eniin corptis meum : omnes cogitet 
quas demonstrat. 

Consdimus quoque ut canonem presbyter memoriter 
sciat, quia devotius dicitur ; semper tamen liber habea- 
tur, ut ad ipsum memoriter recurratur. 

Quinta est, ut dum sumat, nunquam uno haustu cali- 
cem sumat, ne propter impetum tussis inopinate occurrat, 
sed bis vel ter caute sumat ut impedimentum non habeat. 
Si vero plures hostias debet sumere, ut quando hostia est 
renovaada, primo sumat earn quam confecit et aangui- 
nem : post hsec alias quee supersunt. Suam prius sumat 
quam alias, quia de suis credit et scit, de aliis credit et 
nescit. Demum desuper ablutiones, et non prius. 

3exta est, ut paucorum nominibus se astringat in ca- 
none ; nee perpetuo, sed quamdiu velit faciat^ quando 
yelit omittat, quia canon de multitudine nominum prolix- 
atur, et per hoc cogitatio distrahitur. Dig^um tamen 
est ut pater, mater, frater, soror ibi nominentur. Et si 
qui pro tempore commendantur ; et specialiter pro qui- 
bus missa celebratur. Non tamen ibi fiat vocalis ex* 
pressio, sed mentaUs. 

Septima est, ut ante missam non os vel denies lavet ; 
sed tantum labia exterius ore clause si indiget, ne forte 
aquae gustum, cum saliva immittat. Post missam etiam 
caveat excreationes quantum potest, donee comederit et 
biberit, ne forte aliquid inter dentes remanserit, aut in 
faucibus, quod excreando ejiceretur. Quamvis autem 
missa devotissime isit celebranda contemplationis causa, 

est tamen modus habendus, ne protractione vel accele* 
ratione fiat homo notabilis. Nam acceleratio signum 
est incurise. Protractio est occasio detractionis. Sed 
medio tutissimus ibit. Eo autem affectu est quselibet 
missa habenda et dicenda a quocumque sacerdote, quasi 
prima dicatur et nunquam amplius sit dicenda : tarn 
magnum enim donum, semper debet esse novum. 

Habeat itaque sacerdos diligentiam ad conficiendum : 
Reverentiam ad tangendum : Et devotionem ad sum^n* 
dum. Sic sentiendo et agendo digne tractabitur sacra^ 
mentum, rite peragetur officium, atque pericula et scan- 
dala evitabuntur. 

Item^ in collectis dicendis semper impar numerus ob- 
servetur. Una propter Unitatem Deitatis. Tres propter 
Trinitatem Personarum. Quinque propter quinque par^ 
titam passionem ChristL Septem, propter septifonnem 
gratiam Spiritus Sancti. Septenarium numerum exce^ 
dere non licet. 

Item, quandocumque oratio dirigitur solum ad Patrem, 
in fine dicatur. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Chris- 
turn. Si vero dir^tiir ad Patrem et mentio fit Filii 
in ipsa, in fine dicatur. Per eundem Dominum nos- 
trum Jesum Christum. Si autem oratio dirigitur solum 
ad Filium, in fine dicatur : Qui cum eodem Poire et 
Spiritu Sancto. Et si mentio Spiritus Sancti in qua- 
cumque oratione fiat, in fine dicatur ; ejusdem Spiritus 
Sancti DeuSj per omnia scscula sceculorum. Amen. 

C Incipiunt cautelce servandce^ quid agendum sit cir-^ 
ca deJectuSf vel casus, qui oriri possunt in missa^ et 
prcesertim circa consecrationem eiccharistice. 

Primo quid sit agendum cum sacerdos deceit. 

C Si sacerdos defidat sive moriatur ante canonem, 
non est necesse ut alius missam compleat. Si tamen 
alius Yult celebrare, debet ab initio missam reincipere, et 
totum rite peragere. 

Si autem in canone deficiat» factis jam aliquibus sig- 
nis, tamen ante transubstantiationem et consecrationem 

172 aniitttonat Bote; 

sacramenti, tunc alius sacerdos ab illo loco ubi ille dimisit; 
debet reincipere, et tantum illud supplere quod omissum 

Si autem sacerdos in actu consecrationis deficiat, ver- 
bis aliquibus jam in parte prolatis, sed in toto non com- 
pletis, secundum Innocentium, alius sacerdos debet inci- 
pere ab illo loco, Quipridie. 

Si tamen sacerdos deficiat consecrate corpore, sed non 
sanguine, aJius sacerdos compleat consecrationem san- 
guinis, incipiens ab illo loco, SimUi modo. Si consecrate 
corpore, percipiat vinum non esse in calice, debet hostia 
munde reponi in corporali, et calice rite praeparatOjinci^ 
piat ab illo loco, Simili modo. 

Si ante consecrationem sanguinis, percipiat aquam 
non esse in calice, debet statim apponere, et conficere. 

Si autem post consecrationem sanguinis, percipiat 
quod aqua desit in calice, debet nihilominus procedere, 
nee debet miscere aquam cum sanguine, quia pro parte 
sequeretur corruptio sacramenti : debet tamen sacerdos 
dolere et puniri. 

Si post consecrationem sanguinis percipiat quod vinum 
non fuerit positum, sed aqua tantum in calice, siquidem 
hoc percipit ante sumptionem corporis, debet aquam de- 
ponere et imponere vinum cum aqua, et resumere conse- 
crationem sanguinis ab illo loco, Simili m^do. 

Si percipiat hoc post sumptionem corporis, debet ap- 
ponere de novo aliam hostiam, iterum cum sanguine 
consecrandam, secundum doctores in sacra pagina, debet 
autem resumere verba consecrationis ab illo loco. Qui 
pridie. In fine autem iterum debet sumere hostiam 
illam ultimo consecratam, non obstante si prius sumpsit 
aquam et etiam ilium sanguinem. Innocentius tamen 
dicit quod si ex prolongatione sacerdos timet sciandalum^ 
quod sufficiunt tantum ilia verba per quae consecratur 
sanguis, scilicet Simili modOy et sic sumere sanguinem. 

Quid autem faciet cum aquam, sumpto corpore, jam 

aonttional Bote: 173 

habet in ore^ et jam primo sentit quod sit aqua ; utrum 
debeat earn deglutire vel emittere. Require in summa 
Hostiensis in titulo de celebr. missse. Tutius tamen est 
earn deglutire quam emittere ; et hoc ideo ne aliqua 
particula corporis cum aqua exeat. 

Item si sacerdos post consecratioiiem recordetur se 
non esse jejunum, vel commisisse aliquod peccatum, vel 
esse excommunicatum : debet nihilominus procedere, 
cum proposito satisfaciendi, et absolutionem impetrandi. 

Si autem ante consecrationem recordetur praedictorum, 
tutius est missam inceptam deserere et absolutionem 
petere, nisi inde grave scandalum oriatur. 

Item si musca vel aranea vel aliquid talium iante con- 
secrationem in calicem ceciderit, vel etiam venenum 
immissum fore deprehenderit, vinum debet effundi quod 
est in calice, et abluto cialice aliud vinum cum aqua poni 
ad consecrandum. Sed si aliquid horam post consecrar 
tionem accident, debet musca vel a|||;nea vel aliquid 
talium caute capi, et diligenter inter diiHbs pluries lavari ; 
et vermis comburi, et ablutio cum ffiTeribus combustis 
in sacrario reponi. Venenum autem nullo modo debet 
sumi, sed cum reliquiis debet sanguis talis cui venenum 
est immissum in vasculo mundo reservari. Et ne sacrar 
mentum maneat imperfectum, debet calicem denuo rite 
prseparare, et resumere consecrationem sanguinis ab illo 
loco, Simili modo. Et nota quod secundum doctores, 
nihil abominabile sumi debet occdsione hujus sacramenti. 

Item si sacerdos non recolit se dixisse aliquod horum 
quae debuit dicere^ non debet mente turbari ; non enim 
qui multa dicit, semper recolit quae dixit. Etiam si sibi 
pro certo constat quod aliqua bmiserit, si talia non sunt 
de necessitate sacramenti, sicut sunt secretae, vel aliqua 
verba canonis, ultta procedat, nee aUquid resumat. Si 
tamen probabiliter sibi constat quod (nxiisit aliquid, quod 
sit de necessitate sacramenti, sicut forma verborum per 
quam consecratur, omnia verba consecrationis super 

174 3Qiiitional jQote. 

suam materiam resumere debet, quia consedratio facta 
non esset* Quod tamen non oportet si praetermissa esset 
conjunctio enim vel alia verba quee prsecedunt vel se- 
quuntur formam ; quae non sunt de ipsius substantia. 

Si autem sacerdos dubitaret an aliquod verbum per- 
tinens ad substantiam formae omisisset vel non, nullate- 
nus debet servare formam conditionalem ; sed sine teme- 
raria assertione formam totam super suam propriam 
materiam debet resumere, cu)n hac intentione : quod si 
consecratio esset facta, nullo mode voluisset consecrare ; 
sed si consecratio non esset facta, yellet corpus et san- 
guinem consecrare. 

Item si quis tempore consecrationis, ab actuali inten- 
tione et devotione distractus fiierit, nihilominus conse- 
crat; dummodo intentio habitualis in eo remanserit; 
Summo Sacerdote, scilicet Christo, supplente ejus de- 

Si autem per nimiam distractionem habitualis intentio 
cum actuali tolleretur, videtur quod deberet verba conse- 
crationis cum actuali intentione resumere, sic tamen 
quod nollet consecrare, si consecratio facta esset. 

Item si hostia consecrata propter Mgus, vel alia de 
causa^ labitur sacerdoti in calicem, sive ante divisionem 
hostiae, sive post ; non debet eam de sanguine extrahere, 
nee aliquid propter hoc reiterare, vel immutare circa 
celebrationem sacramenti ; sed procedat in signis et in 
aliis, ac si haberet eam in manibus. 

Si eucharistia ad terram ceciderit, locus ubi jacuit 
radatur^ et incineretur per ignem, et cinis juxta altare 

C Item si per negligentiam aliquid de sanguine stilla- 
verit, super tabulam quae terrae adhaeret, stilla per sacer- 
dotem cum lingua lambatur, et locus tabulae radatur, et 
rasura igni comburatur, et cinis juxta altare cum reli- 
quiis recondatur, et quadraginta diebus pcraiteat cui hoc 

annmonftl jQote. 175 

Si y^ro super altare stillaverit calix, sorbeatur stilla, 
et tribus diebus poeniteat. 

Si vero super linteum et ad aliud stilla pervenerit, 
quatuor diebus pceniteat. Si usque ad tertium, novem 
diebus pceniteat. Si usque ad quartum stilla sanguinis 
pervenerit, viginti diebus poeniteat, et linteamina qu8B 
stilla tetigerit tribus vicibus lavet sacerdos, vel diaconus, 
calice supposito, et ablutio cum reliquiis recondatur. 

Item si quis aUquo casu guise eucharistiam evomuerit, 
vomitus ille debet incinerari, et cineres juxta altare de- 
bent recondi« Et si fuerit clericus, monachus, presbyter, 
vel diaconus, quadraginta diebus pceniteat, episcopus 
septuaginta, laicus triginta. 

Si vero ex infirmitate evomuerit, quinque diebus pce- 

Qui vero non bene custodit sacramentum, ita quod 
mus vel aliud animal comederit, quadraginta diebus 

Qui autem perdiderit illud, vel pars ejus ceciderit et 
non fuerit inventa, triginta diebus pceniteat. Eadem 
poenitentia videtur dignus sacerdos, per cujus negligen- 
tiam putrescunt hostiae consecratae. Dictis autem diebus 
pcenitens debet jejunare, et a communione, et a celebra- 
tione abstinere. Pensatis tamen circumstantiis delicti 
et personae, potest minui vel augeri pcenitentia prsedicta, 
secundum arbitrium discreti confessoris. Hoc autem 
tenendum est, quod ubicunque inveniuntur species sacra- 
menti integrae, reverenter sumendae sunt : quod si sine 
periculo fieri non potest, sunt tamen pro reUquiis reser- 

Item si hostia, vel pars hostiae inventa fuerit sub palla 
vel corporali, et dubitatur si est consecrata vel non, de- 
bet eam post sumptionem sanguinis reverenter sumere, 
ut in titulo de celebratione missarum plenius invenies. 

Item circa materiam sanguinis vide ne sit agresta, vel 
vinum ita debile, quod nullo modo habeat speciem vini. 

176 amiittonat Bote. 

Ne sit aqua rubea expressa de panno intincto in vino 
rubeo. Ne sit acetum, vel vinum omnino comiptum; 
ne sit claretum, vel vinum de moris aut malogranatis 
confectum ; quia veram speciem vini non retinent. 

Conficiens cum vino quod est in via corruptionis, vel 
ad corruptionem tendens, gravissime peccat (licet con. 
ficiat) quoniam non retinet speciein vini. 

Item cavendum est, ne apponatur nisi modicum de 
aqua, quia si tantum poneretur quod speciem vini toUe- 
ret, non conficeretur. 

Item si qua hie desunt, requirantur in summa et lee* 
tura Hostien. in titulo de celebr. missarum. 

anwtionai Bote. 177 

De mono ereaueniii Dfficium Dommfca ptima in 

flOMINICA prima in Adventu, peracta pro- 
[ cessione, dum Tertia cantatur, executor officii 
I et sui ministri ad missam diceDdam se indu- 
I ant, et si epiacopus fiierit, tres habeat diaconos 
et totidem subdiaconos ad minus, sicut in omni festo 
novem lectionum, quando ipse exequitur officimn. In 
die vero Pentecogtes, et in die Ctsnae, septem diaconos 
et septem subdiaconos et tres awiolytos. In aliis verb 
duplicibua, quinque tantum. Die vero Paraaceve, unum 
solum diaconum, et unum solum subdiaconum. 

Cantata vero Tertia et officio rnkste incfaoato, dum post 
officium " Gloria patri" inchoatur, executor officii cum 
suis ministris ordinate presbyterium intrent, et ad altare 
accedant : diacono et subdiacono casulis indatis, manus 
tamen ad modum sacerdotis extra casulam non tenen- 
tibus. Cseteris ministris in albis existentibus ; quibua 
vero temporibus, diaconi et subdiaconi casulis, dalma- 
ticis, et tunicis, et albis uti debeant, in Ordinali plene 
describitur. Ad gradum autem altaria sacerdos ipse 
confessionem dicat : diacono ei assistente a dextris, sub- 
diacono a sinistris : et sciendum quod quiaque sacerdoa 
officium exequatur, semper episcopus si prassens fuerit 
ad gradum altaris, " Confiteor" dicat. Dicta vero abso- 

^ From tbe Conivetudinarium of Salisbuiy : and of which I have 

of iSaram, in the MS. " Registrum given some account at the end of 

S. Otmunii"Jhl, xv. Preserved t^e IXsBertation on Service books, 

amongtheMunimeatsofthe Bishop Stotmmenla Rilttalia. vol. i. 

i?^ atmittonal jBoti^ 

lutione, sacerdos diaconum deosculetur ; deinde subdia- 
conum : quod semper observatur, nisi missa pro fidelibus 
&erit dicenda, et exceptis tribus ultimis diebus in Fas- 
sione Domini. His peractis, ceroferarii candelabra cum 
cereis ad gradum altaris demittant Post humiliationem 
vero sacerdotis ad altare lactam, ipfiton altare sacerdos 
thurificet, diaconi ministerio: deinde ab ipso diacono 
ipse sacerdos thurificetur ; et postea textum ministerio 
subdiaconi deosculetm*. His peractis, in dextro cornu 
altarisy cum diacono et subdiacono, officium Missse usque 
ad orationem prosequatur, sive usque ad ^^ Gloria in ex- 
celsisy" quandp ^^ Gloria in excelsis'' dicitur. Quo &LCto 
sacerdos, cum suis ministris, in sedibus ad hoc paratis 
se recipiant, usque ad orationem dicendam, vel in alio 
tempore, usque ad ^^ Gloria in excelsis" incipiendum. 
Dum vero sacerdos ad officium exequendum stat ad altare, 
Diaconus post eum stet in prime gradu ante altare : deinde 
subdiaconus ordinate, ita quod quoties sacerdos ad popu- 
lum se convertit, diaconus similiter se convertat : sub- 
diacono interim ipsi sacerdoti de casula aptanda submi- 
nistrante. Sciendum autem quod quicquid a sacerdote 
dicitur ante epistolam, in dextro cornu altaris expletur. 
Similiter post perceptionem sacramenti : csetera omnia 
in medio altaris fiunt. Post introitimi vero missae, unus 
ceroferariorum panem, et vinum, et aquam, in pixide et 
phiolis solemniter ad locum ubi panis, vinum, et aqua, 
ad eucharistiae ministrationem disponuntur, deferat. Re- 
Hquus vero ceroferarius pelves cum aqua et manutergio. 
Incepta vero ultima oratione ante epistolam, casula in- 
terim deposita, subdiaconus per medium chori ad legen- 
dam epistolam ad pulpitum accedat, et dum epistola le- 
gitur, duo pueri in superpelliciis facta inclinatione ad 
altare ad gradum chori, in pulpito ipso se ad cantan- 
dum gradale prseparent. Interim etiam veniant duo 
ceroferarii obviam acolyto ad ostium presbyterii, cum 
veneratione ipsum calicem ad locum prsedictse adminis- 
trationis deferenti, offertorio et corporalibus ipsi calici 

amittsonal Bate. 179 

8U|)i]8orpoekk I est autem acolytus in albis, et mantello 
semoy ad hoc parato. Galice itaque in loco debito re-* 
poBito^ coi^oralia ipse acolytus super altare solemniter 
d^ionat, ipsmnialtare in recessu deosculando. Quo facto 
cereferaidl candelabra cum cereis, ad gradum altaris 
deniUtaat* Lecta epistola, subdiaconus panem et vinumi 
post^manuum ablotionem, ad eucharistisB mimstrationem 
in loco ipsius administrationis prsepaxiet ministerio aco- 
lyti.. Dum gradale canitur, duo de superiore gradu ad 
cantandum ^^ Alleluia" cappis sends se induant, et ad 
pulpitum accedant. Dicto vero gradali^ pueri cantores 
ad gradum altaris inclinaturi redeant. Post quoque 
epistolant unus ceroferariorum cum aliquo puero de cho^ 
ro aquilam in pulpito ad legendum evangelium omando 
prs^aret. Dum ^^ Alleluia" canitur, diaconus prius ab-- 
lutis niambu% casula humdrum sinistrum modo stolas 
suceinctus^ corporalia super altare disponat Dum prosa 
caaitury diaconus ipse altare thurificet ; deinde ad com^ 
momtionem puerorum ministrantium a chore ad minis^ 
teria sua r^^itium^ accepto texto Evangeliorum et data 
ei huimliato a sacerdote benedictione, cum ceroferariis et 
thuribulo prsecedente) subdiacono librum lectionis evan- 
gelicee deferente per medium chori, ad pulpitum accedat« 
Textum ipsum super sinistram maHum solemniter ges- 
tando : et cum ad locum legendi pervenerit^ textum ip- 
sum subdiaconus accipiat ; et a sinistris ipsius diaconi, 
ipsuat dum Evangelium legitur teneat^ Et lecto e van^ 
gelio^ ipsum' deosculandum, i^i diacono porrigat a dex- 
tra parte ipsius. In redeundo tamen, textum ipsum ad 
altare ex ^recto peetore deferat. Post inceptionem 
^^ Credo in unum," sacerdos ipse ministerio diaconi thu-* 
tifioetup, et postea, ministerio subdiaconi^ textum deoscu- 
letor. Quo peracto, chorus, ministerio pueri, more solito 
ineensetur, sequente subdiacono textum deosculandum 
siD^pilis eo ordine quo incensantur porrigente. His pe- 
ractJB, acolyta ministraiite subdiacono, subdiacono ipsi 
diaiponO)^ sacerdos prius hostiam super patenam^ deinde 

1 8o annittonai n^ote. 

calicem a manu diaconi accipiat. DiacoiK) mainim ipsitts 
sacerdotis, utraqiie vice, deoscnlante. Postea ardinato 
sacrificio et debito modo deposito sacerdos sacrificimn, 
ministerio diaconi, ter in signum crdcis thurificet ; deinde 
ter in circaitu ; postea ex utraqiie parte sacrificii. Quo 
peracto sacerdos manus abluat, imnisterio subdiacom 
et aliomm ministrorum. Diacono interim ipsum altare 
in sinistro comu incensante, et reliqnias^ more solito, in 
circuitu. Accedente autem sacerdote ad divinnm obse- 
quium exequendum, diaconus et subdiaconus suis gra- 
dibus ordinate se teneant. Et si episcopus cdebrayerit^ 
omnes diaconi in eodem gradm diaccmorom consistant : 
principali diacono medium locum inter eos obtinehte. 
Simili modo subdiaconi in gradu subdiaconorum se 
habeant. Cseteris omnibus diaconis et subdiaccmis gear 
turn principalis diaconi, et principalis subdiaconi imi* 
tantibus. Excepto quod principalis subdiaconus sacer- 
doti ad populum convertenti solus ministretv Sacerdote 
vero ''Per omnia ssecula" incipiente, subdiaconus offer^ 
torium et patenam a manu diaconi accipiat, et ipsam 
tenendam, quousque oratio Dominica dicatur, acolyto 
offertorio coopertam committat in gradu post subdiaco- 
num interim constituto. Sciendum autooi quod pueri 
ministrantes, dum secretum missae tractatur, in eboro 
moram faciunt exteriorem locum primaB formea tenentes, 
quousque sacerdos, cancellatis manibus, ad altare se in- 
clinet. Tunc enim ad altare accedunt ad ministrandum 
diacono in manuum ablutione cum subdiacono. Sacer- 
dote vero Corpore Domini calicem in modum crucis 
isignante, diaconus ei a dextris assistat, eique in corpo- 
ralibus sustinendis subministret. Inchoata vero oratione 
Dominica, diaconus patenam a manu subdiaconi recipiat, 
et post dictam orationem Dominicam eam sacerdoti por- 
rigat : post tertium " Per Omnia " si episcopus celebra- 
verit, diaconus ad populum conversus, baculum episcopi 
in dextra tenens, curvatura baculi ad se conversa, dicat 
^* Humiliate vos ad benedictionem/' Deinde episcopus, 

anntttonal i0ote. 


eacharistia mterim smper patenam reposita, 8up(^ popu- 
lum fadat benedictionem. Ad ^^ Agnus Dei" dicen- 
dum, asc^idat diaconus et subdiaconus ad sacerdotem 
uterque a dextris; diaconus propior, subdiaconus re- 
motior. Pacem vero diaconus a sacerdote accipiat : 
deinde prime subdiaconum ; deinde ad gradum chori 
rectorem ex parte decani ; dehinc alium ex parte can-- 
tons, osculetur : qui duo pacem chore reportent, iaci* 
j^ientes a decano et cantore, vel ab his qui stallis eorum 
staUt preximiores. Pest perceptionem sacramenti, sa- 
cerdote ad manus abluendas veniente, diaconus corpo- 
ralia complicet et in locule reponat. Postea yero ipsa 
corporalia calici cum effertorio superponat; ipsumque 
ealicem, dum post communio dicitur, ipsi acolyte com- 
mittat, qui dum ^^ Per omnia" dicitur pest erationem/ 
ea solemnitate qua eum apportavit reportet. Post ^^ Be- 
nedicamus" dictum a diacono, iterum casula indute, ad 
pepulum conyerso, et post inclinationem a se factam, 
sacerdos cum suis ministris, mode quo accessit, abscedat. 

Vitalis presbyter,** yicarius perpetuus de Suning, prae- 
sentayit capellanuin, quem secuin habet, nomine Sime- 
nem, quem mode retinuit usque ad festum B. Michaelis. 
Requisitus idem Simon de suis ordinibus ; dicit, quod 

. ^ These examinations of illiterate 
Priests, in the early part of the 
thirteentii Century, viz. a.d. 1222, 
are taken from the same MS. the 
^ Reg^istrom S« Osmundi :" fol. xliij. 
and are written in a contemporary 
hand, prohahly being the authentic 
record at the time. Certainly they 
have little ^ke to do with my pre- 
sent subjecti beyond the Canon 

being made the test of a competent 
knowledge : but they are extremely 
curious; and valuable as shewing 
the discipline which was mainUdn- 
ed, even in those disturbed days. 
Some other examinations I have 
omitted, in which the candidates 
were declared to be sufficiently 

1 82 aumttonai laot^. 

apud Oxomam recepit ardinem subdiacoxii, a quodam 
episcopo Ybemiae, Albino nomine, tunc vicario epis- 
copi Lincolniensis. Item ab eodem recepit (»rdinem 
diaconi. Item ordinem presbyteratus ab Hugone modo 
Lincolniensi episcopo : transactis quatuor annis. Pro- 
batus fiiit de evangelio Dominicde primse in adyenta et 
inventus est minus habens^ nee intelligens quod legeret 
Item probatus fiiit de canone misssB : ** Te igitur, cie- 
mentissime Pater" etc. Nescivit cujus casus esset " Te" 
nee a qua parte regeretur. Et cum dictum esset ei, ut 
diligenter inspiceret quae pars posset oompetentius regere 
*♦ Te," dixit, quod Pater, qui omnia regit. Requisitus 
quid esset " clementissime," vel cujus casus, vd qualiter 
declinaretur ; neschdt. Requisitus quid esset ** Cle- 
mens ;" nescivit. Item idem Simon nullam differentiam 
antiphonarum novit, nee cantum hymnorum, nee etiam 
de illo, " Nocte surgentes : " nee aliquid scit de Officio 
Divino, vel Psalterio cordetenus. Dixit etiam, quod in- 
decens ei videbatur quod probaretur coram decano, cum 
jam esset ordinatus. Requisitus super quo fiiisset pro- 
batus quando ordinem presbyteratus accepit : dicit quod 
non meminit. Sufficienter illiteratus est. 

Johannes de Herst prsesentavit capellanum suum 
Ricardum nomine, natum apud Rosam. Juvenis quidem 
est, et nihil scit. Dicit quod ordinem subdiaconi rece- 
pit London, a Willielmo episcopo. Ab episcopo Petro, 
Winton. ordinem diaconi, transactis sex annis : a Wil- 
lielmo vero episcopo Cestrensi eodem anno ordinem 
presbyteratus. Probatus de hac coUecta Adventus : 
<*Excita quaesumus Domine;" dixit quod nihil voluit 
respondere. Requisitus de canone, dixit, quod nihil 
voluit super hoc respondere. Postquam enim «iius Pres- 
byter prime exierat ab ecclesia post examinationem, et 
venisset ad alios, omnes inierunt consilium imum quod 
non responderent. Aliqui tamen eorum in articiilo re- 
sponderunt postea ad magnam instantiam decani. Po^- 

awitional jQote* 183 

tea requisitus noluit in ultimo capitulo examinari, et 
remansit suspensus. 

Johannes de Erburge praesentavit capellanum Regi- 
naldum, natum apud Windelshoram. Ordinatus sicut 
ipse dicit, ad ordinem subdiaconi apud Sarum. Diaconi 
vero et presbyt. apud Winton. transactis jam iiij annis, 
Probatus de hac oratione " Excita," etc. et de hoc textu 
canonis, "Te igitur, clementissime Pater;" nihil pror- 
sus voluit respondere. Postea venit et obtulit se ezami- 
nationi et nihil scivit, vel legere vel canere. 

Capellanus de Sandhurst Johannes de Sireburii. dicit 
quod ordinatus fuit subdiaconum apud Cicestriam*. 
Diaconum apud Winton. ab episcopo Gbdefrido, in 
Ybemia: et jam ministravit in praedicta capella per iiij 
annos. Probatus de hac oratione, " Excita," etc. et de 
** Te igitur," nihil scit respondere. Probatus de cantu, 
de oflfertorio dominicae adventus, scilicet : *^ Ad te le- 
vari ;" nescivit cantare. 

Item Vitalis Presbyter praesentavit ad capellam de 
Rotiscamp Jordanum Presbyterum, natum apud Stratton 
in Dorset. Ordinatus ut dicit subdiaconum et diaco- 
num apud Sarum ab episcopo Herberto. Presbyterum 
autem ab episcopo Roffensi Gilberto de GlanviU. ante 
generale interdictum. Probatus ut alii supra, de ora- 
tione, " Excita," et " Te igitur ;" nihil scit. Proposito 
ei libro ut cantaret, noluit cantare. Praeceptum est 
Vitali, ut bonos capellanos inveniat et ibi et apud 
Sunning ; vel decanus capiet beneficia in manus suas. 

Item apud Erberge ifuit quidam veteranus in domo 
Ricardi BuUoc, presbyter quidam de Rading; et cum 
probaretur a decano, utrum videret et utrum verba 
integra proferret, inventum est quod nullum verbum 
evaiigelii vel canonis integrum potuit proferre. Et ideo 
praecepit decanus Johanni de Erburge ne ulterius per- 
mitteret eum ministrare in capella ilia. 

1 84 aimittonal J6ote. 


Dratfonetf pto tege in miffis nfcenoae."' 

Sequuntur orationes in missis dicendm, pro hoTioJUid 
ac prospero statu Christianissitni atgiii exceUeftiistim 
regis nostri Henrici octavi. 

^^p§€ UiESUMUS omnipotens et miaeiicors Dens, 
Q^Q ] ut^ <%K noster Henricos octavos, qui* toa 
^^^r/ miseradone, regni suscepit gnbemarala vir- 
•^^ ifc ^^ tatum omnium percipiat incrementa : qmbus 
decenter omatus Titiorum vora^em devitare, coTporis 
incolumitate gaudere, hostes superare, et in tranquilla 
pace dum in hmnanis aget tarn feliciter poesit Bua tem- 
pera pertransire, ut post hnjus vitffi decursum, ad te qui 
via, veritaa, et vita es, gratiosus valeat pervenire. Per. 

Munera, qosesumos Domine, oblatasanctifica, at nobis 
Unigeniti tui corpus et sangoiB fiant, et &malo tao Hen- 
rico octavo regi nostro ad obtanendnm aninue corporisqne 
salutem : et ad peragendum in firma fide et solida pace 
injunctum sibi officium, te largiente, nsquequaque pro- 
ficiat. Per. 


Hsec, qusesumus Domine, salutaris sacramenti percep- 
tio famulum tunm Henricmn octavum r^em nostrum 
ab omnibus tueatur adversis, quatenus dintumam et 
prosperam vitam in tranquillitate ecclesiasticee pads 
obtineat : et post hujus vit^e decursum ad setemam bea- 
titudinem, tua gratia cooperante, perveniat. Per. 

" From " ftfiMsle od Usnm Sa- timi." I have not thought it an 

rum: Pajis.Svo. Petit 1516." Thia imneceiBary addition, remembering 

Mass occurs in Tarioua edidons, that our present Utui^ contains 

and some of much earlier date: spemal prayers for the reigning 

thus we find it, occanonally, "pro Sovereign, 
bono ftatu regis nostri Henrici Bcp- 

aoDftfonal Bote. iBs 

^oDus inDuenDi IPontificem.'^ 

iODUS induendi pontificem ad solemniter 
n celebrandum : primo veniat pontifei ante 
altare, vel alibi, ubi dispositum fuerit: et 
I pn^tratus breviter oret. Et surgens ponet 
se ad cathedram, et statim incipiantur psalmi consueti : 
*' Quam dilecta" &c. nt in&a. Interim ministri vel do- 
micelli Caligas cum sandalis secrete extenso superiori 
indumento ei subministrent. Deinde maDutergium cum 
aqua ad lavandum deportent. Fostea exuat cappam et 
induat amictum, . albam, et stolam : et reliquias circa 
eollum, ac deinceps tunicam, dehinc dalmaticam, et ma- 
nipulum, £t tunc consedendo chirotbecas manibus im- 
ponat, et annulum pontificalem magnum, una cum imo 
parro Btrictiori annulo ad tenendum fortius superimponat. 
£t Budarium retortum in manu recipiat, ad &ciem exter- 
gendam. Et bic sedendo post psabnts infra scriptoB 
orataones sequentes comuetas perdicat. Et cum hora 
fuerit, surgat et casulam induat, et mi tram capiti imponat, 
et bacnlum pastoralem in manu sua sinistra assumat, 
curvatura bactdi ad popultun conrersa, cujus contrarium 
&ciant ministri tenendo baculum vel portando. Et sic^ 
choro canente "Gloria Patri" vel alias officium inci- 
piente, procedat de sacrario ad altare populum benedi- 
cendo. £t Teniens ante altare, deposita mitra, dicat 
confessionem. Qua dicta, reponatur mitra usque ad 
principium primee collectse de die, ita quod salutando 
populum ante principalem orationem dicat versus popu- 
lum: **Pax vobis." Et deponatur mitra dum dicitur 

^ From the MS. Pontifical " ad the Universityof Cambridge. (Mm, 
usum Sarum," in the Library of 3. 21. Folio.yb^. xi.) 

1 86 aonmonal j0ote. 

coUecta, et post collectam, dicto " Jesum Christum FiKum 
tuum," ad haec verba, "Qui tecum," reponatur mitra 
usque ad evangelium, et tunc amoveatur, recepto baculo, 
usque inceperit " Credo in unum." Et tunc utatur mitra 
usque postquam verterit se ad populum, dicendo " Orate 
fratres." Et hoc dicto conversus ad akare, t^noveat 
minister mitram et ponat eam super comu altaris, quasi 
stando, quousque fiat benedictio super populum : miasMfi 
quoque totam sicut cssteri sacerdotes dicat. ^Et post 
"per omnia" ante pacem faciat benedictionem sdem- 
nem super populum, diacono baculum in manibus tenente, 
et ad chorum converse^ dicendo alta voce, " Humiliate 
vos ad benedictionem." 

Chorus respondeat. " Deo gratias." 

Et sic Eucharistia super patenam reposita, accepta- 
que mitra, et baculo in manu sinistra, et manu dextra 
super populum elevata, dicat benedictionem prout tempus 
exigit et requirit. Et postea remotis mitra et baculo, 
reversus ad altare dicat: "Et pax ejus." Et csetera 
sequentia sicut alii sacerdotes, nisi quod lotis manibus 
reponat mitram et resumat chirothecas et annulos, et 
postquam se verterit ad populum, dicat : " Dominus vo- 
biscum," et reversus amoveatur mitra, dum dicitur post- 
communio. Et iterum post orationem resumatur, ut 
supra in prima oratione. Et sic mitratus recedat, di- 
cendo evangelium : " In principio," cum psalmo, " Be- 
nedicite sacerdotes." 

^uif^nAliaote. 187 


€tuae funt vtcentia inUuentio et oruenDo 

^SLSBRA T UR US ponti/ex missarum sol- 
lemnia, quosdam psalmos et oration&s ex in- 
stUutione Celestini Papce, primo pramittit, 
guos interim dum caligis et sandalis <yrnatur 
dicet secundum exfiortationem psalmisttB dicentis. 

PrEBoccupemus faciem ejus in confessione, et in psalnus 
jubilemus si. 

Hi quinque psalmi sunt qui did dehent. viz. 
Quam dilecta tabemacula t'ua Domine. Pb. Ixxxiij.- 
Benedixisti Domine terram tuam. Ps. Ixxxiv. 
Inclina Domine aurem tuam et exaudi me. Ps. Ixxxv. 
Credidi propter quod locutus sum. Ps. cxt. 
De profundis clamavi. Ps. cxxix. 
Ant. Veni, Domine, visitare nos in pace> ut Isetemur 
coram te corde perfecto. 

Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison. 

Pater noster. Et ne nos. 

Repleatur os meum laude. 

Resp. Ut cantem. 

Vers. Domine, avorte faciem tuam a peccatis meia. 

Re^, £t omnes. 

Vers. Cor mundiun crea in me, Domine. 

Resp. £t spiritum. 

Vers. -Ne projicias me a facie tua. 

Resp. Et spiritum. 

Vers. Redde mihi Isetitiam salutaris tui. 

' From the same MS. 

1 88 aumttonal isote. 

Resp. Et spiritum. 

Vers. Sacerdotes tui induantur justitiam. 

Resp. Et sancti. 

Vers. Domine Deus, converte nos. 

Resp. Et ostende. 

Vers. Domine exaudi orationem meam. 

Resp. Et clamor. 

Vers. iDominus vobiscum. 

Resp. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

C Oralio. Aures tuse pietatis, mitissimd Deus, inclina 
precibus meis^ et gratia Sancti Spiritus illumina cor 
meum, ut tuis mysteriis digne ministrare merear. Per 

Actiones nostras, queesumus Domine, aspirando prse- 
yeni et adjuvando prosequere, ut cuncta nostra operatic 
a te semper incipiat, et per te ccepta finiatur. 

Fac me, queeso Deus, ita justitia indui, ut in electo- 
rum tuorum merear exultatione Isetari, quatenus exutus 
ab omnibus sordibus peccatorum consortium adipiscar 
tibi placentium sacerdotum^ meque tua misericordia a 
vitiis omnibus exuat quem reatus proprise conscientise 
gravat. Per Christum- 

CcUigis et sandalis impositiSj pontifex pritcsqtiam sibi 
amictum imponatj caput peccinat^ maims etfadem lavatj 
et dum lavit dicat episcopus hanc orationem. 

C Largire sensibus nostris, omnipotens Pater, ut sicut 
hie abluuntur inquinamenta manuum, ita a te munden- 
tur interius poUutiones mentis, et crescat semper in nobis 
augmentum sanctarum virtutum. Per Christum. 

C Ad amictum imponendum capiH suo. 

Spiritus Sanctus superveniet in me, et virtus Altissimi 
obumbrabit caput meum. 

C Ad album. 

Miserere mei, Deus, miserere mei : et munda me a 
reatibus cunctis, et cum illis qui dealbaverunt stolas 

auntttonal Bote. 1 89 

suas in sanguine Agni mereamur perfrui gatidiis per- 

C Ad zonam. 

Praecinge me, Domine, zona justitiae, et constringe in 
me dilectionem Dei et proximi. 

C Ad stolam. 

Stola justitiae circumda, Domine, cervicem meam, et 
ab omni corruptione peccati purifica mentem meam. 

C Ad tunicam. 

Indue me, Domine, vestimento salutis, et indumento 
IsBtitise circumda me semper. 

C Ad dcdmaticam. 

Da mihi, Domine, sensum et vocem, ut possim can- 
tare laudem tuam ad hanc missam. 

C Adfanonem. 

Indue me, Pater clementissime, novum hominem, de- 
posito veteri cum actibusL suis, qui secundum Deum 
creatus est in justitia et sanctitate veritatis. 

C Ad casulam. 

Indue me, Domine, lorica fidei, et galea salutis^ ac 
gladio Spiritus Sancti. Amen. 

Deinde dicat episcopus antequam accedat ad altare : 

Ant. Introibo ad altare. etc. ut continetur in missale. 

Cum vera episcopus exuerit casulaniy et alia indu- 
menta episcopaliay dicat has psalmos sub uno Gloria 
Patri, cum hac antiphona : Trium puerorum. 

Ps. Benedicite sacerdotes. v^qus adjinem. 

Ps. Laudato Dominum in Sanctis. 

Ps. Nunc dimittis. Gloria Patri. Sicut. 

Deinde dicatur antiphona : Trium puerorum. 

SequMur: Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie 
eleison. Pater noster. Et ne nos. 

Benedicamus Patrem, et Filium, cum Sancto Spiritu. 

Resp. Laudemus. 

*Benedictus es, Domine, in firmamento coeli. 

Benedicat et custodiat. 

1 90 annttfonai Bote. 

Non intres. 

Domine Deus virtutum. 
Domine, exaudi. 
Dominus yobiscum. 

Oratio. Deus qui tribus pueris. 
Oratio. Ureigne. 
OraHo. Actiones. 

Etjiniatur sic : Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

aDuftiohai K^ote. 191 


PraefattoneiB! pet totum annum*'' 

\EQUUNTUR prcefationes. 

Et prima prcefatio nativitatis Domini; 
qtKB prcefatio dicitur in die nativitatis Domini 
ad omnes missas, et quotidie per hebdomadam^ 
et in die CircumcisioniSj et in omnibus missis de sancta 
Maria J ab hac die usque ad Purificationem, et etiam in die 
Purijicationis. Dicatur etiam in festo Corporis Christi et 
in octava ejusdem et infra: quando de eo Jit servitium. 
Dicitur etiam in commemoratione e/usdem,. Communi- 
cantes, vero dicitur tantum usque ad Circumcisionem et in 
die Circumcisionis. 

MienxQ Deus. Quia per incamati Verbi mysterium, 
nova mentis nostrae oculis lux tuse claritatis infulsit : ut 
dum visibiliter Deum cognoscimus, per hunc in invisibi- 
lium amorem rapiamur. Et ideo cum Angelis. etc. 

NotOy quod infra canonem, ad primam missam in node 
nativitatis Domini, dicitur Communicantes : et noctem 
sacratissimam e^c. Ad omnes alias missas dicitur : Diem 
sacratissimum, quandocunque dicitur. 

Infra canonem. 

Communicantes, et diem sacratissimum {et noctem sa- 
cratissimam) celebrantes, quo beatse Mariae intemerata 
virginitas huic mundo edidit Salvatorem : sed et memo- 
nam venerantes, in primis ejusdem gloriosee semper 
virginis Manse, genitricis ejusdem Dei et Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi, sed et beatorum apostolorum ac martyrum 
tuorum, Petri, • . ' et Damiani, et 

*® From " Missale ad Usum Sarum. Paris. Fol. Regnaalt* 1529r* 

192 flmiitiotial Bote. 

omnium 8anct<»tmi tnormn, quorom mentis j^recibusqae 
conoedas, at in omnibus protectioms tuae mumamnr aux- 
ilio. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

C Sequens pnefatio dicUur m die Epiphanue, et per 
octavam et in octava, et Communicantes similiter. 

^temeDeus. Quia cum Unigenituft tous in substantia 
nostrae camis apparuit, in novam nos immortalitatis suse 
lucem reparavit. Et ideo cum Angelis. Oc. 

Infra canonem. 

Communicantes, et diem sacratissimum celebrantesy 
quo Unigenitus tuus in tua tecum gloria coaetemusy in 
veritate camis nosta'ae visibiliter corporalis apparuit : sed 
et memoriam yenerantes, in primis gloriosae semper yir- 
ginis Mariae genitricis ejusdem Dei et Domini nostri 
Jesu Christi : sed et beatorum apostolorum ac mar^rrum 

tuorum, Petri, etDamiaiii: 

et omnium sanctorum^'luorum, quorum mentis precibus- 
que eoncedas, ut in omnibus protectionis tuae muniamur 
auxilio. Per eumdem. etc. 

C Sequens prafatio dicitur Feria uij. in capite jejuniij 
et in omnibus missis de j^unioy nisi in daminicis ab hinc 
usque ad coenam Domini. 

iEteme Deus. Qui corporali jejunio vitia comprimis, 
mentem elevas, virtutem largiris et praemia : per Chris, 
turn Dominum nostrum. Per quem. Nota quod in 
daminicis per Quadragesimam dicitur prafatio quoti- 
diana. In coena Domini etiam prcefatio quatidiana dicitur. 
Infra Canonem Communicantes, et Hanc igitur, et Qui 
pridie, tam ab episcopo qtuim a sacerdote dkuntur^ 

Infra Canonem. 

Communicantes, et diem sacratissimum celebrantes, 
quo Dominus noster Jesus Christus pro nobis traditus 
est: sed et memoriam yenerantes, in primis gloriosae 
semper yirginis Mariae genitricis ejusdem Dei et Do- 
mini nostri Jesu Christi : sed et beatorum apostolorum 

ac martyrum tuorum, Petri, et Damiani : 

et omnium sanctorum tuorum, quorum meritis precibus- 

atitittionai JlSote, 193 

que concedas: ut in omnibus protectionis tuae munia-^ 
mur auxilio. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum* 

Item. Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostrse, sed 
et cunctae familiae tuse, quam tibi oflferimus ob diem in 
quo Dominus noster Jesus Christus. tradidit discipulis 
suis corporis et sanguinis sui mysteria celebranda^ quae- 
sumus Domine, ut placatus aqcipias, diesque nostros in 
tua pace disponas, atque ab seterna damnatione nos eripi, 
et in electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari^ Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Qui pridie quam pateretur pro nostra omniumque 
salute, hoc est hodie ; accepit panem in sanctas ac vener 
rabiles manus suas, et elevatis oculis in coelum ad te 
Deum. etc. 

C Sequens prcefatio dicitur in die Pascha^ et per totam 
hebdomadamy et in omnibus dominicis, usque ad Ascensior 
nem, quando de dominica sive de Pascha dicitur missa. 
Sed in vjgilia Pascha tantum dicitur in prcefatione, Sed 
in hac potissimum nocte* Quandocunque vero alias dici- 
tur ; dicitur ^ Sed in hac potissimum die. Communis 
cantes vero, et Hanc igitur per hebdomadam, et in octava 
Paschce tantum dicuntur: ita quod in vigilia Paschce 
tantum dicitur, noctem sacratissimam. In die vero 
Pasch(E, et alias quando dicitur, diem sacratissimum> 

iEteme Deus. Et te quidem omni tempore, sed in hac 
potissimum die (nocte) gloriosius praedicare, cum Pascha 
nostrum immolatus est Christus. Ipse enim verus est 
Agnus, qui abstulit peccata mundi. Qui mortem nos»- 
tram moriendo destruxit, et vitam resurgendo reparayit. 
Et ideo cum Angelis etc. 

Infra Canonem. 

Communicantes, et diem sacratissimum {noctem sacra- 
iissimam) celebrantes resurrectionis Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi, secundum camem : sed et memoriam veneraiites> 
in primis gloriosae semper virginis Marise genitricis ejusr 


194 atmittonfti j^6te« 

dem Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Chridti : 8ed et beatomm 
apostolorum ac martyrum tuorum^ Petri . • » . • 

. . . et Damiani : et omnium sanctorum tuorum, 
quorum mentis precibusque concedas, ut in omnibus pro- 
tectionis tuse muniamur auxilio* Per eumdem Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Item. Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostras, sed et 
cunctse familisB tuse, quam tibi offerimus pro his quoque, 
quos regenerare dignatus es ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, 
tribuens eis remissionem omnium peccatorum, qusesumus 
Domine, ut placatus accipias, diesque nostros in tua pace 
disponasy atque ab setema damnatione nos eripi, et in 
electorum tuorum jubeas grege numeraxi. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen.^ 

C Sequens prcefatio dicitur in die Ascensionis Domini : 
et per octavam et in octava^ et in dominica infra octavam 
yuando de dominica agitur : et Communicantes« 

iEteme Deus : per Christum Dominum nostrum. Qui 
post resuirectionem suam omnibus discipulis suis mani- 
festus apparuit ; et ipsis cementibus est elevatus in coe- 
lum, tit nos divinitatis suae tribueret esse participes. Et 
ideo cum AngeUs. 

Infra Canonem. 

Communicantes, et diem sacratissimum celebrantes, 
quo Dominus noster Jestis Christus unigenitus PiUus tuus, 
unitam sibi fragilitatis nostrse substantiam in glorise tuse 
dextera collocavit. Sed et memoriam venerantes, in 
primis gloriosae semper virginis Mariae genitricis ejusdem 
Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi : sed et beatorum apos- 
tolorum ac martyrum tuorum Petri, ,.»,•, 

. » • et Damiani : et omnium sanctorum tuorum 
quorum meritis precibusque concedas, ut in omnibus 
protectionis tuae muniamur auxilio. Per eumdem. 
• C Sequens prcrfatio dicitur in die FentecosteSy et per 
hebdomadam^ et in omnibus missis de Sancto Spiritu. Com^ 
municantes. et Hanc igitur in die Pentecostes et ab hinc 
usque adfestum Sanctte Trinitatis dicuntur iantum. 

annittonai iQote. 195 

-' Sterne Deus : per Christum Dominum nostrum. Qui 
ascendens super omnes ccelos, sedeosque ad dexteram 
tuam, promissum Spiritum Sanctum hodierna die in filios 
adoptionis efBidit, Quapropter profiisis gaudiis, totus 
in orbe terrarum mundus exultat : sed et supernse virtutes 
atque angelicas potestates hymnum glorise tuas concinunti 
sine fine dicentes. 

C Infra Canonem. 

Oommunicantes, et diem sacratissimum Pentecostes 
celebrantes, quo Spiritus Sanctus apostolis in igneis lin* 
guis apparuit. Sed et memoriam venerantes, in primis 
gloriosse semper virginis Marise genitricis ejusdem Dei 
et Domini nostri Jesu Christi : sed et beatorum aposto- 
lorum ac martyrum tuorum Petri, . 

. . « et Damiani : et omnium sanctorum tuorum 
quorum meritis precibusque concedas, ut in omnibus pro- 
tectionis tuae muniamur auxilio. Per eumdem Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Item. Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostxae, sed et 
cunctaB familiar tuae, quam tibi offerimus pro his quoque, 
quos regenerare dignatus es ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, 
tribuens eis remissionem omnium peccatorum, quaesumus 
Domine, ut placatus accipias, diesque nostros in tua pace 
disponas, atque ab aetema damnatione nos eripi, et in 
electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari. Per eumdem 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

C Sequens prcefaiio dicitur in die Sancta Trinitatis^ et 
in omnibus dominicis usque ad adventum Domini^ quando 
de dominica dicitur missa^ licet in capella dicatur^ et in 
omnibus commemorationibus Sanctce Trinitatis per totum 
annum, et in omni missa sponsalium. 

iEteme Deus. Qui cum unigenifco Filio tuo et Spiritu 
Sancto unus es Deus, unus es Dominus : non in unius 
singularitate personae, sed in unius Trinitate substantiae. 
Quod enim de tua gloria, revelante te, <iredimus, hoc de 
FiUo tuo, hoc de Spiritu Sancto^ sine differentia discre- 
tionis sentimus» Ut in confessione verse sempiter naeque 

tg6 asufetotialiiSott^ 

Deitatis, et in personis profprietas, et in essentia 'iiddta«r 
et in maj estate adoretnr aequaHtas. Quam laudant An-^ 
geli atque Archangeli, Chembin quoque ac Seraphin^ 
qui non cessant clamare una voce dicentes. 

C Sequens prof alio dicitur in omnibus festis Apostolo- 
rurHf €t Evangelistarum^ et per octavos Apostohrum Petri 
et Paulij atque Andrea^ quando de octava dicitur missa^ 
prceterquam infesto sancti Johanms Apostoli et JSvange- 
list(£j in hebdomada nativitatis Domini. In octava vero 
ejusdem dicetur, et infesto ejus in tempore paschali. 

iEteme Deus: et te Domine suppliciter exorare, ut 
gregem tuum, Pastor aeteme, non deseras: sed per 
beatos Apostolos tuos continua protectione custodias^ 
Ut iisdem rectoribus gubernetHT, quoe opens tui vicarios 
eidem contulisti praeesse pastores. Et ideo eum Angelis 
et Archangelis, cmm thronis et dominationibus, cumque 
omni militia coelestis exercitns hymnnm gloriae tuae cani- 
mus^ sine fine dicentes. 

C Sequens prcefatio dicitur, in utroque festo sanctce 
CruciSy et in commemorationibus ejusdem^ per totum annum. 

Sterne Deus. Qai salutem humani generis in ligno 
constituisti, ut unde more oriebatur, inde vita resurgeret : 
et qui in ligno vicerat, in ligno quoque vinceretur : per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Per quem majestatem 
tuam laudant angeli, adorant dominationes, tremunt po* 
testates. Cceli, ccelorumque virtutes, ac beata seraphin 
socia exultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras 
voces ut admitti jubeas deprecamur, supplici confessione 

C Sequens prcefatio dicitur in omni festo beatce Maria 
virginisj nisi in purificatione ejusdem. Dicatur etiam 
per octavas assumptionis et nativitatis beatce Maria et in 
commemoratione ejusdem, per totum annum: nisi a die 
nativitatis Domini, usqtie ad purificationem beata Marite. 

iEterne Deus : et te in Conceptione, et te in Annun- 
ciatione^ et te in Assumptione, et te in Nativitate, et te 
in Visitatione, et te in Veneratione beatse et gloriosae 

semper virginis Marise exultantibus animis, laudare, be- 
nedicere, et praedicare. Quae et Unigenitum tuum Sancti 
Spiritus obumbratione concepit: et virginitatis gloria 
permanente, huic mundo lumen aetemum eflRidit, Jesum 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Per quern majestatem 
tuam laudant angeli, adorant dominationes, tremunt 
potestates. Coeli, coelorumque virtutes, ac beata seraphin 
soeia exultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras 
Voces ut admitti jubeas deprecamur, supplici confessione 

198 aoMMonal Bote. 


Xenetifctfonest <£pi9copale0.'<' 

The following selectioos will eoable the reader to judge of the 
general character of the episcopal Benedictions, which were an- 
ciently given during the canon of the mass when a Bishop offi- 
ciated. They are referred to in the Samm Manual, and probably 
wei-e continued in the English Church until the alteration of the 
service in the reign of Edward the sixth, although they had 
been long disused in the Church of Rome. The reader will find 
more information about them in my Dissertation on the Service 
Books, to which I must venture to refer him. The Samm bene- 
dictions do not agree with those in the pontifical of the Church 
of Bangor, nor with many of those in the Exeter pontifical of 
Bishop Lacy : but rather with the Benedictional of S. ^thel- 
wold,^ and, though there are considerable variations, with the 
benedictions at the end of the Junta Roman pontifical of 1620: 
the only printed edition in which they are contained. 

The benedictions in the Exeter MS. are stated to have been 
edited and published by John Peckham, Archbishop of Canter- 

I OMINICA prima adventus Domini benedictio. 
Omnipotens Deu9, cujus Unigeniti adven- 
tum et prseteritum creditis et ftitiirum expec- 
tatis, ejusdem adventus vos illustratione 
sanctificet, et sua benedictions locupletet. Amen. 

In prsesentis vitse stadio tos ab omni adversitate de- 

fendat, et se vobis in judicio placabilem ostendat. Amen. 

Quo a cunctis peccatorum contagiis liberati, in prae- 

Bentis vitae curriculo cum Sanctis animabus tanto inter- 

•• From the MS. Pontifical " Ad " Published in the Arcb»ol(^ia, 

usum Sarum," before described. vol. 24. 

eessore inveniamini digni, et illius tremendi examinis 
diam expectetiQ interriti. Amen. 

ista benedict io sequens dicatur injine cujuslibet bene-r 
dicHonis per annum. 

. Qu«>d ipse pr«8tere dign^tur, c^jus regnum et impe. 
rium sine fine permaiiet in s^cula sseculorum. Amen. 

Benedictio Dei omnipotentis, Pa+tris, et Fi+lii, et 
Spiritus •I' Sanctis descendat raper voBy et pianeat sem- 
per. Amen. 

Benedictio in festo Sancti Stephani protomartyris. 

Deus, qui beatum Stephanum protomattyrem et con^ 
fessione fidei et agone coronavit martyrii) mentes vestrag 
circumdet in praejienti sseculo corona justitiae, et in futuro 
perducat ad coronam glorise sempiternae. Amen. 

Blius obtentu tribuat vobis Dei et proximi cantata 
semper fervere, qui banc studuit etiam inter lapidantima 
impetus feliciter obtinere. Amen. 

Quo ejus et exemplo roborati, et interceesione muQiti, 
ab eo quern iUe a dcjLtri^ Dei vidit stant^m m^r^mwii 
bcmedici. Amen. 
. Quod ipse. etc. 

In die Paschr^. Benedictio. 

Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus, hodierna interveni- 
ente paschali solemnitate : et ab omni miseratus digne- 
tur defendere pravitate. Amen. 

Ut qui ad aeternam vitam in Unigeniti sui resurrec- 
tione vos reparat : in ipsius adventu immortalitatis vos 
gaudiis vestiat. Amen. 

Ut qui expletis jejuniorum sive passionis dominicae 
diebus paschalis festi gaudia celebratis : ad ea festa quae 
non sunt annua sed continua, ipso opitulante exultantibus 
animis veniatis. Amen. 

Quod ipse. etc. 

In festo sanctce Trinitatis. 

Omnipotens Trinitas, unus et verus Deus, Pater, et 
Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, det vobis eum desiderare feli- 
citer, agnoscere veraciter, diligere sinceriter. Amen. 

200 aoiittioimi4i9oce« 

iEqualitatem atque incommutabilitatem suae essentiae 
ita vestris mentibus infigat, ut ab eo nunqoam yos qui- 
buscumque phantasiis aberrare pennittat. Amen» 

Sicque yos in sua fide et caritate perseverare concedat, 
ut per ea postmodum ad sui manifestationem yisiohem- 
que interminabilem introducat. Amen^ 

Quod ipse. etc. 

In celebratione nUptiarum. ^ 

Summae providentiae Dominus qui post lapsujn proto- 
plastorum per bona matrimonii usum camalis desiderii 
excusabilem existere decrevisti, sanctificare digneris con- 
jugale propositum in quo prsesentes conjuges abdicatia 
tori illiciti maculis nectere voluisti. Amen. 

Da eis sub prsesentis commercii indulgentia inquina- 
menta csetera devitare : ut fructum tricenum ex verW 
tui semine valeant obtinere. Amen. • ':" 

Quo sicut conjugium magis magnum existat Christi et 
ecclesise sacramentum, sic unitati corporum prseponderet 
caritas ammarum. et magis tolerantes quam amantes 
camale commercium ad illud mentaliter suspendantur 
gaudium, ubi similitude felicitatis angelicse excliidit omne 
contagium mortalium nuptiarum. Amen. 

Quod ipse, etc^ 

aimmonal Bote. 


The followiog prayera are takea from a MS. missal in my 
poasession, of the 13th Ceotury: it formerly belonged to some 
English Benedictine monastery. The prayers are very remark- 
able, and I do not remember to have seen them in any other 
missal. They are placed immediately before the Prefaces, after 
the Ordinary. Martene, among the numerous Orders which he 
gives in the first volume of his collections, has printed an an- 
cient one, preserved in the Colhertine library, in which some 
similar may be found. De Ant. Ece. Rtt. torn. i. p. 194. 

f i> miscendum. Ex latere Christi sanguis et 
aqua exisse perhibetiir, et ideo pariter com- 
miscemus ; ut omnipoteDS et misericors Deus 
utrumque ad medelEun animarum nostrarum 
sanctiBcare dignetur. Qui vivit. 

Ad corporale sternendum. In tuo conspectu, Domine, 
queesumus heec nostra munera tibi placita sint, ut nos 
tibi placere valeamus. Per Dominum. 

Ad kostiam. Grata tibi sit, Domine, heec oblatio, quam 
tibi offerimus pro nostris delictis, et pro ecclesia tua 
sancta catholica. Per. 

Ad calicem. Offerimus tibi, Domine, heec munera in 
memoriam Jesu Christi, Filii tui, humiliter deprecautes 
clementiam tuam : ut ante conspectum Divinse majestatis 
tuse, cum odore suavitatis ascendant. Per eundem. 

Super kostiam impositam. Suscipe, Domine sancte, 
Pater omnipotens, ceteme Deus, banc hostiam oblationia, 
quam ego indignus et peccator tibi Deo meo vivo et vero 
humiliter offero : et mittere dignare Spiritum Sanctum 
tuum de cqbUs, qui sua admixtione sanctiBcet hoc munus 
tibi oblatum. Per ejus. 


ittttrgia |9. Clementfe. 

uevm. fuj Tig tuv axpoufiuav' ^i] ti; tuv 

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Ttvog. f*fi T$g IV vvoKpia-u, opdot vpog xuptov 
fAtra po0ou KKt TpofMu ia-TaTsg ufnv vpQtr(pip6tv. uv •ytvofi.evuv 
o( aiccKovot -Trpo/rwyeTuTotv to. Supa ru fmtrKO'TTia 7^e( to du- 
<ria<m]piov' xat ol -TTpta-fSuTipoi tK Sb^wv eaiTOV xat e| euufu- 
fiuv (TTfiKtTiixreeVf mg ea fx.eeSriTcu -TroftiifTUTeg iiooantet^^f. ma to 
at Suacoyoi g^ ixetTSpuv raiv fupuv rou durMtrri^ov netTt%t- 
Taireev t^ VfAsvuv Xbtttuv piTTiSiov, ^ frrspuv Tctuvog, ij oSovijg' 
xeu ^peftet avo<re0siTU<rav ret ftfKp» tuv iTTTOfMruv ^uuv, 
o-TTug av fill tyxfi'^'tTurrcu ttg to. ivJirtXkot. 6V^afit»og our 
kkS iavrovo ecpx'iftvg atftaroig Ispsvirii km Xccfi-jTpcai au4^T» 15 
f4,iTtvSug, itett (TTctg vpog ru dinricttmipua, re Tpowaiov tov 
irteajpov xetTct tou fitTWjrau rj) x^p' •jroiifO'etfi.tvog ttg ireoi- 
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2 1 b Linitgfa %. Ciementi0. 

roti KVfm Ifj(roVy OTreag uTrotprfyri rov ecprov rovtov iftafiu tow 


Ivu ol fjt,STocX»l3ovTeg uvTOVj PefSaidrOsoT't ir^g gutrajSg/flW, ot^t" 
(TBcag ufjuotpTiifjLOLTOiV TU%«(r/, TOD SmfioXov TCeci Tvig TrXecvfig 
5 oevTov ^Vir6ea(rty Trvev/zecTog dyiov 7rXfipeo6eo(nVf oL^^oi too Xpi- 
^too (TOD yeveavTott, ^cafjg oumiou TU%wa"/, (Tod KaToeXXocyevTog 
uvToigj Se(r7roTu TTuvTOKpuTop. gTi JfiOjitgda trou^ zvpte, icui 
VTTBp Tfjg dyiocg <rou SKKXtjinocg Tfjg octto TrepecTcov eeog TrspocTcav^ 
^v 7repte7roiifi(rco Tea Ttfiica odfJLXTi tod XpKTTOD (Tod^ OTrcag udtviv 
10 eiot<pDXx^ing euret(rTov koci ecKXD^cavKrTov, a%p/ Trig avvTsXetug 
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TOD 7rpo(r(p6povTog <roi oDSiviag^ koli DTTSp TrecvTog tod frp^trfiDTt- 


15 (ro(pt<rccgy TTvsDfjLocTog iytoD TrXfipuayig. €Ti frotpoacoLXoDfJLBv o"6, 
ycDpiBf DTTBp TOD ^ounXscag^ Kott Tm tv VTripoxij koh irccvTog tod 


JcoLi ofjLovoiot SiocyovTBg TOP fravTot xjpovov Tfjg ^^g '^ftuVy co^oc" 
^eofjLBv (re ^tcc Ihitod XptCTOD Tfjg BXTTiSog ^f/^oov. bti *rrpo(r(pBpo^ 

«0 flBV (TOi KOU DTTBp VOLVTm TtdV UW OUmog BD»pB<mj(raVTO)V (TOt 

iytcav^ TTocTpiccp^eoVy TrpopfiTcoVj StKa$o)v^ otTrocToXeaVf fJLUpTD^ 
pm, ofjboXoyi/iTtdv^ BTn^icoTrooVf 7rp6(rl3DTBpa>v, Siocicovcav^ vttoSm" 
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'KOLVTtav m ecDTog BiritTTourou to, ovoiautol. bti rrrpotrCpBpQfJLBv (rot 


&TOD <roD fio^iXBtov UpuTBDfJuot^ sQvog dyiov* DTTsp TO)v ev ^ASp* 
GBViu Kou ecyvBtUj DTfsp Teav X!'^pcav Tiig BfcitXifi(rlc^^ Dfrip Tcav ev 
(TBfjivotg yo^fioig kou TBUVoyoviuig^DTrBp Tm vifiTteov tod Xo^d (Tod^ 
CTTcag fjLH^BvoL ^[jlup ot/TTofiXfiTOP iroivitrifg. bti oi^^iODfiev (Tb uea 
so vTTBp Ti/ig TToXBug TecDTfjg xui Tm BPo$itoDVTm, UTTBp Ttap BP op* 

peotTTMig, DTTBp TUP BP TTlZpU ^ODXbiU^ DTTSp Tm BV ^^OpiOCiC^ 

Hiturgf a %. Clementi0. 2 1 1 

Si»ro cvofJLX (Tov^ iJTrep rcav B^ea ovrm icoct TTBTrXuvfjfJLBvm OTtcag 
e7n(rrft6i(Mf^ avTovg Big otyx^ov, zut tov Ov/jlov avrcav yrpuvvrig. 
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Ttav vf fisruvoia uSBX(pu)V '^puov' OTTcag rovg fiBv TB>iei6^vig bv tti 5 
TTierrgi, rovg h %cc6ocp4(rrig btc mig BVBpyBiocg tov Trovyipov, rcaP 
06 t^y fjCBTocvoioiv 7fpo<rSe^vif kou avyx^^p'^^^'^? ^^^ ctvroig tcoci 
TlfMf T« 'TrotfotTTTCjOfJiccrot '^fzeav. bti 7rpoa'<pBpofjiBv <rot koci VTTBp 
n^g BVKpcuriag tov uBpog Koct Trig BVtpopiotg rtav icocpTTcav' OTTcog 
cevBXXBiTrcag fiBToi^XotfifiavovTBg TCdv 'TTupotcrov o^yoc&caVj ouvcofjtBv 10 
CB ec7rocu(rTCijg, tov movtoc Tpo(pf}v TToctrv (rotpx,i. BTi "Trotpotyca," 


UTTocvTOig iifJtMg StccTifipfj(rocg bv tvi ivcrBf^Bioi^ BTnavvocyccyrig bv 


vonpn/^g ^vo'Bcag^ tov fiouriXBcag iifAcaVi oiTpBTfTovg^ ufjLBfjLTTTovg, ^5 
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fMi Keu 7rpx>(rKVvvi(rtgj Tea TraTpi^ kou Tca vlca, kou Tea xyiea ttvbv- 
fAart, KOU vvyy kou oe^ij kou Big Tovg ocvBXXBiTTBtg kou oltbXbv- 
TffTOvg outavocg Tcav oueavcav. kou TTotg Xocog XByBTca' otfjufiv. kou 
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KOU TTotg Xaog XByBTea'^Kou [zbtoc tov TTVBVfjLOCTog crov. kou 
ituKOvog Kfipvca-BTca TraXiv. 

Eti kou bti Si7l6ci;>flBV Tov &BOtJ Shoe TOV XpKTTOV OLVTOV^ 

VTTBp TOV Scapov TOV 7Tpo<rKO[ju<r6BVTog KVpico Tea ©ew, OTTiag 
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otvTov Big TO BTTovpocviov otVTov 6v(noc(rTfipioVy Big 0(rfjLriv BVcaSixf. 

VTFip TTig BKKXlll(riOig TO^Tfjg kou tov XotOV SBVldcafASV, VTTBp TT06^ 

Siofucoviotg KOU VTTiipB(riocgj TTocvTog tov TTXyiptafJutTog Tfjg bkkXvj- 
<no6^ Ssi^QcafABv* OTT^g KVpiog TTotVTo&g SiocTiijpfj(rvi kou J/a^uXa^y. 3® 


T» TTpog iifJLOtg^ OTTeag '^pBf/^ov koli ^avx^ov fiiov BXOVTBg^ oiotyca- 

fUV BV TTOM'TI BV<rBl3BlU KOU CBfJiVOTflTl. TtaV oyiCaV ' fJLOtpTVptaV 

fjMnfipLOVBWiafAiv' OTTiag Koiveavoi yevBO'Sou Trig oc6Xri<rBcag otVTcav 

2 1 2 ilitutgia %. €Iementi0« 

KUTu^icadcafjLBv, VTrep Tcav €v TrKTres ocvuTTocvarptfjiBvcjv CSfiuecfiBv, 
VTfsp Trig BDKfottnotq tcov ocepcov icon TBXB(r(pop$ocg rcav ycap'jrm 
SBf}9co[jLBv. VTTBp Tcov vBo(purt(rreji>v SBridcf>fjtBV^ OTTCog fiB^octcauciO' 

(TIV BV Tin 'TTKTTBl. TTUVTBg VTT oXXcaV 7r(Zp0^KUXe(ruC0(rUV. OCVd' 

5 CTi^ov iifiotg &Bog bv ry x^P^'^^ ^^^' ocvoc<rTocvTBg Buvrovg Tea 


XsyBTco' QBog o fJLByotg km fjLByocXcavvfjLog^ o [jLByocg tvi (iovXrij 
jcut KpocTUiog Totg Bpyoig^ o &Bog zui ttocttip tov uyiov Trutdog 
(Tov lvi(rov TOV (TCioTTipog yifjLUiVj eTTijSXgxJ/ov B<p yifJLug Kut btti to 


(TOV, Koci ccyiouTotg rifjLcav to (rcofioc jcoci tviv t^v^^v Jdara^^coj' 


avu^iov Kpmg^ otXXot tSonjQog yifitov yBvov^ uvTiXyi'TrTcapy vn'Bp- 

15 ot^o'TTta'Tyigf Sioe, tov XpicTTOv o'ov' fJLB^ ov croi io^ot^ Ttfjcfj, octvog^ 

^o^oXoytoc^ BVXo^pi(J'Tioc^ Koii Ttf uyt(a TrvBVfjLocTi^ Big Tovg ecieo- 

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yBTCij' 7rpoo"%wjit6v* KOii BTTiorKOTTog 7rpo(r(pmyi(roLTe») Tea Xocea 
ovTea. Tu eiyioc TOig dyiotg, icai o Xo^og VTrocKOVBTea' Big uyiog^ 
.20 elg Kvpiog^ Big Irjerovg XpicTTog^ Big So^ocv Qbov TruTpog^ BvXoyfi-^ 
Tog Big TOvg otieavug. ufjirfv. ^o^oc bv VT^KTToig @Bef, Koti bttI 
yrjg Biprjvri, bv oivQpeoTroig bv^okioc. 'il<ravvoc Tea ulea AocfisS' bv^ 
XoyyifjLBvog o Bpxof^Bvog bv ovofJoUTi jcvpiov^ 0Bog KVpiog, jcai ettb- 

(pOtVri %fJLlV' ^ileroCVVU bv TOig V^/l(^TOlg. KCtl fJLBTOt TOVTO fJUBTOt-^ 
25 XUfzfiuVBTeV BTTia'KOTTOgy BTTBITOC 01 7rpB(rl3vTBpOly TCUl ol SlO^ 
KOVOlj KOtl VTTO^lOtKOVOly KOtl 01 OtVayveatTTOtl^ KOtl ol l^OtXTOtly KOtl 
ol UO'KfjTOtly KOtl BV TOttg yVVOtl^lV Otl ^lOtKOVKTerotl, KOtl Otl TTOtp" 
6BV0lf KOtl otl %17pa/, BITX TOt TTOtl^lX, KXl TOTB TTOtg XotOg 
KXTOt TOt^lV fJLBTX OtlOOVg KXl BVXotf^BlOtg OtVBV OopvfioV, KOtl 

30 fjtBv BTTieTKOTTog hooTea Tfiv 7rpo(r(popotVy XBycjv' ceafjtot Xpierrov, 


TTOTVjpioVf Kxi BTTididovg XByBTU)' xlfjtx XpioTToVy TTOTfjpiov ^e^i/jg' 
Kxi TTivtov XBysTea' ufjtviv, ^xXfiog Jg XByserOco TpiXKoerTog 


litutffia ^. elements* 21 3 

'TTotvfeg fJLBTocKocficjixn rcoti 7ru(rot,i^ XufSovTsg ol diuKov'oi tuttS" 
pt(r<rBv<ruvT0Cy 6i(r(p6p6Tco(r(zv Big ret 7roc(rTo(popiu. Koit * ciotKovog 
XBysrcay TruvtrufjiBvov tod xj/aXXoi/ro^. 


rog TOV XptcTTOv^ gu%ap/o"Ti70"&)jL6gv rco Tcxrot^iaxrotyn iifioLg 5 
fiBrakoc(iBiv toov iyieav ocvrov pLVcrTiiipiuv, koh 7rotpocycotkB(ru^ 
fJLBv^ pLfj Big Kptfjboc^ aXX' Big (rcoTVjptuv rifjuv yBVB<rdai, Big (a<pB^ 
Xbixv ij/u^iy^ zoci (TcopLocTog, Big (pvXoiZ7}v BV<rBl3Biotg, Btg ot(pB(nv 
oLfJLUpTitav^ Big ^cariv rov pLBXXovTog ocicavog. ByBipcopLsOu. bv %ol- 
pin XptCTOV sotVTOvg rea Qbco^ rca fjuovco xyBvvyirca Qbco^ tcoli rca 10 

Xpi(rTCa UVTOV TTOCpuGcCfJiBQx. KOtl BTTlCrKOTTOg gU%ap/0"T6/T^. 

ABOTTroTU QBog TTotvroKpxrop^ TTocrrip tov Xpicrrov (rov 
TOV BvXoyi^Tov TTcci^og^ rm pt,BT BvQvTfjTog BTrmotXovfjbBvujv 


BUXotfi(rro\)fjiBv coi^ on }ca,rrj^ica(ro&g ripbug fJUBrocXocfiBtv tcov 15 
ocyicov (TOV piv<rT7ipteaVy u 7rotpB(rj(ov yjpLiv, Big 7rXyipo(pop4otv toov 
KocXeag ByvcocrpuBvcoVj Big <(>vXx}ci/jv Trig Bvo'BJSBiug^ Big u<pB(riv 
TrXifif^fjiBXrifjio^rcav' on to ovopuoc tov XpKTTOV (rov BTriTCBJcXrjToci 
6<p fipbccg, jca.1 CO I 7rjpo(refKBicafJbB^oc. ^copKrocg yjfJLotg TVfg tcov 
oi,(rB(itav jtoivcaviotg^ bvcoctov riptug jjubtcx, Tcav KxQctxricopLSvcov (roi^ 20 

(J'TfipiZOV ilfJLOLg BV TVI xXvi^BlCt Tri TOV dyiOV TTVBVpiXTOg BTTlCpOlTfj^ 

(TBiy Toc iyvoovfJLBvot X'TTOKocXv^oVy Tot Xbittovtoc 7rpo(rocvu7rXvj' 
ptacov, TO, ByvtocrfJUBvoL KpctTVvov. Tovg UpBig otpLcopLOvg Jia^u- 
Xctz^ov BV Tf XuTpBiu (TOV' Tovg (iot(riXBig SiocTifipvicrov bv Bipyivvij 
TOvg otp^ovTocg bv diKOiio(rvvrij Tovg uspa^g bv BVKpa,(rioc^ Tovg Kocp- 25 


cov a,yioc(rov. Tovg bv 7rup6Bviu diocTripri(rov' Tovg bv yocpLca dioer- 


ccSpvvov* Tovg vBOTBXBig fiBfioucatrov' Tovg bv Ko^Ttixyjo'^i 'tfociSbV'^ 30 
<roy, Koci TTjg fJLVyi(rBcag ot^tovg otvoc^Bt^ov' Koci TrocvTotg iifiotg btti" 
ovvccyuyB Big Trjv tcov ovpuvcav fioc(riXBiotv^ bv XpKTTca Iri(rov Tea 
Tcvpiea rifjieav* fAB^ ov (Toi io^oty TipLVj Koci (rejSa^, koli tco ocyica 


2 1 4 Littttgia %. Clementi0. 

(TKOTTog 6^6u%6a"fla>, Xsycov* Qeog o iravTOKfurdj^p^ o oLkyfiwo 
KOU uavyKpiTogf o 7ravT»x^^ ^^ ^^^ "^^^^ tfouti 'rro^cav icoci ev 
ovSevi u)g BvovTi VTrofx^^f ^ roTrotg f^fj TTBfiiypaipofJLBvoq^ o %po- 
5 voiq fjLfi *rFxKMOvfiBvog^ o oucatr^ [jlvi TFBpetroviJLBvogf o Xoyoig fjn/j 


vog^ a (p6opug ct^vcaTBpog, o TpOTTvig oLVB^m^Bxrogj o (pvcBt oevaX" 
XotcoTog, (pcag oiKcav U7rpo<nToVy o nf^pixTBi uopurogj o yvcatnog 
TTourcctg roug fjuBr BDvoiag Bxtj/iTovtroug (tb XoyiKxig <pv<rB<nvy o 


I(rpU7jXj rov ccXfjdivcag opcovTog, tod Big XptCTOv TTtCTBiMTowTog 


Kui BvXoyfi(rov Tovg (rot KBrcXacoTug Tovg boojt^ov «A)j(j^vocg^ kou 
dog uvTotg tu ouTififJLOLTa Teav Ko&pdmv oajTcav rot B*m ovfACpBpom^ 

15 Ko^i fifjiBvu uvTuv ecTTofiXfiTov 'TTOinia'rig bk T^g fietCiXBie^ cpv* 
o^XXa uyiourov oojTOvgy (^ovpfitrov^ tncBTTcccoVj ctvTiXocfiou, pvcrui 
rov oc^XXorpioVy Travrog Bx^poVj rovg oiKovg oainav (pvXx^ov, 
Tccg Bttroiovg ecvrcov xui rotg B^ocovg ^povpfjtrov* ori croi So^oc, 
aivog^ fjnyocXoTTpBTrBMy (TBfiocg^ TTpocKVPfjing^ x,ai rta (Tea TTouit 

20 Ifjo-ov rta XpKTTca (rov rea KVpita ^[jLcay kou &B(f itou (iouriKBit 

KOLi Tea o^yica TTVBVfjiMTi, vvv kcu UBi Ku$ Btg Tovg outavotg rtev 

oueaveav. uftviv, kxi o iioacovog BpBi* oc/TFoXvBtr^B B¥ Bipnivfi. 

Constitutionum Jpost. Lib. 8. Cotelerius^ Amst. 1724* fol. 

Cfte g)bpper of tfje Zorte, 


(According to the First Common Prayer Book of Edward VI. 1549.) 

SO many as intende to bee partakers of the holy Communion^ 
shall sygnijie their names to the Curate^ ouer night : or els 
in the m^oming, afore the beginning of Matins ^ or immediatly 
And if any of thx>se be an open and notorious euill liuer^ so that 
t/ie congregacion by hym is offended, or haue doen any wrong 
to his neighbours, by woi^de, or dede : The Curate shall call 
hym, m aduertise hym, in any wise not to presume to the lordes 
table, vntill he haue openly declared hymselfe, to haue truly 
repented, and amended his former naughtie life: that the 
congregacion mate thereby be satisfied, whiche afore were 
offended : and that he haue recompensed the parties, whom he 
hath dooen wrong tmto, or at the least bee in full purpose so to 
doo, as sone as he conueniently maie. 

C The same ordre shall the Curate vse, with those betwixt whom 
he perceiueth malice, and hatred to reigne, not suffering them 
to bee partakers of the Lordes table, vntill he knowe them to 
bee reconciled. And yf one of the parties so at variaunce, be 
content to forgeue from the botome of his harte, all that the, 
other hath trespaced against hym, and to make amendes, for 
that he hymself hath offended: and the other partie will not 
bee perswaded to a godly vnitie, but remaigne still in his fro- 
wardnes and malice: The Minister in that case, ought to 
admit the penitent persone to the holy Communion, and not 
hym that is obstinate. 

|[ Upon the daie, and at the tyme appoinctedfor the ministracion 
of the holy Communion, the Priest that shal execute the holy 
ministery, shall put vpon] hym the vesture appoinctedfor that 
ministracion, that is to saye : a white Albe plain, with a veste- 
ment or Cope, And where there be many Priestes, or Decohs, 

2 1 6 cf)e Communion. 

there so many shalbe ready to htlpe the Priest^ in the minis- 
tracion^ as shalbee requisite : And shall haue vpon iheim lyke- 
wise J the vestures appointed for their ministeryy that is to saye^ 
Albes, with tunacles. Then shall the Clerkes syng in En- 
glishe for the office ^ or Introite^ {as they call it) a Psalme 
appointed for that daie. 

The Priest standing humbly afore the middes of the Altar j shall 
saie the Lordes praier^ with this Collect, 

ALMIGHTIE GOD, vnto whom all hartes bee open, and 
all desjrres knowen, and from whom no secretes are hid : 
dense the tlioughtes of our heartes, by the inspiracion of thy 
holy spirite : that we may perfectly loue thee, & worthely mag- 
nifie thy holy name : Through Christ our Lorde. Amen, 

Theii shall he saie a Psalme appointed for the introite: whiche 
Psalme ended, the Priest shall saye, or els the Clerkes shal 

iij. Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 
iij. Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 
iij. Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Then the Prieste standyng at Goddes borde shall begin. 
Glory be to God on high. 

The Clei^kes. 
And in yearth peace, good will towardes men. 

We praise thee, we blesse thee, we worship thee, we glorifie 
thee, wee geue tankes to thee for thy greate glory, O Lorde 
GOD heauenly kyng, God the father almightie. 

O Lorde the onely begotten sonne Jesu Christe, O Lorde 
God, Lambe of GOD, sonne of the father, that takest awaye 
the synnes of the worlde, haue mercie vpon vs : thou that takest 
awaye the synnes of the worlde, receiue our praier. 

Thou that sittest at the right hande of GOD the father, haue 
mercie vpon vs : For thou onely art holy, thou onely art the 
Lorde. Thou onely (O Christ) with the holy Ghoste, art moste 
high in the glory of God the father. Amen. 

Then the priest shall turne hym to the people and saye^ 
The Lorde be with you. 

Cf)e Communion. 2 1 7 

The aunswere. 

And with thy spirite. 

The Priest, 
Let vs praie. 

Then shall folowe the Collect of the daie^ with one of these two 

Collectesfolowyngyfor the Kyng, 

ALMIGHTIE God, whose kingdom is euerlasting, and 
power infinite, haue mercie vpon the whole congregacion, 
and so rule the heart of thy chosen seruaunt Edward the sixt, 
our kyng and gouernour : that he (knowyng whose minister he 
is) maie aboue al thinges, seke thy honour and glory, & that we 
his subiectes (duely consydering whose auctoritie he hath) maye 
faithfully serue, honour, and humbly obeye him, in thee, and for 
thee, according to thy blessed word, and ordinaunce : Through 
Jesus Christe oure Lorde, who with thee, and the holy ghost, 
liueth, and reigneth, euer one God, worlde without ende. 

ALMIGHTIE and euerlasting GOD, we bee taught by thy 
holy worde, that the heartes of Kynges are in thy rule 
and gouemaunce, and that thou doest dispose, and turne them 
as it semeth best to thy godly wisedom : We humbly beseche 
thee, so to dispose and gouerne, the hart of Edward the sixt, 
thy seruaunt, our Kyng and gouernour, that in all his thoughtes, 
wordes, and workes, he maye euer seke thy honour and glory, 
and study to preserue thy people, committed to his charge, in 
wealth, peace, and Godlynes : Graunt this, O mercifull father, 
for thy dere sonnes sake, Jesus Christ our Lorde. Amen. 

The Collectes endedj the priesty or he that is appointed^ shall reade 
the Epistle f in a place assigned for the pur pose j saying. 

The Epistle of sainct Paule written in the Chapiter 

of to the. 

The Minister then shall reade thepistle. Immediatly after the 
Epistle ended f the priest ^ or one appointed to reade the Gospel^ 
shall saie. 

The holy Gospell written in the Chapiter of. 

The Clear kes and people shall aunswere. 

Glory be to thee, O Lorde. 

2 1 8 €bt Communion^ 

The priest or deacon then shall reade the Gospel : after the 
Gospell ended, the priest shall begin, 

I belieue in one God. 

The clerkes shall syng the rest. 

The father almightie maker of heauen and yearth^ and of all 
thinges visible^ igid inuisible : And in one Lorde Jesu Christ, 
the onely begotten sonne of GOD, begotten of his father before 
all worldes, God of GOD, light of light, very God of very God, 
begotten, not made, beeyng of one substaunce with the father, 
by whom all thinges were made, who for vs men, and for our 
saluacion, came doune from heauen, and was incarnate by the 
holy Ghoste, of the Virgin Mary, and was made manne, and 
was Crucified also for vs vnder Poncius Pilate, he suffered and 
was buried, and the thirde daye he arose again according to the 
scriptures, and ascended into heauen and sitteth at the right 
hande of the father : And he shall come again with glory, to 
iudge both the quicke and the dead. 

And I belieue in the holy ghost, the Lorde and geuer of life, 
who procedeth from the father and the sonne, who with the 
father and the sonne together, is worshipped and glorified, who 
spake by the Prophetes. And I beleue one Catholike and pos- 
tolike Churche. I acknowlege one Baptisme, for the remission 
of synnes. And I loke for the resurreccion of the deade : and 
the lyfe of the worlde to come. Amen 

Jfter the Crede ended, shall folxme the Sermon or Homely , or 
some porcion of one of the Homelyes, as thei shalbe hereafter 
deuided : wherin if the people bee not exhorted, to the worthy 
receiuyng of the holy Sacrament, of the bodye K bloude of our 
sauior Christ: then shal the Curate geue this exhortacion, to 
those y^. be minded to receiuey, same, 

DERELY beloued in the Lord, ye that mynde to come to the 
holy Communis of the bodye & bloude of our sauior 
Christe, must considre what S. Paule writeth to the Corinthias, 
how he exhorteth all persones diligently to trie & examine the- 
selues, before they presume to eate of that breade, and drinke of 
that cup : for as the benefite is great, if with a truly penitent 
heart, & liuely faith, we receiue that holy Sacramet : (for then 
we spiritually eate the fleshe of Christ, & drinke his bloude, 
then we dwell in Christ & Christ in vs, wee bee made one with 

Clbe Communion. 219 

Christy and Christ with vs) so is the daunger great, yf wee re- 
ceyue the same vnworthely, for then wee become gyltie of the 
body and bloud of Christ our sauior, we eate and drinke our 
owne damnacion, not considering the Lordes bodye. We kyndle 
Gods wrathe ouer vs : we prouoke him to plague vs with diuerse 
dyseases, and sondery kyndes of death. Therefore if any here 
be a blasphemer^ aduouterer, or bee in malyce or enuie, or in 
any other greuous cryme (except he bee truly spry therefore, 
and earnestly mynded to leaue the same vices, and do trust him 
selfe to bee reconciled to almightie God, and in Charitie with 
all the worlde) lette him bewayle his synnes, and not come to 
that holy table, lest after the taking of that most blessed breade: 
the deuyll enter into him, as he dyd into Judas, to fyll him full 
of all iniquitie, and brynge him to destruccion, bothe of body 
and soule. Judge therfore your selfes (brethren) that ye bee not 
iudged of the lorde. Let your mynde be without desire to synne, 
repent you truely for your synnes past, haue an earnest & lyuely 
faith Jn Christ our sauior, be in perfect charitie with all men, so 
shall ye be mete partakers of those holy misteries. And aboue 
all thynges : ye must geue moste humble and hartie thankes to 
God the^ father, the sonne, and the holy ghost, for the redempcion 
of the worlde, by the death and passion of our sauior Christ, 
both God and man, who did humble him self euen to the death 
vpon the crosse, for vs miserable synners, whiche laie in darknes 
and fthadowe of death, that he myghte make vs the children of 
God : and exalt vs to euerlasting life. And to thend that wee 
should alwaye remembre the excedyng loue of oure master, and 
onely sauior Jesu Christe, thus diyng for vs, and the innumer- 
able benefites (whiche by his precious bloudshedyng) he hath 
obteigned to vs, he hath lefte in those holy Mii^eries, as a pledge 
of his Joue, & a continual remebraunce of the same his owne 
blessed body, & precious bloud, for vs to fede vpon spiritually, to 
our endles comfort & consolacion. To him therfore with the 
fiither and the holy ghost, let vs geue (as we are most bounden) 
continual thankes, submittyng our selfes wholy to hys holy will 
and pleasure, & studying to seme hym in true holines and 
rightecAisnes, al the daies of our life. Amen. 

In Cathedral churches or other places^ 'where there is dailie Conu 
munionj it shal be sufficient to reade this exhortacion aboue 

220 Cf)e Communion* 

written^ once in a numeth, Jnd in parish churchcsy vpon the 
weke daies it may be kfte vnsayed, 

C And if vpon the Sunday or holy daye^ the people be negligent 
to come to the Communion: Then shall the Priest earnestly 
exhorte his parishoners^ to dispose themselfes to the i^eceiumg of 
the holy communion more diligently , sayiiig these or like wordes 
vnto them. 

DERE frendes, and you especially vpon whose soules I haue 
cure and charge, on next, I do intende by Gods 

grace, to ofire to all suche as shalbe godlye disposed, the moste 
comfortable Sacrament of the body and bloud of Christ, to be 
taken of them, in the remembraunce of his moste fruitfull and 
glorious Passyon : by the whiche passion, we haue obteigned 
remission of our synnes, and be made partakers of the kyngdom 
of heauen, whereof wee bee assured and asserteigned, yf wee 
come to the sayde Sacrament, with hartie repentaunce for our 
offences, stedfast faithe in Goddes mercye, and earnest mynde to 
obeye Goddes will, and to offende no more. Wherefore our 
duetie is, to come to these holy misteries, with moste heartie 
thankes to bee geuen to almightie GOD, for his infinite mercie 
and benefites geuen and bestowed vpon vs his vnworthye ser- 
uauntes, for whom he hath not onely geuen his body to death, 
and shed his bloude, but also doothe vouchsaue in a Sacrament 
and Mistery, to geue vs his sayed bodye and bloud to feede vpon 
spiritually. The whyche Sacrament beyng so Diuine and holy a 
thyng, and so comfortable to them whiche receyue it worthilye, 
and so daungerous to them that wyll presume to take the same 
vnworthely ; My duetie is to exhorte you in the meane season, to 
consider the greatnes of the thing, and to serche and examine 
your owne consciences, and that not lyghtly nor after the manep 
of dissimulers with GOD : But as they whiche shoulde come to 
a moste Godly and heauenly Banket, not to come but in the 
mariage garment required of God in scripture, that you may (so 
muche as lieth in you) be founde worthie to come to suche a table. 
The waies and meanes therto is. 

First that you be truly repentaut of your former euill life, and 
that you confesse with an vnfained hearte to almightie God, 
youre synnes and vnkyndnes towardes his Maiestie committed, 
either by will, worde or dede, infirmitie or ignoraunce, and that 

Cjbe Communion. 221 

with inwarde sorowe & teares you bewaile your offences^ & require 
of almightie god^ mercie^ & pardon, promising to him (from the 
botome of your hartes) thamendment of your former lyfe. And 
emonges all others, I am commaunded of God, especially to 
moue and exhorte you, to reconcile your selfes to your neighbors, 
whom you haue offended, or who hath offended you, putting out 
of your heartes al hatred and malice against them, and to be in 
loue and charitie with all the worlde, and to forgeue other, as you 
woulde that God should forgeue you. And yf any ma haue doen 
wrog to any other : let him make satisfaccion, and due restitucion 
of all landes & goodes, wronfully taken awaye or with holden> 
before he come to Goddes borde, or at the least be in ful minde 
and purpose so to do, assone as he is able, or els let him not come 
to this holy table, thinking to deceyue God, who seeth al mined 
hartes. For neither the absolucion of the priest, can any thing 
auayle them, nor the receiuyng of this holy sacrament doth any 
thing but increase their damnacion. And yf there be any of you^ 
whose conscience is troubled & greued in any thing, lackyng com* 
forte or counsaill, let him come to me, or to some other dyscrete 
and learned priest, taught in the law of God, and confesse and 
open his synne & griefe secretly, that he maye receiue suche 
ghostly counsaill, aduyse and comfort, that his conscience may^ 
be releued, and that of vs (as of the Ministers of GOD and of the 
churche) he may receiue comfort and absolucion, to the satisfac-^ 
cion of his mynde, and auoyding of all scruple and doubtfulnes : 
requiryng suche as shalbe satisfied with a generall confession^ 
not to be offended with them that doo vse, to their further 
satisfiyng the auriculer and secret confession to the Priest : nor 
those also whiche thinke nedefuU or conuenient, for the quietnes 
of their awne cosciences particuliarly to open their sinnes to the 
Priest : to bee offended with them that are satisfied, with their 
bumble confession to GOD, and the generall confession to the 
churche. But in all thinges to folowe and kepe the rule of 
charitie, and euery man to be satisfied with his owne conscience, 
not iudgyng other mennes myndes or consciences : where as he 
hath no warrant of Goddes word to thesame. 

C Then shall folowe for the Offertory^ one or moj of these Sen- 
tences of holy scripturey to bee song whiles the people doo offer j 
or els one of theim to bee saied by the minister^ immediatly 
afore the offer yng. 

222 C^ Commmuon; 

Math. ▼. Let your light so shine before men^ that they maye see your 

good woorkes^ and glorify yotir father whiche is in heauen. 

Math, vi. Laie not vp for your selfes treasure vpon the yearth, where the 
rust and mothe doth corrupt^ and where theues breake through 
and steale : But laie vp for your selfes treasures in heauen^ where 
neyther mste nor mothe doth corrupt, and where theues^ do not 
breake through nor steale. 

Math. vii. Whatsoeuer you would that menne should do vnto you, euen 
so do you vnto them, for this is the Law and the Prophetes. 

Math. vii. Not euery one that saieth vnto me, lorde, lorde, shall entre into 
the kyngdom of heauen, but he that doth the will of my father 
whiche is in heauen. 

Luc. xix. Zache stode furthe, and saied vnto the Lorde i beholde Lorde, 

the hal/e of my goodes I geue to the poore, and if I haue doen 
any wrong to any man, I restore foure fold. 

i. Cor. ix. Who goeth a warfare at any tyme at his owne cost ? who 
planteth a vineyarde, and eateth not of the fruite thereof? Or 
who fedeth a flocke, and eateth not of the milke of the flocke ? 

i. Cor. ix. If we haue sowen vnto you spirituiill thinges, is it a great 
matter yf we shall reape your worldly thyages ? 

i. Cor. ix. Dooe ye not knowe, that they whitihe minister aboute holy 
thinges, lyue of the Sacrifice ? They whiche waite of the alter, 
are partakers with the ailter ? euen so hath the lorde also ordained : 
that they whiche preache the Gospell, should Hue of the Gospell. 

ii. Cor. ix. He whiche soweth litle, shall reape litle, and he that soweth 
plenteously, shall reape plenteously. Let euery manne do accord^ 
yng as he is disposed in his hearte, not gmdgyngly, or of neces- 
sitie, for God loueth a cherefiill geuer. 

Gala. vi. Let him that is taught in the woorde, minister vnto hym that 

teacheth, in all good thinges. Be not deceiued, GOD is not 
mocked. For whatsoeuer a man soweth, that shall he reape. 

Gala. vi. . While we haue tyme, let vs do good vnto all men, and spe- 
cially vnto them, whiche are of the houshold of fayth, 

i. Timo. vi. Godlynes is greate riches, if a man be contented with that he 
hath : For we brought nothing into the worlde, neither maie we 
cary any thing out. 

i. Timo. vi. Charge theim whiche are riche in this worlde, that they bee 
ready to geue, and glad to distribute, laying vp in stoare for 
theimselfes a good foundacion, against the time to come^ that 
they maie attain eternall lyfe. 

Cfie Communion^ 223 

GOD is not vnrighteous, that he will forget yoare woorkes Hebre. 
and labor, that procedeth of loue, whiche loue ye haue shewed 
for his names sake, whiche haue ministred vnto the sainctes, and 
yet do minister. 

To do good, & to distribute, forget not, for with suche Sacrifices Hebre. 
God is pleased. 

Whoso hath this worldes good, and seeth his brother haue i. Jhon 
nede, & shutteth vp his compassion from hym, how dwelleth the 
loue of God in him ? 

Geue almose of thy goodes, and turne neuer thy face from any Toby, 
poore man, and then the face of the lorde shall not be turned 
awaye from thee. 

Bee mercifuU after thy power : if thou hast muche, geue plen- Toby, i 
teously, if thou hast litle, do thy diligence gladly to geue of that 
litle, for so gathereste thou thy selfe a good reward, in the daie 
of necessitie. 

He that hath pitie vpon the poore, lendeth vnto the Lorde : and Prouer 
loke what he laieth out, it shalbe paied hym again. ***• 

Blessed be the man that prouideth for the sicke and nedy, the Psal. x 
lorde shall deliuer hym, in the tyme of trouble. 

Where there be Clerkes^ thetskal syng one, or many of the sentenced 
aboue written^ accordyng to the length and shortnesse of the 
tyme, that the people be offeryng. 

Jn the meane tyme^ whyles the Clerkes do syng the Offertory^ so 
many as are disposed^ shall offer vnto the poore mennes boxe 
euery one accordynge to his habilitie and charitable mynde. 
And at the offeryng daies appoynted : euery manne and 
woman shall paie to the Curate j. the due and accustomed 

Then so manye as shalbe partakers of the holy Commimiony shall 
tary still in the quire^ or in some eonuenient place, nigh the 
quire y the men on the one side, and the women on the other 
syde. All other {that mynde not to receiue the said My Com- 
munion) shall departe out of the quire, except the ministers and 

Then shall the minister take so muche Bread and Wine, as shall 
suffice for the persons appoynted to receiue the holy Com- 
munion, laiyng the breade vpon the corporas, or els in the 
paten, or in some other comely thyng, prepared for that pur- 

"4 §MiifimmiW9* 

. pose, 4n4-.puiiyngMh^i,'^ne.^to.4ht: Cfhdlif^^ ?n ^(f ?>» .?<^,^? 

faire or conueniente cup, prepared for ih(^i^1^ ^ifA¥ f^^^^^ 

wil not serue) putty ng t her to a litle pure and cleane water : And 

settyng both the tf-eade and kvi/rie vp'ck ^i^ Alter : Then the 

• Prieite shate saye. ' ' ' ' '''' '" J 

The Lorde be with you. 


And with thy spiritey,, ... i 

Lift vp your heartes. ' ' ^ 

Aunswere. J 

We lift them vp vnto the Lorde. 

. Priest. 
Let vs geue tfaankes to our Lorde God. , 

It is mete and right so to do. 

The Priest. 

IT is very mete^ righte, and our boiiden dutie that wee shoulde 
at all tymes, and in all places, geue thankes to thee, O Lorde, 
holy father, almightie euerlastyng Ood* ■ ' ^ ■ 

■ ■■ I 
C Here shall folawe the proper preface yaccoi'djfng to the tyme (if 

there bee any specially appoynt^d) or els imtncdiatly shall 

fotowe. Therefore with Angelles. He. 


C Upon Christmas daie. 
ECAUSE thou diddeste geue Jesus Christe^ thyne onely 


Sonne to bee borne, as this daye for vs, who by the operacion 
of the holy gho8te,was made very man, of the substaunce of the 
Virgin Mari his mother, and that without spotof sinne,tomake 
vs cleane from all synne. Therfore. &c. 

C Upon Easter daie. 

BUT chiefly are we bound to praise thee, for the glorious 
resurreccion of thy sotine Jesus Christe, our Lorde, for he is 
the very Pascall Lambe, whiche was offered for vs, & hath taken 
awaie the synne of the worlde, who by his death hath destroyed 

C{>e Communion. 225 

deathy and by his risyng to life againe, hath restored to vs euer- 
lastyuge life. Therefore. &c. 

C Upon the Assencion daye. 

THROUGH thy most dere beloued sonne, Jesus Christ our 
Lorde, who after his moste glorious resurreccion, manifestly 
appered to all his disciples, and in their sight ascended vp into 
heauen, to prepare a place for vs, that where he is, thither mighte 
we also ascende, and reigne with hym in glory. Therfore. &c. 

C Upon Whitsondaye. 

THROUGH Jesus Christ our Lorde, accordyng to whose 
moste true promise, the holy Ghoste came doune this daye 
fro heauen, with a sodain great sound, as it had been a mightie 
wynde, in the likenes of fiery toungues, lightyng vpon the 
Apostles, to teache them, and to leade them to all trueth, geuyng 
them bothe the gifte of diuerse languages, and also boldnes with 
feruent zeale, constantly to preache the Gospell vnto all nacions, 
whereby we are brought out of darkenes and error, into the cleare 
light and true knowlege of thee, and of thy sonne Jesus Christ. 
Therfore. &c. 

C Upon the feast of the Trinitie. 

IT is very meete, righte, and oure bounden duetie, that we 
should at al tymes, and in al places, geue thankes to thee O 
Lorde, almightye euerlasting God, whiche arte one God, one 
Lorde, not one onely person, but three persones in one sub- 
staunce: For that which we beleue of the glory of the father, 
thesame we beleue of the sone, and of the holy ghost, without 
any difference, or inequalitie, whom the Angels, &c. 

Jfter whiche preface shall folowe immediatb/, 
Therfore with Angels and Archangels, and with all the holy 

companye of heauen : we laude and magnify thy glorious name, 

euermore praisyng thee, and saying : 

Holy, holy, holy, Lorde God of Hostes : heauen & earth are 

fuU of thy glory : Osanna in the highest. Blessed is he that 

commeth in the name of the Lorde : Glory to thee O lorde in the 

highest. This the Clerkes shal also syng. 

C When the Clerkes haue dooen syngyng^ then shall the Priest, or 
Deacon, tume hym to the people and saye. 
Let vs praie for the whole state of Christes churche. 


226 ctii Cdmntitn^, 

. . . ' , 

C Then the Priest turning hj/m to the Altars shaU sajfe 
playnlj/ and distincili/y this prayer /olowyngi 

ALMIGHTIE and euerliuyng God, whiche by thy holy 
Apostle haete taught vs to make prayers and supplieaciond, 
and to geue thankes for al menne : We humbly beseche thee 
moste mercyfully to receiue these our praiers, which we offre vnto 
thy diuine Maiestie, beseching thee to inspu*e cotinually the 
vniuersal churche, with the spirite of trueth, vnitie and eoncorde: 
And graunt that al they that do cofesse thy holy name, maye 
agree in the trueth of thy holye worjle, and hue in vnitie and 
godly lone. Speciallye we beseche thee to saue and defende thy 
seruaunt, Edwarde our Kyng,that vnder hym we maye be Godly 
and quietly gouerned. And graunt vnto his whole cousaile, and 
to all that be put in aucthoritie vnder hym, that they maye 
truely and indifferently minister iustice, to the punishemente of 
wickednesse and vice, and to the maintenaunce of Groddes true 
religion and vertue. Geue grace (O heauenly fkther) to all 
Bishoppes, Pastors, and Curates, that thei male bothe by their 
life and doctrine, set furthe thy true and liuely worde, and 
rightely and duely administer thy holy Sacramentes. And to al 
thy people geue thy heauenly grace, that with meke heart and 
due reuerence, they may heare and receiue thy holy worde, truely 
seruyng thee in holynes and righteousnes, all the dayes of their 
life : And we most hubly beseche thee of thy goodnes (O Lorde) 
to coumfort and succour all them, whyche in thys transytory life 
be in trouble, sorowe, nede, syckenes, or any other aduersitie. 
And especially we commend vnto thy mercifull goodnes, this 
congregacion which is here assembled in thy name, to celebrate 
the commemoracion of the most glorious death of thy sonne : 
And here we do geue vnto thee moste high praise, and hartie 
thankes for the wonderfull grace and vertue, declared in all thy 
sainctes, from the begynning of the worlde : And chiefly in the 
glorious and moste blessed virgin Maiy, mother of thy sonne, 
Jesu Christe our Lorde and God^ and in the holy Patriarches, 
Prophetes, Apostles and Martyr^, whose examples (o Loixle) 
and stedfastnes in thy fayth, and kepyng thy holy oommaunde^ 
mentes : graunt vs to folowe. We commend vnto thy mercye 
(O Lorde) all other thy seruauntes, which are departed heuee 
from vs, with the signe of faith, and nowe do reste in the slepe 
of peace; Graiit vnto them, we beseche thee, thy mercy, and 


^Efel CWMlptptftn. 227 

euerlasting peace, and that at the day of the generall resurreccion, 
we and all they which bee of the misticall body of thy Bonne/ 
may altogether be set on his right hand> and heare that his most 
ioyfull voyce : Ck)me vnto me^ y.e that be blessed of my father, 
and possess^ the kingdom^ whiche is prepared for you, from the 
hegynning of the worlde : Graunt this, father, for Jesus Christes 
sake, our onely mediatour and aduocate. 

O Gk>d heauenly father, which of thy tender mercle^ (liddest 
geue thine only sonne Jesu Christ, to suffre death vpon the crpsse 
for our redempcion, who made there (by his one oblacion once 
offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifyce, oblacion, and 
-satysfacyon, for the synnes of the whole worlde, and did institute, 
jtnd in his holy Gospell commaund ys, to celebrate a perpetuall 
memory, of that his precious death, yntyll his comming again : 
Heare vs (o merciful father) we besech thee : and with thy holy 
spirite & worde, vouchsafe to bl^esse and satic^^tifie these thy 
gyftes, and creatures of bread and wyne, that they male be vnto 
^VB the bodye and bloude of thy moste derely beloued sonne Jesus 
Christe. Who in thesame nyght that he was betrayed: tooke Heret 
Jbreade, and when he had blessed, and geuen thankes : he brake ^^% 
it, and gaue it to his disciples, saiyng: Take, eate, this is my intohU 
bodye which is geuen for you, do this in remembraunce of me. 

Likewyse after supper he toke the cuppe, and] when he had Here t 
geuen thankes, he gaue it to them, saiyng: drynk ye all of this, ?T*^^ 
for this is my bloude of the newe Testament, whyche is shed for intohU 
*you and for many, for remission of synnes : do this as oft as you 
shall drinke it in remembraunce of me. 

These ivordes before rehersed are \to be saied, turning still tB the 
Altar^ without any eleiULcion^ or shewing the Sacraynent to the 

WHERFORE, O Lorde and heauenly father, accordyng to 
the Instytucyon of thy derely beloued sonne, our sauiour 
Jesu Christ, we thy humble seruauntes do celebrate, and make 
here before thy diuine Maiestie, with these thy holy giftes, the 
memoryall whyche thy sonne hath wylled vs to make, hauing in 
remembraunce his blessed passion, mightie resurreccyon, and 
gloryous ascencion, rendeiyng vnto thee most hartie thankes, 
for the innumerable benefites procured vnto vs by thesame, 
entierely desiryng thy fatheriy goodnes, mercifully to accepte 
this our Sacrifice of pniise and thankes geuing : most humbly 

228 ^fy^^oifnm^^^^f^ 

bei^hing thee t|o graunt, that by the merites aud ,(}!^^th of % 
sone Jesus Christ, and through faith in his bloud, we and al thy 
whole church, may obteigne remission of our sinnes^ and ail 
other benefites of hys passyon. And here wee offre and preseioft 
vnto thee (O Lorde) oure selfe, oure soules, and bodies, to 
be a reasonable, holy, and liuely sacrifice vnto thee.: |iumbb 
besecl)yng thee, that whosoeuer shalbee partal^eics of thys hjRy 
Communion, maye worthely receiue the moste precious, body 
land bloude of thy sonne Jesus Christe: and bee fulfilled with 
thy grace and heauenly benediccion, . and made ope bodye 
with thy Sonne Jesu Christe, that he maye dwell in them, ^nd 
they in hym. And although we be vniyorthy (through our 
manyfolde synnes) to offre vnto thee any Sacryfice 2 Yet wc 
beseche thee to accepte thys our bounden duetie and seruice, 
and commaunde these our prayers and suj^lioacionsy'by tbe 
Ministery of thy holy AngelSj^ to be brought vp into thy holy 
Tabernacle before the syght of thy dyuine maiestie : not waiyng 
our merites, but pardonyng our offence, through Ohriste our 
Lorde, by,w)iome| and with whome,, jn.^h^ ¥)ijt|^ f>f ^^e hplj 
Ghost : all honour and glory, be vnto thee, O father almigjpey 
world without ende, Amen» 

Let vs praye. . . r 

AS Qur sauiour Christe hath oommauaded and iaugl^t vs, we 
are bolde to saye. Our father whyche art ia heaueu, 
halowed be thy name. Thy Kyngdome jcome. Thy wyll be 
doen in yearth, as it is in heauen. Geue vs this daye our dayly 
breade. And forgeue vs our trespaces, as wee forgeue them that 
trespasse agaynst vs. And leade vs not into temptacion. 

The aunswere, * 

But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

Then shall the priest saye. 
The peace of the Lorde be alwaye with you. 

The CUrkes. 
And with thy spirite. 

The Priest. 

CHRIST our Pascall lambe is offred vp for vs, once foral, 
when he bare our sinnes on hys body vpon the crosse, for 
he is the very lambe of God, that taketh away the sinnes of the 

wbHde : ' wherfore let v&kepe a ioy full and holy feast with the 


i' ' " . .. . . 

Sere the priest shall tumehym toward those that come to the holif 

Communion^ and shall say e, 

YOU that do truly and earnestly repent you of your synnes 
tit) almightie God, and be in loue and charitie with your 
neighbors, and entende to lede a newe life, folowyng the com- 
maundementes of God, and walkyhg from hencefurth in his holy 
Wliyes : drawQ nere and take this holy Sacrament to your com- 
forte, make your humble confession to almightie God, and to his 
holy church here gathered together in hys name, mekely knelyng 
i^n your knees. 

Then shall thys generall Confession bee viade^ in the name of al 
those that are minded to receiue the holy Communion, eythei* 
' By one of them, or els by one of t/ie ministers, or by the prieste 
' hymselfe, all kfieling humbly vpon their knees, 

A' LM YGHTIE GO D father of oure Lord Jesus Christ, maker 
©Fall thynges, iudge of all men, we knowlege and bewaile 
our manyfold synnes and wyckednes, which we from tyme to 
tyme, most greuously haue Committed, by thought, word and 
dede, ag^c^^'thy diuine maiestie,'prouokihg moste iustly Ihy 
math and iiidignacion against vs,* we do earnestly repent i be 
hartely sory for these our miadoiriges, the remembraunce of them 
IB greuous into vs, (he burthen of them is intoUerable r haue 
mercye vpon vs, haue mercie vpon vs, moste mercifuU father, for 
thy Sonne our Lorde Jesus Christes sake, forgeue vs all that is 
past, and graun't that we may euer hereafter, serue and please 
thee in neunes of life, to the honor and glory of thy name : 
Through Jesus Christe our Lorde. 


Then shall the Prieste stande vp, and turnyng hymselje to the 

people, say thus. 

ALMIGHTIE GOD our heauenly father, who of his great 
mercie, hath promysed forgeuenesse of synnes to all them, 
whiche with hartye repentaunce and true fayth, turne vnto him : 
haue mercy vpon you, pardon and delyuer you from all youre 
sinnes, confirme and stregthen you in all goodnes, and bring 
you to euerlasting lyfe : through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 


Then shall the Priest also say. 

Heare .what coumfortable woordes our sauiour ^Christ sayeth, 
to all that truely tume to him. 

Come vnto me all that trauell and bee heauy laden, and I 
shall refreshe you. So God loued the worlde that he gaue his 
onely begotten sonne, to the ende that al that beleue in hym, 
shoulde not perishe, but haue lyfe euerlasting. 

Heare also what saint Paul sayeth. 

This is a true saying, and woorthie of all men to bee refined, 
that Jesus Christe came into thys worlde to sau^ sinners. 

Heare also what saint John sayeth* 

If any man sinne, we haue an aduocate with the father^^ Jesus 
Christ the righteous, and he is the propiciation for our sinnes. 

• • . . . . . . 

Then shall the Priest turning him to gods board knele down, and 
say in the name of all themy that shall receyue the Communion, 
this prayer /blowings 

WE do not presume to come to this thy table (o merciiuU 
lord) trusting in our owne righteousnes, but in thy mani- 
fold & great mercies : we be not woorthie so much as to gather 
vp the eromes vnder thy table, but thou art the same lorde whose 
propertie is alwayes to haue mercie : Graunt vs therfore (gracious 
lorde) so to eate the fleshe of thy dere sonne Jesus Christ, and 
to drynke his bloud in these holy Misteries, that we may con- 
tinuallye dwell in hym, and he in vs, that oure synfull bodyes 
may bee made cleane by his body, and our soules washed through 
hys most precious bloud. Amen. 

Then shall the Pnestefirsie receiue the Communion in both kindes 
himselfe^ and next deliuer it to other Ministers, if any be there 
presente {that they may bee ready to helpe the chitfe Minister) 
and after to the people. 

And when he deliuereth the Sacramente of (he body of Christe, he 
shall say to euery one these woordes. 

The body of our Lorde Jesus Christe whiche was geuen fcr 
thee, preserue thy bodye and soule vnto euerlasting lyfe* 

And the Minister deliuering the Sacrament of the bloud, andgeuing 

euery one to drinke otnjce a;nd no more^ shall say. 
• The bloud of our Lorde Jesus Christe which was shed for thee, 
preserue thy bodye and soule vnto euerlasting lyfe. j 

CN Communion. 231 

If there be a Deacon or other Priest ^ then shot hefolow with the 
Chalice: and as the priest ministreth the Sacrament of the 
bodj/y so shot he (for more expediciori) minister the Sacrament 
oftlie bloudy infounne before written. 

In the Communion tyme the Clarkes shall syng. 

ii. O lambe of god that takeste away the sinnes of the worlde : 
haue mercie vpon vs. 

O lambe of god that takeste away the synnes of the worlde : 
graunt vs thy peace. 

Beginning so soone as the Prieste doeth receyue the holy Commu^ 
nion : and when the Communion is ended, then shall the 
Clarkes syng the post Communion. 

Sentences of holy scripture^ to be sayd or song euery daye one, 
after the holy Communiofiy called the post Communion. 

If any man will folowe me, let him forsake hymselfe, and take Math. xvi. 
vp his crosse and folowe me. 

Whosoeuer shall indure vnto thende, he shalbe saaed. Mar. xiii. 

Praysed be the Lorde god of Israeli, for he hath visited and Luc. i. 
redemed hys people : therefore let vs seme hym all the dayes of 
our lyfe, in holines and righteonsnes accepted before .hym. 

Happie are those seruauntes, whome the Lord (when he cum- Luc xii. 
meth) shall fynde waking. 

Be ye readye, for the sonne of manne win come, at an hower Luc. xii. 
when ye thinke not. 

The seruaunte that knoweth hys maisters will, and hath not Luc. xii. 
prepared himself, neither hath doen according to his will, shalbe 
beaten with many stripes. 

The howre cummeth and now it is, when true woorshippers John. iiii. 
shall wurship the father in spirite and tnieth. 

Beholde, thou art made whole, sinne no more, lest any wurse John. v. 
thing happen vnto thee* 

If ye shall continue in my woorde^ then are ye my very disci- lohn. viii. 
pies, and ye shall knowe the truth, and the truth shall make you 

While ye haue lighte, beleue on the lyght, that ye may be the John. xii. 
children of light. 

He that hath my commaundemetes, and kepeth them, thesame lohn. xiUi. 
is he that loueth me. 

H any man ioue me, he will kepe my woorde, kod my father Ihoi^ 

^U, j(H^)hym,. ^d wee will come yi)tOi h]fm ttid- dwell with 

John. XV, . J[f ye shall by4^ in me, and my woorde shall abyde in you, ye 

s^all aske what ye will, and it shall bee doen to you* 
lohn XV. Herein is my father gloryfy^d, that ye beare nniche fruite, and 

become my disciples. ,. 
John. XV. This is my commaundement, that you loue together as I haue 

loued you. - - 
Roma. viii. If God be on our syde, who can be agaynst vs ? which did not 

spare his owne Sonne, but gaue him for vs all. 
Roin. viii. Who shall lay any thing to the charge of Goddes chosen ? it 

is GOD that iustifyeth, Who is he that can condemne ? 
Rom. xiii. The nyght is passed, and the day is at hande, let vs therfore 

cast away the dedes of darkeneSy^aad put on the armour of 

light. .... 

i. Corin. i. Christe Jesus is made of GrOD, vnto vs wisedome, and righte- 

ousnes, and sanctiiyiQg, and redemppion^ that (according as it is 

written) he whiche reioyceth shoulde the. Lorde. 
i. Corin. iii, Knowe ye not that ye are the temple of GOD, and that the 
' spirite of GOD dwelleth in you ? if any manhe defile the temple 

of GOD, him shall God destroy, 
i. Corin. vi. Ye are d^r^ly bought* tjierfore glorifye God in your bodies, and 

in your spirites, for they belong to God. 
Ephes. V. Be you folowers of God as deare children, an^ walke in loue, 
. euen as Christe loued vs, and gaue hymselfe for vs an offeryng 

and a Sacrifyce of a sweete sauoure to God. 

• • » ■ . 

Then the Priest shall geue thankes to Gody in the name of all them 
that haue communicated, turning him first to the people^ ancf 

The Lorde be with you. 

The aunswere. 
And with thy spirite. 

The priest. 

Let vs pray. 

ALMIGHTYE and euerlyuyng GOD, we moste hartely 
thanke thee, for that thou hast vouchsafed to feede vs ia 
these holy Misteries, with the^pirituall foode of the moste pre- 
cious body and bloud of thy sonne,our sauiour Jesus Christ, and 
hast assured vs (duely receiuing the same) of thy fauour and 

goddil^ toward v^^afid that we bfe very menibrei^incorpdrjrte m thy 
Mistical! bodye, whiche is the blessed companye of all faythfdll 
people: and heyres through hope of thy euerlastitig kingddine, 
by the merites of the most precious death and ]^As§ioiT/ of thy 
deare sonne. = We therfore most humbly beseche thefe, O heauenly 
father, so to assist vs with thy grace, that we may continue hi 
that holy felowship, and doe jLU suche good Woorkes; as thou 
hast prepared for vs to walke in, through Jesus Cbriste otit 
Lordey to whome with thee, and the holygoste, bee all honour 
and glory, world without ende* ■ ' '" " 

Then the Priest turning Ajwi to the people^ shall let them depart 
. y-r ■■ \ w^Ajhis blessing. 

The peace of GOD (whiche passeth all vnderstatidyiig) kepe. 
your heartes and mindes in the knowledge and loue of GOD, apd 
of hyft^bUne Jesus Christe our lirde. And the blessing of God 
almightie, the father, the sbifile, d,rid the holy gost, be emonges 
you, and remayne with you alway. 

<■ ' t 

Then the people shall aunswere. 

Where there are no clerkes, there the Priest shall say al thinges 
appointed here for them to sing. 

Wh&n the hoty Communion is celebrate on the workeday^ or in 
priiiate howses : Then may be omittedy the Gloria in excelsis, 
the Crede, the Homily y and the exhoriacion, beginning* 

Dearely beloued. &c. 

C Collectes to bee sayed after the Offertory^ when there is m 

CommunioUy euery such day one. 

ASSIST vs mercifully, O Lord, in these our supplicacions 
& praiers, and dispose the way of thy seruauntes, toward 
the attainement of euerlasting saluacyon, that emong all the 
chaunges and chaunces of thys mortall lyfe, they may euer bee- 
defended by thy moste gracious and readye helper throughe 
Christe our Lorde. Amen. 

• . / . • 

O ALMIGHTIE Lorde and euerlyuyng GQD, vouchesafe, 
we beseche thee, to direct, sanctifye and goueme, both our 
heartes and bodies, in the wayes of thy lawes, and in the workes 
of thy comaundementes : that through thy most mightie protect 

2 34 ^s^<$mm^v^ 

cion, hoih kere aod.euer, we majr be^^aerued Ui \^y aiiid 6^k : 
Through (mt Lorde and sauioiir Jes«& Cbm^t Aoi^* ; > ^ 

GRAUNT we beseche thee almightie god, that the hordes 
whiche we haue hearde this day with our outWarde eares, 
may throughe thy grace, bee so grafted inwardly in our heartes, 
that tbey may bring foorth in vs, the fruite of good lining, to the 
honour and prayse of thy name: llirough Jesus 'Christe our 
Lorde. Amen, 

PREUENT TS, O lorde, in all our doinges^ with thy moit 
gracious feuour, ajid further vs with thy continuall heipe, 
that in al our wOorkes begonne, continued and ended in thee : we 
may glorifye thy holy name, and finally by thy mercy obteine 
^erksting life. Through. &c. ' 

ALMIGHTIE God, the fountayn of all wisdome, which 
knowest our necessities beefore we aske, and our igno- 
raunce in asking: we beseche thee to haue compassion vpon 
our infirmities, and those thynges whiche for our vnwoorthities 
we dare not,, and for our blindnes we can not ai^ke, vouchsaue to 
geue vs for the woorthines of thy sonne Jesu Christ our Londe. 

ALMIGHTIE god, which hast promised to heieMre the peti- 
cions of them that aske in thy sonnes name, we beseche 
thee mercifully to inclyne thyne eares to vs that haue made nowe 
our prayers and supplicacions vnto thee, and graunte that those 
thynges whiche we haue faythfiiUye asked accordyng to thy will, 
maye effectually bee obteyned to the reliefe of oure necessitye, 
and to th^ settyng foorth of thy ghxeye: Through Jesus Christ 
our Lorde. 

For rayne. 

OGOD heauenly father, whiche by thy sonne Jesu Christ, 
hast promised to al the that seke thy kingdom, & the 
righteousnei» thereof, al thinges necessary to the bodely suste- 
xiauQce: send vs (we beseche thee) in this our necessitie, such 
moderate rayne and showers, that we may receiue the finite^ of 
the earth, to our comfort and to thy honor: Through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. 

F&rfayrt wether, 

O LORDE God, whiche for the sinne of manne, didst once 
drowne all the worlde, except eight persons, and afterwarde 

of thy gteat mcfrcye, didste promise neii6r to dfestroy it so agayn : 
We hubly beseche thee, that although' we for oure iniqaitieis 
haue woorthelye deserued this plague of rayne ai^d wate^, y^t 
vpon our true repentaunce, thou wilt sende vs suche wf th^ 
wherby we may receiue the fruites of the earth in, d^e season, and 
learne both by thy punishment to amende our hues, and by the 
graunting of our peticion, to geue thee prayse and glory : Through 
Jesu Christ our Lorde. 

C Upon wednesdaies H fryddiesy the English Leigrry -shalkejsafd 
or song in all places, after suche forme as is appointed by dhe 
kynges fnaieslies Imunccions: Or as is or shal bee qiherwj/se 
appointed by his highnes. Jnd thoughe there be none to 
communicate with the Prieste^yet these dayes (after the Letany 
ended) the Priest shall put vpon hym a playn Albe or surplesscy 
with a cope J and sai/ al thinges at the Altar (appoynted /# bee 
sayde at the celebracyon of the lordes supper) vntill aftrir the 
offertory. And then shall adde one or two of the Colhctes 
afore written, as occasion shall serue by his discrecion. And 
then turning him to the people shall let them depart, with the 
accustomed blessing. 

And the same order shall be vsed all other dayes, whensoeuer the 
people be customably assembled to pray in the churche,'and 
none disposed to communicate with the Priest. 

Lykewyse in ChapeUes annexed, and ail other places, there shalbe 
no cekbracion of the Lordes supper, except there be some to 
communicate with tlie Priest. And in suche ChapeUes annexed 
where j^ people hath not bene accustomed to pay any holy 
bread, there they must either make some charitable promsion 
for the bering of the charges of the Communion, or elks (for 
receyuyng qf thesame) resort to theyr Parish Churches 

JFhr aduoyding of all matters and occasyon qf dyscencyon, it is 
mete that the breade prepared for the Communion, bee made 
through all thys realme, after one sort and fashion : that is to 
say, vnleauened, and rounde, as it was afore, but without all 
maner ofprinte, and some thyng more larger and thicker then 
it was, so that it may be aptly deuided in diuers pieces ; and 
euery one shall be deuided in two pieces, at the leaste, or more, 
by the discrecion of the minister, and so distributed. And 
menne mustenot thynke lesse to be receyued in parte, then in 

236 9i|0iCOfflmMili^ 

: the-whok, btUinlfAche ef them the whole hod^ ofoiir saitiour 
Jesu Chist, • 

Ahdforsoniucheas'thePastours arid Curates within ihys realvie^ 
shat continxiallyi fynd at theyr cosies and charges in iheyr 
cureSy sufficient Breade (tnd Wynejpr the holy Communion (as 
oft as iheyr Parishioners shalbe disposed for fheyr spiritual 
comfort to receyue the same) it is therefore ordredj that in 
recompence of suche costes and charges^ the Parishoners of 
. euerye Parishe shall affer euery Sonday^ at the tyme of the 
Offertory^ the iiiste valour and price of the holy lofe {with all 
suche money ^ and other t hinges as were wont to be offered with 
the same) to the vse of theyr Pastouts and Curates, and that 
in suche ordre and course, as they were woont to fynde and 
pay the sayd holy lofe. 

Also, that the receiuing of the Sacrament of the blessed body and 
blpud of Christ, may be most agreable to the institucion therof, 
and to ilie vsage of the primatiue Churche: In all Catheder^all 
and Collegiate Churches, there shal alwaies some Communicate 
with the Prieste that ministreth. And that the same may bee 
also obseiiied euery where abrode'fn thi c6Untt^\ Some one 
at the least of that house in eueiy Parishe, to whome by 
course after the ordinaunce' herein 'niade, ' it dpperteyneth tcr 
offer for the charges of the. Communion, or some other whom 
they shall prouide to offer for them, shall receiue the holye 
Communion with the Prieste: the whiche may be the better 
doen,for that they knowe before, when theyr course commeth, 
and male therfore dispose themselues to the worthie receiuyng 
of the Sacramente. And with hym or them who doeth so 
offre the charges of the Communion : all other, who be then 
Godly disposed thereunfa, shall lykewyse receiue the Commu- 
nion^ And by this meanes the Minister hauyng alwaies some 
to communicate with him, maie accordingly solempnise so high 
and Iwly misteries, with all the suffrages and due ordre 
appoynted for thesame. And the Priest on the weke daie, 
shall forbeare to celebrate the Communion, excepte he haue 
some that will comriiunicate with hym. 

Furthermore, euery man and woman to be bound to heare and be 
at the diuine somce, in the Parishe churche where they be 
resident, and there with deuout prayer, or Godlye silence and 
meditacion, to occupie themselues. There to paie their dueties, 


to,^cq^imi^(:<li^ ameinth^jfearfi at ,ih, least, and there to 
reccyue^ and take all other Sacramentes and rites, in this 
booke appoj/nted. An^ whosoeuer willyngly vpon no iust 
cause j'doeth absent themselues\pr doeth vngo^ty in the Parishe 
churche occiipie themstlues : i^pon proj^e therof^ by the JEccle-- 
siasiicaU lawes of the Realme to bee excoynunicatCj or svffre 
other punishementy as shall to the Ecclesiastical iudge {accord- 

yng to his discrecton) seme comienienh 

"... "■• ■ ..•.,'■"■ ■ • • • ' -• \- •. 

And although it bee redda in aunciente writers^ thttt the people 
many yeares past, receiued at the priestts liakdes, the Savra- 
vient of the body qf:,Chxist imfheyrownehandes and no 
commaundement iof Chriiai^^o ythi^conirary^ Yet forasmuche 
as they ynanytymesmau^yghed the:samesecretelye awaye, kept 
it with them, and diuersly abused it to supepstidon ^md wick" 
ednes:Jest any s^ch€l thyng ^hereof ler should be attempted, 
and that an vnifprmitfe fnight be vsedj ^throughoute the whole 
Realme^ it is thought conuenient the people commonly receiue 
the Saa^rapient of Christes body, in their mouthes, at the 

. ( From the Edition of t^e first Common Prayer Book, 
" ImpriQte4 at London in Fletestrete by Edward Whit- 
churche^ the seventh daye of Marche> 1549." Folio. 


C. Wbittingham, Cliiswick. 

f s